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  • Here's a question that matters.

    譯者: 易帆 余 審譯者: Melody Tang

  • [Is it ethical to evolve the human body?]

    這裡有個重要的問題,

  • Because we're beginning to get all the tools together to evolve ourselves.

    (改造人體是否符合道德?)

  • And we can evolve bacteria and we can evolve plants

    因為我們已經開始利用各種工具 來改造自己的身體。

  • and we can evolve animals,

    我們可以改造細菌、 我們可以改造植物,

  • and we're now reaching a point where we really have to ask,

    我們還可以改造動物;

  • is it really ethical and do we want to evolve human beings?

    但是在此時,我們必須要自問:

  • And as you're thinking about that,

    我們真的想要改造人類嗎? 而這是否符合道德?

  • let me talk about that in the context of prosthetics,

    當你在思考這個問題時,

  • prosthetics past, present, future.

    讓我先從「義肢」方面 來談這個話題,

  • So this is the iron hand

    包括義肢的過去、現在、未來。

  • that belonged to one of the German counts.

    這支鐵製手臂

  • Loved to fight, lost his arm in one of these battles.

    是屬於一位德國伯爵的。

  • No problem, he just made a suit of armor,

    好戰的他,在一次戰爭中 失去了一隻手臂,

  • put it on,

    不過沒關係, 他製作了一套鎧甲,

  • perfect prosthetic.

    穿上它,

  • That's where the concept of ruling with an iron fist comes from.

    就是個完美的義肢了。

  • And of course these prosthetics have been getting more and more useful,

    這就是「鐵腕統治」概念的由來。

  • more and more modern.

    當然,這些義肢也越來越好用,

  • You can hold soft-boiled eggs.

    越來越現代化了。

  • You can have all types of controls, and as you're thinking about that,

    你可以用它拿起半熟的水煮蛋。

  • there are wonderful people like Hugh Herr

    你可以任意地操控義肢, 而當你正在這麼想時,

  • who have been building absolutely extraordinary prosthetics.

    像休‧賀爾教授這樣了不起的人,

  • So the wonderful Aimee Mullins will go out and say,

    已經製作出令人讚嘆的義肢。

  • how tall do I want to be tonight?

    好到讓艾美.姆林絲 可以在出門前說:

  • Or Hugh will say what type of cliff do I want to climb?

    「今晚我想要變成多高呢?」

  • Or does somebody want to run a marathon, or does somebody want to ballroom dance?

    或是讓賀爾教授可以說: 「這次我想攀登哪一種峭壁呢?」

  • And as you adapt these things,

    或「有人想穿上義肢跑馬拉松嗎?」 「有人想穿上義肢跳國標舞嗎?」

  • the interesting thing about prosthetics is they've been coming inside the body.

    而當你還在適應這些改變的時候,

  • So these external prosthetics have now become artificial knees.

    更有趣的事情是, 義肢已經進入人體內了。

  • They've become artificial hips.

    所以這些原本在人體外的義肢 現在成為人工關節,

  • And then they've evolved further

    成為人造的大腿骨。

  • to become not just nice to have

    然後,它們又更加進化,

  • but essential to have.

    不只成為人類的好幫手。

  • So when you're talking about a heart pacemaker as a prosthetic,

    現在更成為必需品了。

  • you're talking about something that isn't just, "I'm missing my leg,"

    所以當你提到: 「心律調節器是義肢的一種,」

  • it's, "if I don't have this, I can die."

    代表的意義已經不只是像 「我少了一條腿 」那樣,

  • And at that point, a prosthetic becomes a symbiotic relationship

    而是:「如果沒有它,我會死。 」

  • with the human body.

    此時,義肢和人體

  • And four of the smartest people that I've ever met --

    形成了一種共生的關係。

  • Ed Boyden, Hugh Herr, Joe Jacobson, Bob Lander --

    我所見過最聰明的人當中, 有四個人──

  • are working on a Center for Extreme Bionics.

    埃德.博伊登、休.賀爾、 喬伊.雅各布森、鮑伯.蘭--

  • And the interesting thing of what you're seeing here is

    他們都任職於 「極致仿生研究中心」。

  • these prosthetics now get integrated into the bone.

    你們現在可以看到 一件有趣的事情:

  • They get integrated into the skin.

    現在義肢已經整合到骨骼當中,

  • They get integrated into the muscle.

    整合到皮膚當中,

  • And one of the other sides of Ed

    甚至整合到肌肉當中。

  • is he's been thinking about how to connect the brain

    另一方面,埃德也開始思考:

  • using light or other mechanisms

    如何利用光線或其他機制

  • directly to things like these prosthetics.

    將大腦和義肢

  • And if you can do that,

    直接進行連結。

  • then you can begin changing fundamental aspects of humanity.

    如果你能夠做到這點,

  • So how quickly you react to something depends on the diameter of a nerve.

    那麼你就可以開始 改變人類的基本構造了。

  • And of course, if you have nerves that are external or prosthetic,

    你對事物的反應速度 取決於神經的直徑,

  • say with light or liquid metal,

    當然,如果你有體外神經或是義肢,

  • then you can increase that diameter

    比如說,利用光線或是液態金屬,

  • and you could even increase it theoretically to the point where,

    你可以增加神經的直徑,

  • as long as you could see the muzzle flash, you could step out of the way of a bullet.

    根據理論,我們甚至可以 提升反應速度,

  • Those are the order of magnitude of changes you're talking about.

    到當你一看見槍口火光, 就可以躲開子彈。

  • This is a fourth sort of level of prosthetics.

    這就是我們所謂的 級數的改變了。

  • These are Phonak hearing aids,

    這是屬於第四等級的義肢。

  • and the reason why these are so interesting

    這些是峰力公司製造的助聽器,

  • is because they cross the threshold from where prosthetics are something

    而它們讓人非常感興趣的原因是,

  • for somebody who is "disabled"

    它們跨出了

  • and they become something that somebody who is "normal"

    義肢是給「殘疾」人士使用的門檻,

  • might want to actually have,

    它們變成了「正常人」

  • because what this prosthetic does, which is really interesting,

    也會想用的東西,

  • is not only does it help you hear,

    因為這個助聽器能做的事 真的很有趣。

  • you can focus your hearing,

    它不僅僅能夠幫助你聽見聲音,

  • so it can hear the conversation going on over there.

    還能幫助你專注聆聽,

  • You can have superhearing.

    所以你能夠聽到遠處的對話。

  • You can have hearing in 360 degrees. You can have white noise.

    你可以擁有超強的聽力。

  • You can record, and oh, by the way, they also put a phone into this.

    你可以聽到所有角度的聲音。 你可以聽到白噪音。

  • So this functions as your hearing aid and also as your phone.

    你可以用它錄音。 順便一提,它們還有手機的功能。

  • And at that point, somebody might actually want to have a prosthetic voluntarily.

    所以它不僅是助聽器, 也是你的手機。

  • All of these thousands of loosely connected little pieces

    到那個時候,有些人很可能 會自願去裝義肢了。

  • are coming together,

    這些成千上萬的 看似不相關的小零件,

  • and it's about time we ask the question,

    正在整合當中,

  • how do we want to evolve human beings over the next century or two?

    所以是時候,我們要問:

  • And for that we turn to a great philosopher

    在一、二個世紀內, 我們想如何改造人類?

  • who was a very smart man despite being a Yankee fan.

    針對這個問題, 我們向一位偉大的哲學家求助,

  • (Laughter)

    他是非常聰明的人, 雖然是個洋基球迷。

  • And Yogi Berra used to say, of course, that it's very tough to make predictions,

    (笑聲)

  • especially about the future.

    約吉.貝拉說, 預測不是一件簡單的事情,

  • (Laughter)

    特別是關於未來的預測。

  • So instead of making a prediction about the future to begin with,

    (笑聲)

  • let's take what's happening in the present with people like Tony Atala,

    所以,我們從開始就不先預測未來,

  • who is redesigning 30-some-odd organs.

    讓我們看看當下發生在 托尼.阿塔拉身上的事,

  • And maybe the ultimate prosthetic isn't having something external, titanium.

    他正在重新設計 30 多個的器官。

  • Maybe the ultimate prosthetic is take your own gene code,

    也許終極義肢已經不需要 金屬鈦這種外來的材料。

  • remake your own body parts,

    也許終極義肢會用你自己的基因代碼,

  • because that's a whole lot more effective than any kind of a prosthetic.

    重新製造你身體的一些部分,

  • But while you're at it, then you can take the work of Craig Venter and Ham Smith.

    因為那比任何一種義肢的效果都要好。

  • And one of the things that we've been doing

    順便,你也可以看看

  • is trying to figure out how to reprogram cells.

    克雷格.文特爾 和翰姆.史密斯的作品。

  • And if you can reprogram a cell,

    我們一直以來想要做的事情之一,

  • then you can change the cells in those organs.

    就是找出重新編碼細胞的方法。

  • So if you can change the cells in those organs,

    如果你可以重新編碼細胞,

  • maybe you make those organs more radiation-resistant.

    你就可以改變器官內的細胞。

  • Maybe you make them absorb more oxygen.

    所以,如果你可以改變 器官內的細胞,

  • Maybe you make them more efficient

    也許你就能讓那些器官 更能抵抗輻射。

  • to filter out stuff that you don't want in your body.

    也許你就能使它們 吸收更多的氧氣。

  • And over the last few weeks, George Church has been in the news a lot

    也許你使它們更有效率地

  • because he's been talking about taking one of these programmable cells

    過濾出你體內不需要的物質。

  • and inserting an entire human genome

    過去幾個禮拜, 喬治.丘奇經常上新聞。

  • into that cell.

    因為他一直在談論一種 可編碼的細胞,

  • And once you can insert an entire human genome into a cell,

    以及把整個人類基因組,

  • then you begin to ask the question,

    插入那個細胞的事。

  • would you want to enhance any of that genome?

    一旦你能夠將整個 人類基因組插入細胞當中,

  • Do you want to enhance a human body?

    你就會開始問這樣的問題:

  • How would you want to enhance a human body?

    你要強化哪些基因呢?

  • Where is it ethical to enhance a human body

    你想要強化人體嗎?

  • and where is it not ethical to enhance a human body?

    你想怎樣強化人體呢?

  • And all of a sudden, what we're doing

    那些部分的強化是合乎道德的?

  • is we've got this multidimensional chess board

    而那些部位是不合乎道德的?

  • where we can change human genetics by using viruses

    突然之間,我們正在做的,

  • to attack things like AIDS,

    好像是在一盤多度空間的棋盤,

  • or we can change the gene code through gene therapy

    在那裡我們可以透過病毒 來改變人類的基因,

  • to do away with some hereditary diseases,

    以攻擊愛滋這樣的疾病;

  • or we can change the environment,

    或者透過基因療法改變基因的序列,

  • and change the expression of those genes in the epigenome

    來去除一些遺傳疾病;

  • and pass that on to the next generations.

    或者,我們可以改變環境,

  • And all of a sudden, it's not just one little bit,

    以及改變表觀基因組的基因;

  • it's all these stacked little bits

    然後傳給後代。

  • that allow you to take little portions of it

    突然間,這些不再是 一點點微小的改變,

  • until all the portions coming together

    而是全部的一點一滴累積起來,

  • lead you to something that's very different.

    你可選擇一些小部分,

  • And a lot of people are very scared by this stuff.

    然後將選擇的部分集合起來,

  • And it does sound scary, and there are risks to this stuff.

    你就變得非常不同了。

  • So why in the world would you ever want to do this stuff?

    很多人對此感到害怕。

  • Why would we really want to alter the human body

    這聽起來確實很恐怖,也有風險。

  • in a fundamental way?

    為什麼我們還是想要這麼做呢?

  • The answer lies in part

    為什麼我們想要

  • with Lord Rees,

    從基本上改變人體呢?

  • astronomer royal of Great Britain.

    提供我們部分答案的

  • And one of his favorite sayings is the universe is 100 percent malevolent.

    是里斯男爵,

  • So what does that mean?

    英國皇家天文學家,

  • It means if you take any one of your bodies at random,

    他最喜歡說的一句話就是: 宇宙是百分之百惡劣的環境。

  • drop it anywhere in the universe,

    這句話是什麽意思?

  • drop it in space, you die.

    意思就是,如果從人類當中

  • Drop it on the Sun, you die.

    隨機選出一位,

  • Drop it on the surface of Mercury, you die.

    把他丟到宇宙的任何一個地方,

  • Drop it near a supernova, you die.

    丟到外太空,你就會死。

  • But fortunately, it's only about 80 percent effective.

    丟到太陽上,你就會死。

  • So as a great physicist once said,

    丟到水星表面上,你也會死。

  • there's these little upstream eddies of biology

    丟到超新星附近,還是死。

  • that create order in this rapid torrent of entropy.

    但還好,這句話 只有 80% 是正確的。

  • So as the universe dissipates energy,

    一位偉大的物理學家曾說過,

  • there's these upstream eddies that create biological order.

    在生物界,小小的上游漩渦,

  • Now, the problem with eddies is,

    在混沌的熵流中創造了致序。

  • they tend to disappear.

    就在宇宙分散能量的同時,

  • They shift. They move in rivers.

    這些上游漩渦創造了生物的秩序。

  • And because of that, when an eddy shifts,

    然而,漩渦的問題是,

  • when the Earth becomes a snowball, when the Earth becomes very hot,

    它們會消失,

  • when the Earth gets hit by an asteroid, when you have supervolcanoes,

    它們轉向,在河中移動。

  • when you have solar flares,

    因此,當有漩渦移動的時候,

  • when you have potentially extinction-level events

    當地球變成雪球的時候, 或是變得炙熱的時候,

  • like the next election --

    當地球被小行星撞擊的時候, 當超級火山爆發的時候,

  • (Laughter)

    當太陽耀斑爆發的時候,

  • then all of a sudden, you can have periodic extinctions.

    當我們遇到潛在的毀滅事件的時候,

  • And by the way, that's happened five times on Earth,

    比如下屆總統選舉——

  • and therefore it is very likely

    (笑聲)

  • that the human species on Earth is going to go extinct someday.

    突然間,我們就會遇到 周期性的地球大滅絕。

  • Not next week,

    順便提一下,這在地球上 已經發生過五次了,

  • not next month,

    因此,人類有朝一日

  • maybe in November, but maybe 10,000 years after that.

    很有可能在地球上消失。

  • As you're thinking of the consequence of that,

    不是下禮拜,

  • if you believe that extinctions are common and natural

    不是下個月,

  • and normal and occur periodically,

    也許就在 11 月, 也許是那之後的一萬年。

  • it becomes a moral imperative to diversify our species.

    一旦考慮到人類滅絕的後果,

  • And it becomes a moral imperative

    如果你相信大滅絕是常見且自然的,

  • because it's going to be really hard to live on Mars

    正常的而且會周期性地發生,

  • if we don't fundamentally modify the human body.

    那麼,將我們的物種多樣化 在道德上就變得勢在必行了。

  • Right?

    它成為道德上的必要性的原因是,

  • You go from one cell,

    因為如果我們不從基本上改善人體,

  • mom and dad coming together to make one cell,

    人類在火星上很難生存。

  • in a cascade to 10 trillion cells.

    對嗎?

  • We don't know, if you change the gravity substantially,

    我們都來自一個細胞,

  • if the same thing will happen to create your body.

    由父母結合所產生的細胞,

  • We do know that if you expose our bodies as they currently are

    經由分裂變成了 10 兆個細胞。

  • to a lot of radiation, we will die.

    我們不敢確定當引力有巨大變化時,

  • So as you're thinking of that, you have to really redesign things

    相同的過程是否還會 在我們的體內發生。

  • just to get to Mars.

    目前我們能確定的是,

  • Forget about the moons of Neptune or Jupiter.

    如果你將自己的身體 暴露在強輻射下,

  • And to borrow from Nikolai Kardashev,

    我們就會死。

  • let's think about life in a series of scales.

    所以當你在想這些時,

  • So Life One civilization

    光是去火星, 我們就得重新設計人體。

  • is a civilization that begins to alter his or her looks.

    更不用說去海王星或木星了。

  • And we've been doing that for thousands of years.

    借用一下尼古拉·卡爾達肖夫的話 (前蘇聯天體物理學家),

  • You've got tummy tucks and you've got this and you've got that.

    讓我們將生命想成是一系列的文明,

  • You alter your looks, and I'm told

    在一級生命文明當中

  • that not all of those alterations take place for medical reasons.

    人類可以改變長相。

  • (Laughter)

    我們已經這樣做了數千年了。

  • Seems odd.

    你可以做腹部整形, 整整這兒,整整那兒。

  • A Life Two civilization is a different civilization.

    你能改變你的外觀,我聽人家說

  • A Life Two civilization alters fundamental aspects of the body.

    不是所有的整形都與醫療有關。

  • So you put human growth hormone in, the person grows taller,

    (笑聲)

  • or you put x in and the person gets fatter or loses metabolism

    好像有點怪。

  • or does a whole series of things,

    二級生命文明就不同了。

  • but you're altering the functions in a fundamental way.

    二級生命文明可以改變 身體的基本特徵。

  • To become an intrasolar civilization,

    你可以注射生長激素, 使人長的更高,

  • we're going to have to create a Life Three civilization,

    或者使用某種藥物, 讓人變胖或降低新陳代謝,

  • and that looks very different from what we've got here.

    或者進行一系列的改變,

  • Maybe you splice in Deinococcus radiodurans

    但你已經在基本上改變 人體的功能了。

  • so that the cells can resplice after a lot of exposure to radiation.

    要成為太陽系內的文明,

  • Maybe you breathe by having oxygen flow through your blood

    我們必須創造出三級生命文明,

  • instead of through your lungs.

    這跟我們現在的世界完全不同。

  • But you're talking about really radical redesigns,

    也許你會被植入 「抗輻射奇異球菌」,

  • and one of the interesting things that's happened in the last decade

    讓細胞暴露在大量輻射 之後仍可重新結合。

  • is we've discovered a whole lot of planets out there.

    也許你的呼吸是由氧氣 直接進入血液當中,

  • And some of them may be Earth-like.

    而不是肺中。

  • The problem is, if we ever want to get to these planets,

    但是我們正在說的 是完全徹底的重新設計,

  • the fastest human objects --

    在過去十年間 發生了一件有趣的事情,

  • Juno and Voyager and the rest of this stuff --

    就是我們在宇宙中 發現了很多的行星。

  • take tens of thousands of years

    其中有些可能很像地球。

  • to get from here to the nearest solar system.

    問題是,如果我們想要 到達那些行星,

  • So if you want to start exploring beaches somewhere else,

    最快的人造飛行器——

  • or you want to see two-sun sunsets,

    朱諾號和航海家太空船, 還有其它類似的東西——

  • then you're talking about something that is very different,

    也要花個數萬年,

  • because you have to change the timescale and the body of humans

    才能到達離我們最近的恒星系。

  • in ways which may be absolutely unrecognizable.

    所以,如果你想在 其他星球的海灘上散步,

  • And that's a Life Four civilization.

    或者想要看到兩個太陽的日落,

  • Now, we can't even begin to imagine what that might look like,

    那麼你在談的是非常不同的,

  • but we're beginning to get glimpses

    因為你必須以完全超乎想像的程度,

  • of instruments that might take us even that far.

    改變時間的維度和人體的構造。

  • And let me give you two examples.

    這就是四級生命文明。

  • So this is the wonderful Floyd Romesberg,

    雖然我們無法想像 我們會變成什麽樣子,

  • and one of the things that Floyd's been doing

    但是我們已經能稍微瞥見

  • is he's been playing with the basic chemistry of life.

    可以把我們帶往那種地方的設備了。

  • So all life on this planet is made in ATCGs, the four letters of DNA.

    我給各位舉兩個例子:

  • All bacteria, all plants, all animals, all humans, all cows,

    這位是我們出色的 弗洛伊德·瑞姆斯伯格,

  • everything else.

    弗洛伊德一直在做的一件事就是

  • And what Floyd did is he changed out two of those base pairs,

    研究基礎生命化學。

  • so it's ATXY.

    地球上所有生命都由 DNA 的 四個字母 ATCG 所組成,

  • And that means that you now have a parallel system to make life,

    所有的細菌、植物、 動物、人類、牛,

  • to make babies, to reproduce, to evolve,

    每一樣都由 ATCG 組成。

  • that doesn't mate with most things on Earth

    弗洛伊德做的研究就是 改變其中的兩組鹼基對,

  • or in fact maybe with nothing on Earth.

    變成 ATXY 的組合。

  • Maybe you make plants that are immune to all bacteria.

    意思就是,你也有一個 可以創造生命的平行系統,

  • Maybe you make plants that are immune to all viruses.

    你可以造出小生命、 可以繁殖、進化,