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  • Good morning. How are you? It's been great, hasn't it?

    早安,你們好嗎?這次大會實在很精彩,對吧?

  • I've been blown away by the whole thing.

    這一切都讓我太震驚。

  • In fact, I'm leaving. (Laughter)

    所以我現在要離開了。(笑聲)

  • There have been three themes, haven't there,

    我今天要談的

  • running through the conference, which are relevant

    與貫穿這次研討會的

  • to what I want to talk about.

    三個主題相關。

  • One is the extraordinary evidence of human creativity

    首先,這些演說與這裏的每個人

  • in all of the presentations that we've had

    所涵蓋領域

  • and in all of the people here. Just the variety of it

    的廣度與歧異度

  • and the range of it. The second is that

    是展現人類創意的傑出典範。第二、

  • it's put us in a place where we have no idea what's going to happen,

    這樣的創意讓人了解到,我們根本不能預知

  • in terms of the future. No idea

    未來。我們不知道

  • how this may play out.

    未來會是何種面貌

  • I have an interest in education --

    我對教育議題有興趣 —

  • actually, what I find is everybody has an interest in education.

    事實上,我發現每個人都對教育有興趣

  • Don't you? I find this very interesting.

    不是嗎?我覺得很有趣的是

  • If you're at a dinner party, and you say

    即便在一個晚宴上,你告訴大家

  • you work in education --

    你在教育界服務。

  • actually, you're not often at dinner parties, frankly, if you work in education.

    坦白說你很少會參加那些晚宴啦,因為如果你在教育界工作

  • (Laughter) You're not asked.

    (笑聲)沒人會邀請你去。

  • And you're never asked back, curiously. That's strange to me.

    詭異的是就算請你去一次,也不會再請你去第二次。

  • But if you are, and you say to somebody,

    但是如果你應邀出席了,你問同桌的某人,

  • you know, they say, "What do you do?"

    他在何處高就,

  • and you say you work in education,

    然後說你自己在教育界工作。

  • you can see the blood run from their face. They're like,

    你立刻會看到他們臉上出現三條黑線,彷彿是說:

  • "Oh my God," you know, "Why me? My one night out all week." (Laughter)

    天啊!為什麼是我?我這星期好不容易有個晚上可以輕鬆一下。(笑聲)

  • But if you ask about their education,

    但如果你問大家受過什麼樣教育,

  • they pin you to the wall. Because it's one of those things

    每個人都滔滔不絕說個沒完。因為這是影響

  • that goes deep with people, am I right?

    人們極深的幾個主題之一,對吧?

  • Like religion, and money and other things.

    就像宗教、金錢或其他一些事情一樣。

  • I have a big interest in education, and I think we all do.

    我個人對教育極感興趣,我猜我們都是這樣。

  • We have a huge vested interest in it,

    大家都對教育興趣濃厚,

  • partly because it's education that's meant to

    其中部份原因是:

  • take us into this future that we can't grasp.

    教育可用來幫助我們掌握難以理解的未來。

  • If you think of it, children starting school this year

    試想,今年開始上學的小孩

  • will be retiring in 2065. Nobody has a clue --

    將在西元 2065 年退休。沒人會知道 —

  • despite all the expertise that's been on parade for the past four days --

    儘管我們在過去四天中探討了各種專業知識 —

  • what the world will look like

    五年後世界會怎樣。

  • in five years' time. And yet we're meant

    但我們本來應該是要

  • to be educating them for it. So the unpredictability, I think,

    教育這些孩子為將來預作準備,所以我認為,未來的不可預知性

  • is extraordinary.

    是極為特殊的。

  • And the third part of this is that

    第三部份是

  • we've all agreed, nonetheless, on the

    我們都仍同意

  • really extraordinary capacities that children have --

    孩童擁有驚人的潛力 —

  • their capacities for innovation. I mean, Sirena last night was a marvel,

    他們創新的潛力。我是說,昨晚的莎琳娜真是令人驚奇,

  • wasn't she? Just seeing what she could do.

    不是嗎?目睹了昨晚莎琳娜能做到的事。

  • And she's exceptional, but I think she's not, so to speak,

    她真是優秀,但我認為在所有的孩童裡面,

  • exceptional in the whole of childhood.

    她並沒有那麼的特殊。

  • What you have there is a person of extraordinary dedication

    昨晚你見到的只是一個已經發現他才能的人

  • who found a talent. And my contention is,

    非常專心致力於其天賦的結果。我的觀點是

  • all kids have tremendous talents.

    所有孩子都天賦異稟。

  • And we squander them, pretty ruthlessly.

    都被我們殘酷的浪費了。

  • So I want to talk about education and

    所以我想談談教育

  • I want to talk about creativity. My contention is that

    與創意。我的論點是

  • creativity now is as important in education as literacy,

    在我們的教育裏,創意與識字能力同等重要,

  • and we should treat it with the same status.

    我們應該給予兩者平等的地位。

  • (Applause) Thank you. That was it, by the way.

    (掌聲)謝謝。就這樣,我說完了。

  • Thank you very much. (Laughter) So, 15 minutes left.

    非常謝謝大家。(笑聲)所以,還剩下十五分鐘。

  • Well, I was born ... no. (Laughter)

    這個嘛,我生於 — 不,開玩笑的(笑聲)

  • I heard a great story recently -- I love telling it --

    我最近聽到了一個很棒的故事 — 我很愛轉述它 —

  • of a little girl who was in a drawing lesson. She was six

    有個小女孩在上繪畫課。她六歲,

  • and she was at the back, drawing,

    她坐在教室後方畫畫,

  • and the teacher said this little girl hardly ever

    老師說這小女孩平常非常難專注在

  • paid attention, and in this drawing lesson she did.

    一件事物上,但是今天她很專心。

  • The teacher was fascinated and she went over to her

    老師非常的好奇,於是老師走向小女孩

  • and she said, "What are you drawing?"

    問道:妳在畫什麼?

  • And the girl said, "I'm drawing a picture of God."

    小女孩說:我正在畫一幅上帝的畫像。

  • And the teacher said, "But nobody knows what God looks like."

    老師又說:可是沒人知道上帝長什麼樣子啊。

  • And the girl said, "They will in a minute."

    小女孩接著說:那他們馬上就會知道了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • When my son was four in England --

    當我兒子四歲在英國的時候,

  • actually he was four everywhere, to be honest. (Laughter)

    其實,說實話,他在各地都是四歲。(笑聲)

  • If we're being strict about it, wherever he went, he was four that year.

    我們對他很嚴格,不管去哪他都是四歲。

  • He was in the Nativity play.

    他在聖誕節參加演出耶穌誕生的兒童劇。

  • Do you remember the story? No, it was big.

    你們記得那個故事嗎?它很著名。

  • It was a big story. Mel Gibson did the sequel.

    那是個很著名的故事。梅爾•吉勃遜演了續集。

  • You may have seen it: "Nativity II." But James got the part of Joseph,

    耶穌誕生第二集,你們也許看過。但我兒子詹姆士扮演耶穌的養父聖若瑟,

  • which we were thrilled about.

    我們很興奮。

  • We considered this to be one of the lead parts.

    我們認為這角色是主角群之一。

  • We had the place crammed full of agents in T-shirts:

    觀眾席上擠滿了我們找來穿著印有

  • "James Robinson IS Joseph!" (Laughter)

    「詹姆士•羅賓森是聖若瑟」字樣T恤的人。(笑聲)

  • He didn't have to speak, but you know the bit

    不過他是沒有台詞的,你知道故事中來自

  • where the three kings come in. They come in bearing gifts,

    東方的三博士來朝拜剛出生的耶穌。他們輪流獻上

  • and they bring gold, frankincense and myrhh.

    黃金、乳香與沒藥三項禮物。

  • This really happened. We were sitting there

    我們坐在那看戲時,這是真實發生的情況歐,

  • and I think they just went out of sequence,

    我發現他們把獻禮的順序弄錯了,

  • because we talked to the little boy afterward and we said,

    我們後來問兒子說:

  • "You OK with that?" And he said, "Yeah, why? Was that wrong?"

    你不在意嗎?他說:這有什麼錯嗎?

  • They just switched, that was it.

    他們就換ㄧ下順序而已啊。

  • Anyway, the three boys came in --

    故事繼續,這三個四歲小男孩走進耶穌的家,

  • four-year-olds with tea towels on their heads --

    頭上包著毛巾布,

  • and they put these boxes down,

    他們把裝禮物的三個盒子放下,

  • and the first boy said, "I bring you gold."

    第一個小男孩說:我為你獻上黃金。

  • And the second boy said, "I bring you myrhh."

    第二個說:我為你獻上沒藥。

  • And the third boy said, "Frank sent this." (Laughter)

    第三個小男孩說:這是法蘭克送的(Frank sent this)[應為乳香-Frankincense,但小男孩不會發音]

  • What these things have in common is that kids will take a chance.

    這些故事的共通處說明了小孩願意冒險。

  • If they don't know, they'll have a go.

    有不知道的事,他們就用猜的。

  • Am I right? They're not frightened of being wrong.

    我說的對吧?他們不怕犯錯。

  • Now, I don't mean to say that being wrong is the same thing as being creative.

    當然,我不是說犯錯等於有創意。

  • What we do know is,

    但是我們知道

  • if you're not prepared to be wrong,

    如果你沒有犯錯的心理準備,

  • you'll never come up with anything original --

    就永遠無法發揮獨創性。

  • if you're not prepared to be wrong. And by the time they get to be adults,

    如果你都不準備犯錯。當他們長大成人時,

  • most kids have lost that capacity.

    絕大部份孩子已經失去這項冒險的能力了。

  • They have become frightened of being wrong.

    他們會變得害怕犯錯。

  • And we run our companies like this, by the way.

    順道一提,我們就是這樣經營公司企業的。

  • We stigmatize mistakes. And we're now running

    我們懲罰錯誤。我們現在也以

  • national education systems where

    同樣方式在經營國家的教育制度,

  • mistakes are the worst thing you can make.

    告訴孩子犯錯是最糟的事。

  • And the result is that we are educating people out of

    而結果是我們教出一堆

  • their creative capacities. Picasso once said this --

    沒有創意的人。畢卡索曾經說過:

  • he said that all children are born artists.

    所有孩子都是天生的藝術家。

  • The problem is to remain an artist as we grow up. I believe this passionately,

    問題是如何維持藝術家的性格到成年。我堅信:

  • that we don't grow into creativity,

    我們不會越老越有創意,

  • we grow out of it. Or rather, we get educated out if it.

    我們的成長背離創意。或者說,教育抹煞了我們的創造力。

  • So why is this?

    為什麼呢?

  • I lived in Stratford-on-Avon until about five years ago.

    我以前住在英國埃文河畔的斯特拉福,莎士比亞的家鄉。

  • In fact, we moved from Stratford to Los Angeles.

    我們五年前從那搬到美國洛杉磯。

  • So you can imagine what a seamless transition that was.

    所以你可以了解,這是個多麼平順的轉變吧。

  • (Laughter) Actually,

    (笑聲)事實上,

  • we lived in a place called Snitterfield,

    我們那時住在斯特拉福外圍的

  • just outside Stratford, which is where

    斯尼特菲爾,那是

  • Shakespeare's father was born. Are you struck by a new thought? I was.

    莎翁父親出生的小鎮。這有沒有讓你聯想到什麼?我有。

  • You don't think of Shakespeare having a father, do you?

    你從來沒想過莎士比亞也有爸爸吧?有嗎?

  • Do you? Because you don't think of

    想過嗎?因為你沒有想過

  • Shakespeare being a child, do you?

    莎士比亞曾經是個小孩,有嗎?

  • Shakespeare being seven? I never thought of it. I mean, he was

    七歲的莎士比亞?我從來沒想過。我是說,

  • seven at some point. He was in

    他曾經是七歲大。他曾經是

  • somebody's English class, wasn't he? How annoying would that be?

    某人英文課上的學生,難道不是嗎?想想那會有多討厭?

  • (Laughter) "Must try harder." Being sent to bed by his dad, you know,

    (笑聲)「你得更用功」爸爸趕他上床睡覺,你知道的,

  • to Shakespeare, "Go to bed, now,"

    跟莎士比亞說:上床睡覺,馬上!

  • to William Shakespeare, "and put the pencil down.

    威廉•莎士比亞,「給我把鉛筆放下。

  • And stop speaking like that. It's confusing everybody."

    而且別再用那種辭彙講話,大家都聽的霧煞煞。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Anyway, we moved from Stratford to Los Angeles,

    反正呢,我們從斯特拉福搬到洛城,

  • and I just want to say a word about the transition, actually.

    我事實上只是想談談我們的這個轉變。

  • My son didn't want to come.

    我的兒子並不想來。

  • I've got two kids. He's 21 now; my daughter's 16.

    我有兩個孩子。兒子今年 21,女兒 16 歲。

  • He didn't want to come to Los Angeles. He loved it,

    他不想來洛杉磯。他很喜歡這裡,

  • but he had a girlfriend in England. This was the love of his life, Sarah.

    但因為他在英國有女朋友。名叫莎拉,她是他人生至愛。

  • He'd known her for a month.

    他那時認識她一個月。

  • Mind you, they'd had their fourth anniversary,

    告訴你,他們好像已經認識四年一樣,

  • because it's a long time when you're 16.

    因為對 16 歲來說一個月是個很長的時間。

  • Anyway, he was really upset on the plane,

    無論如何,我兒子在飛機上很難過,

  • and he said, "I'll never find another girl like Sarah."

    他說:我再也找不到像莎拉這樣的女孩了。

  • And we were rather pleased about that, frankly,

    但坦白說,我們對此挺高興的,

  • because she was the main reason we were leaving the country.

    因為她是我們決定搬離英國的主要原因。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But something strikes you when you move to America

    但當你來到美國

  • and when you travel around the world:

    或是在世界各地旅行時

  • Every education system on earth has the same hierarchy of subjects.

    你會驚訝的發現,這地球上所有教育系統都有同樣的科目階級制度。

  • Every one. Doesn't matter where you go.

    不管你去哪裏,都是這樣。

  • You'd think it would be otherwise, but it isn't.

    你以為會有所不同,但真的沒有差別。

  • At the top are mathematics and languages,

    最高階的學科是數學和語文,

  • then the humanities, and the bottom are the arts.

    接著是人文社會科目,而藝術則是墊底的科目。

  • Everywhere on Earth.

    到處都一樣。

  • And in pretty much every system too,

    而且每個教育體系中的藝術課程中,

  • there's a hierarchy within the arts.

    也都有同樣的階級制度。

  • Art and music are normally given a higher status in schools

    美術和音樂課程在學校永遠比

  • than drama and dance. There isn't an education system on the planet

    戲劇和舞蹈課程更重要。這地球上沒有一個教育系統

  • that teaches dance everyday to children

    每天教授小孩們跳舞,

  • the way we teach them mathematics. Why?

    就像教數學一樣。為什麼呢?

  • Why not? I think this is rather important.

    為什麼不呢?我覺得這很重要。

  • I think math is very important, but so is dance.

    我認為數學非常重要,但舞蹈也是。

  • Children dance all the time if they're allowed to, we all do.

    如果被允許,孩子們無時無刻不在跳舞,我們都是這樣。

  • We all have bodies, don't we? Did I miss a meeting?

    我們都有肢體,不是嗎?我錯過了什麼嗎?

  • (Laughter) Truthfully, what happens is,

    (笑聲)這一切背後的真相是,

  • as children grow up, we start to educate them

    當小孩開始成長,我們的教育重心

  • progressively from the waist up. And then we focus on their heads.

    大量移至腰部以上。然後著重在頭部。

  • And slightly to one side.

    並且沒有左右均衡。

  • If you were to visit education, as an alien,

    如果你觀察這種教育制度,當個局外人,

  • and say "What's it for, public education?"

    然後問:公立教育的目的是什麼呢?

  • I think you'd have to conclude -- if you look at the output,

    我想你的結論會是 — 如果你以結果論,

  • who really succeeds by this,

    誰能在這種制度下成功?

  • who does everything that they should,

    誰是乖乖牌,從不犯錯?

  • who gets all the brownie points, who are the winners --

    誰累積了最多嘉獎?誰是贏家?—

  • I think you'd have to conclude the whole purpose of public education

    我想你會得到這樣的結論,

  • throughout the world

    全球公立教育的目的只是

  • is to produce university professors. Isn't it?

    製造大學教授,難道不是嗎?

  • They're the people who come out the top.

    他們是那群高分畢業的人。

  • And I used to be one, so there. (Laughter)

    我以前也是大學教授,所以你看吧!(笑聲)

  • And I like university professors, but you know,

    當然我喜歡大學教授,但你知道,

  • we shouldn't hold them up as the high-water mark of all human achievement.

    我們不應將他們視為人類成就的最高指標。

  • They're just a form of life,

    那只是一種生活方式,

  • another form of life. But they're rather curious,

    就只是一種不同的生活方式。是但教授們是有些古怪的,

  • and I say this out of affection for them.

    我會這樣說是因為,我對他們有深厚的感情。

  • There's something curious about professors in my experience --

    在我的經驗裏,教授們是有點難以理解的 —

  • not all of them, but typically -- they live in their heads.

    不是所有教授都這樣,但一般來說 — 他們活在自己腦袋中。

  • They live up there, and slightly to one side.

    他們都活在那兒,而且稍微偏向一邊。

  • They're disembodied, you know, in a kind of literal way.

    他們是脫離現實的,你知道,我沒有誇大。

  • They look upon their body

    他們向下看著他們的身體,

  • as a form of transport for their heads, don't they?

    將其視為運輸頭部的一種交通工具,難道不是嗎?

  • (Laughter) It's a way of getting their head to meetings.

    (笑聲)是將他們的腦袋帶往會議場所的一種方式。

  • If you want real evidence of out-of-body experiences,

    如果你還需要這種離體經驗的真實證據,

  • by the way, get yourself along to a residential conference

    順道提一下,去參加一個由資深學者組成的

  • of senior academics,

    需要住宿的研討會,

  • and pop into the discotheque on the final night.

    然後在最後一個晚上,到大會附近的舞廳去。

  • (Laughter) And there you will see it -- grown men and women

    (笑聲)那你就會看到我所謂的證據,許多成年男女

  • writhing uncontrollably, off the beat,

    痛苦的扭動著身體,完全跟不上節拍,

  • waiting until it ends so they can go home and write a paper about it.

    他們只想等著舞曲結束,好快點回家寫一篇關於此行的報告。

  • Now our education system is predicated on the idea of academic ability.

    我們將教育制度建構在學術能力上。

  • And there's a reason.

    是有原因的。

  • The whole system was invented -- around the world, there were

    這整個系統是被創造的 — 全球皆然,

  • no public systems of education, really, before the 19th century.

    真的,十九世紀前並沒有公立教育制度。

  • They all came into being

    這系統的目的是要

  • to meet the needs of industrialism.

    滿足西方工業化的需求。

  • So the hierarchy is rooted on two ideas.

    所以這個階級制度根植在兩種概念上。

  • Number one, that the most useful subjects for work

    首先,最有利工作的學科

  • are at the top. So you were probably steered benignly away

    享有最高地位。所以當你還是個孩子的時候,在學校

  • from things at school when you were a kid, things you liked,

    就被良性的指導不要去學某些東西,一些你喜歡的事物,

  • on the grounds that you would

    因為就算你學了

  • never get a job doing that. Is that right?

    以後工作也用不上。對吧?

  • Don't do music, you're not going to be a musician;

    別學音樂,因為你不會變成音樂家;

  • don't do art, you won't be an artist.

    別學美術,你不會變成藝術家。

  • Benign advice -- now, profoundly mistaken. The whole world

    善意的建議 — 才怪,大錯特錯。這整個世界

  • is engulfed in a revolution.

    都被工業革命吞沒。

  • And the second is academic ability, which has really come to dominate

    第二,我們對智力的看法取決於

  • our view of intelligence,

    學術能力的高底,

  • because the universities designed the system in their image.

    因為大學院校以他們自己的經驗為藍本來設計教育制度。

  • If you think of it, the whole system

    你仔細思考就會發現,

  • of public education around the world is a protracted process

    全世界的公立教育系統都只是為進入

  • of university entrance.

    大學之門鋪路。

  • And the consequence is that many highly talented,

    而結果造成許多有天份、

  • brilliant, creative people think they're not,

    有創意的、聰明的學生自我否定,

  • because the thing they were good at at school

    因為他們的專長在學校

  • wasn't valued, or was actually stigmatized.

    不被重視,還可能因此受罰。

  • And I think we can't afford to go on that way.

    我認為,我們不能再繼續這樣下去。

  • In the next 30 years, according to UNESCO,

    根據聯合國教育文化組織的數據,內來三十年內

  • more people worldwide will be graduating

    全世界從教育系統畢業的人數

  • through education than since the beginning of history.

    將超越人類歷史開始時的人口總數。

  • More people, and it's the combination

    更多的人,許多我們談過的因素結合

  • of all the things we've talked about --

    造就了這項數字 —

  • technology and its transformation effect on work, and demography

    包括科技、對工作的轉型效應、人口組成

  • and the huge explosion in population.

    和人口數大爆發。

  • Suddenly, degrees aren't worth anything. Isn't that true?

    突然之間,文憑不值錢了。對吧?

  • When I was a student, if you had a degree, you had a job.

    當我還是學生的時候,如果你有張大學文憑,你就有份工作。

  • If you didn't have a job it's because you didn't want one.

    你要是沒工作,是因為你自己不想要。

  • And I didn't want one, frankly. (Laughter)

    老實說,像我就是不想要工作。(笑聲)

  • But now kids with degrees are often

    但現在有大學文憑的小孩常常

  • heading home to carry on playing video games,

    只能回家繼續打電動,

  • because you need an MA where the previous job required a BA,

    因為以前大學畢業可以做的工作,現在得要碩士才行,