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  • A whip-like straw.

    鞭子般的吸管

  • Powerful, crushing blades.

    強勁的利刃

  • A pointed, piercing tube.

    尖銳的管子

  • There are nearly a million known insect species in the world,

    世界上已知的昆蟲有將近一百萬種

  • but most have one of just five common types of mouthparts.

    但昆蟲的口器大致分為五種

  • And that's extremely useful to scientists

    這對科學家來說非常實用

  • because when they encounter an unfamiliar insect in the wild,

    因為當他們在野外遇到不熟悉的昆蟲

  • they can learn a lot about it just by examining how it eats.

    他們可以藉由觀察昆蟲怎麼進食獲得許多資訊

  • Scientific classification, or taxonomy,

    科學分類,或者說分類學

  • is used to organize all living things into seven levels:

    用來將生物分成七個階層

  • kingdom,

  • phylum,

  • class,

  • order,

  • family,

  • genus,

  • and species.

  • The features of an insect's mouthparts can help identify which order it belongs to,

    口器的特徵不只能辨認昆蟲所屬的目

  • while also providing clues about how it evolved and what it feeds on.

    也透露了昆蟲演化和以何為食的線索

  • The chewing mouthpart is the most common.

    最常見的是咀嚼式口器

  • It's also the most primitive

    這也是最原始的 —

  • all other mouthparts are thought to have started out looking like this one

    其他類型的口器被認為是以這種口器為原型

  • before evolving into something different.

    而發展出不一樣的型態

  • It features a pair of jaws called mandibles

    咀嚼式口器有一對顎稱為大顎

  • with toothed inner edges that cut up and crush solid foods,

    內側邊緣為鋸齒狀可以切斷和壓碎固體食物

  • like leaves or other insects.

    像葉子或其他昆蟲

  • You can find this mouthpart on ants from the Hymenoptera order,

    你可以在膜翅目螞蟻、

  • grasshoppers and crickets of the Orthoptera order,

    直翅目的蚱蜢和蟋蟀、

  • dragonflies of the Odonata order,

    蜻蛉目的蜻蜓

  • and beetles of the Coleoptera order.

    鞘翅目的甲蟲身上發現這種咀嚼式口器。

  • The piercing-sucking mouthpart consists of a long, tube-like structure called a beak.

    刺吸式口器有一種長管構造稱為喙

  • This beak can pierce plant or animal tissue

    喙可以刺穿動植物的組織

  • to suck up liquids like sap or blood.

    吸取樹液或血液等液體

  • It can also secrete saliva with digestive enzymes

    喙也能分泌含有消化酶的唾液

  • that liquefy food for easier sucking.

    液化食物來幫助吸食

  • Insects in the Hemiptera order have piercing-sucking mouthparts

    半翅目的昆蟲具有次吸式口器

  • and include bed bugs,

    包括臭蟲、

  • cicadas,

  • aphids,

    蚜蟲

  • and leafhoppers.

    葉蟬

  • The siphoning mouthpart,

    虹吸式的口器

  • a friendlier version of the piercing and sucking beak,

    是比較溫和版的刺吸式喙

  • also consists of a long, tube-like structure called a proboscis

    同樣有長管構造稱為吻管

  • that works like a straw to suck up nectar from flowers.

    可以像吸管一樣吸食花蜜

  • Insects of the Lepidoptera order

    鱗翅目的昆蟲 —

  • butterflies and moths

    蝴蝶和蛾

  • keep their proboscises rolled up tightly beneath their heads

    不吃東西的時候會將吻管緊緊地捲起來

  • when they're not feeding

    放在頭部下方

  • and unfurl them when they come across some sweet nectar.

    遇到甜甜的花蜜再展開

  • With the sponging mouthpart, there's yet another tube,

    舐吮式口器也有管狀構造

  • this time ending in two spongy lobes

    末端有兩個類似海綿構造的口盤

  • that contain many finer tubes called pseudotracheae.

    上面有許多稱作假器管的微小管子

  • The pseudotracheae secrete enzyme-filled saliva

    假器管會分泌富含酶的唾液

  • and soak up fluids and dissolved foods by capillary action.

    藉由毛細作用吸收液體並溶解食醋

  • House flies,

    家蠅、

  • fruit flies,

    果蠅、

  • and the other non-biting members of the Diptera order

    和雙翅目中其他不會叮咬的昆蟲

  • are the only insects that use this technique.

    是唯一用這種技巧的昆蟲

  • But, there's a catch.

    但有個小細節要注意

  • Biting flies within Diptera,

    雙翅目中會叮咬的昆蟲

  • like mosquitoes,

    像蚊子、

  • horse flies,

    家蠅

  • and deer flies,

    鹿蠅

  • have a piercing-sucking mouthpart instead of the sponging mouthpart.

    有刺吸式的口器而不是舐吮式

  • And finally, the chewing-lapping mouthpart is a combination of mandibles

    最後,咀吸式口器是由大顎和

  • and a proboscis with a tongue-like structure at its tip

    頂端有舌尖構造的吻管

  • for lapping up nectar.

    來舔食花蜜

  • On this type of mouthpart,

    這種類型的口器

  • the mandibles themselves are not actually used for eating.

    大顎不是用來取食

  • For bees and wasps, members of the Hymenoptera order,

    對蜜蜂和土蜂這些膜翅目的昆蟲

  • they serve instead as tools for pollen-collecting and wax-molding.

    大顎用來採集花粉、塑造蜂蠟

  • Of course, in nature, there are always exceptions to the rules.

    當然,在大自然中永遠都有例外

  • The juvenile stages of some insects, for example,

    例如有些昆蟲在幼蟲和成蟲階段

  • have completely different kinds of mouths than their adult versions,

    有完全不同型態的口器

  • like caterpillars, which use chewing mouthparts to devour leaves

    像是毛毛蟲,原本用咀嚼式口器吃樹葉

  • before metamorphosing into butterflies and moths

    蛻變成蝴蝶或蛾後

  • with siphoning mouthparts.

    變成虹吸式口器

  • Still, mouthpart identification can, for the most part,

    不過一般來說,辨識口器

  • help scientistsand youcategorize insects.

    可以幫助科學家和你分類昆蟲

  • So why not break out a magnifying lens

    所以何不拿出你的放大鏡

  • and learn a little more about who's nibbling your vegetable garden,

    看看誰在你啃你的花園蔬菜

  • biting your arm,

    咬你的手臂

  • or just flying by your ear.

    或只是單純飛過你的耳旁

A whip-like straw.

鞭子般的吸管

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 昆蟲 吸管 管子 蝴蝶 分泌

【TED-Ed】這是哪種昆蟲呢?透過口器簡單辨別昆蟲種類 (A simple way to tell insects apart - Anika Hazra)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 12 月 05 日
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