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  • Worldwide, over 1.5 billion people experience armed conflict.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Jack Zhang

  • In response, people are forced to flee their country,

    全世界,有 15 億人經歷武裝衝突。

  • leaving over 15 million refugees.

    他們因此被迫逃離祖國,

  • Children, without a doubt,

    造成超過一千五百萬個難民。

  • are the most innocent and vulnerable victims ...

    無疑的,孩童

  • but not just from the obvious physical dangers,

    是最無辜、最脆弱的受害者。

  • but from the often unspoken effects that wars have on their families.

    他們不只面臨明顯的實體危害,

  • The experiences of war leave children at a real high risk

    還會受到戰爭對他們的 家庭造成的無聲影響。

  • for the development of emotional and behavioral problems.

    戰爭的經歷讓孩童有很高的風險,

  • Children, as we can only imagine,

    可能會發展出情緒和行為問題。

  • will feel worried, threatened and at risk.

    我們只能想像,孩童

  • But there is good news.

    會感到擔心、被威脅、面臨風險。

  • The quality of care that children receive in their families

    但有個好消息,

  • can have a more significant effect on their well-being

    孩童的幸福比較會受到

  • than from the actual experiences of war that they have been exposed to.

    他們在家中受到的照顧 之品質好壞所影響,

  • So actually, children can be protected

    他們所接觸的戰爭經歷 造成的影響相對沒這麼大。

  • by warm, secure parenting during and after conflict.

    其實,孩童可以被保護,

  • In 2011, I was a first-year PhD student

    方式是在衝突中及衝突後, 提供他們溫暖安全的養育。

  • in the University of Manchester School of Psychological Sciences.

    2011 年時, 我是博士班一年級學生,

  • Like many of you here,

    就讀曼徹斯特大學的心理科學系。

  • I watched the crisis in Syria unfold in front of me on the TV.

    跟你們許多人一樣,

  • My family is originally from Syria,

    我在電視上看到敘利亞危機爆發。

  • and very early on,

    我的家庭是來自敘利亞。

  • I lost several family members in really horrifying ways.

    非常早的時候,

  • I'd sit and I'd gather with my family and watch the TV.

    我就以非常可怕的方式 失去了數名家人。

  • We've all seen those scenes:

    我會坐著,和家人 聚在一起,看電視。

  • bombs destroying buildings,

    我們都曾看過那些場景:

  • chaos, destruction

    炸彈摧毀建築、

  • and people screaming and running.

    混亂、毀滅、

  • It was always the people screaming and running that really got me the most,

    人們尖叫、竄逃。

  • especially those terrified-looking children.

    讓我最有感觸的總是 人們尖叫、竄逃的部份,

  • I was a mother to two young, typically inquisitive children.

    特別是那些看來嚇壞的孩童。

  • They were five and six then,

    我是個母親,有兩個小孩, 都是典型的好奇寶寶,

  • at an age where they typically asked lots and lots of questions,

    當時他們分別是五歲和六歲。

  • and expected real, convincing answers.

    在那個年齡, 他們通常會問很多問題,

  • So, I began to wonder what it might be like

    且期望得到真實、有說服力的答案。

  • to parent my children in a war zone and a refugee camp.

    所以我開始納悶,如果在

  • Would my children change?

    戰區和難民營中養育我的孩子 會是怎樣的狀況?

  • Would my daughter's bright, happy eyes lose their shine?

    我的孩子會改變嗎?

  • Would my son's really relaxed and carefree nature become fearful and withdrawn?

    我女兒那明亮快樂的雙眼 會失去光芒嗎?

  • How would I cope?

    我兒子那悠閒自在的天性 會變得恐懼退縮嗎?

  • Would I change?

    我要如何處理?

  • As psychologists and parent trainers,

    我會改變嗎?

  • we know that arming parents with skills in caring for their children

    我們這些心理學家 和父母訓練者知道,

  • can have a huge effect on their well-being,

    提供父母照顧孩子的技能,

  • and we call this parent training.

    對於他們的幸福能有很大的影響。

  • The question I had was,

    我們稱這為父母訓練。

  • could parent training programs be useful for families

    我的問題是,

  • while they were still in war zones or refugee camps?

    父母訓練專案對於那些

  • Could we reach them with advice or training

    還在戰區或難民營的家庭會有用嗎?

  • that would help them through these struggles?

    我們是否能接觸到他們, 提供建議或是訓練,

  • So I approached my PhD supervisor,

    來協助他們渡過這些困難?

  • Professor Rachel Calam,

    所以我去找了我的 博士學位指導教授,

  • with the idea of using my academic skills to make some change in the real world.

    瑞秋卡蘭博士,

  • I wasn't quite sure what exactly I wanted to do.

    告訴她我的想法是用我的 學術技能在真實世界上做出改變。

  • She listened carefully and patiently,

    我不太確定我到底想做什麼,

  • and then to my joy she said,

    她很仔細且耐心地聽著,

  • "If that's what you want to do, and it means so much to you,

    接著她說的話讓我很高興:

  • then let's do it.

    「如果那是你想做的事、 且對你有如此重大的意義,

  • Let's find ways to see if parent programs

    那就做吧!

  • can be useful for families in these contexts."

    我們來找看看有什麼方法 可以使父母專案

  • So for the past five years, myself and my colleagues --

    也能對那些情境中的 家庭有所幫助。」

  • Prof. Calam and Dr. Kim Cartwright --

    所以過去五年,我自己和我同事──

  • have been working on ways to support families

    卡蘭教授和金卡特萊博士──

  • that have experienced war and displacement.

    致力於尋找方法來支持那些

  • Now, to know how to help families that have been through conflict

    經歷了戰爭與遷移的家庭。

  • support their children,

    若要知道如何幫助 那些經歷過衝突的家庭、

  • the first step must obviously be to ask them what they're struggling with,

    如何支援他們的孩子,

  • right?

    第一步驟很明顯是要詢問 他們的困難是什麼,

  • I mean, it seems obvious.

    對吧?

  • But it's often those that are the most vulnerable,

    我的意思是,這似乎很明顯。

  • that we're trying to support,

    但通常,我們實際上卻不會去問

  • that we actually don't ask.

    那些最脆弱的的人、

  • How many times have we just assumed we know exactly the right thing

    我們試圖去支援的人。

  • that's going to help someone or something without actually asking them first?

    我們多常會直接假設, 我們很清楚要協助

  • So I travelled to refugee camps in Syria and in Turkey,

    某人或某事時該做的是什麼, 卻沒有真正先問當事人?

  • and I sat with families, and I listened.

    所以我旅行到敘利亞和 土耳其的難民營,

  • I listened to their parenting challenges,

    和許多家庭坐下來談,我傾聽他們,

  • I listened to their parenting struggles

    我傾聽他們 在養育上的挑戰是什麼,

  • and I listened to their call for help.

    我傾聽他們 在養育上的困難是什麼,

  • And sometimes that was just paused,

    我傾聽他們的求助。

  • as all I could do was hold hands with them

    有時候會中斷停下來,

  • and just join them in silent crying and prayer.

    因為我能做的只有握住他們的手,

  • They told me about their struggles,

    和他們一起默默地落淚和禱告。

  • they told me about the rough, harsh refugee camp conditions

    他們告訴我他們的困難,

  • that made it hard to focus on anything but practical chores

    他們告訴我難民營的條件 有多簡陋惡劣,

  • like collecting clean water.

    讓他們很難聚焦做任何事, 只能做家庭雜務,

  • They told me how they watched their children withdraw;

    比如收集乾淨的水。

  • the sadness, depression, anger,

    他們告訴我他們如何看著孩子退縮,

  • bed-wetting, thumb-sucking, fear of loud noises,

    那悲傷、沮喪、憤怒、

  • fear of nightmares --

    尿床、吮手指、害怕大聲的噪音、

  • terrifying, terrifying nightmares.

    害怕惡夢……

  • These families had been through what we had been watching on the TV.

    非常非常恐怖的惡夢。

  • The mothers --

    這些家庭經歷了 我們在電視上看到的那些狀況。

  • almost half of them were now widows of war,

    那些母親們……

  • or didn't even know if their husbands were dead or alive --

    幾乎有一半在戰爭中喪偶,

  • described how they felt they were coping so badly.

    或是不知道丈夫是生是死。

  • They watched their children change and they had no idea how to help them.

    她們訴說著她們 覺得自己處理得有多糟。

  • They didn't know how to answer their children's questions.

    她們看著自己的孩子改變, 卻不知道怎麼幫助他們,

  • What I found incredibly astonishing and so motivational

    她們不知道怎麼回答孩子的問題。

  • was that these families were so motivated to support their children.

    讓我覺得最震驚且最激勵我的事,

  • Despite all these challenges they faced,

    是這些家庭很積極 想要支持他們的孩子。

  • they were trying to help their children.

    儘管他們面臨這些挑戰,

  • They were making attempts at seeking support from NGO workers,

    他們仍然試著協助他們的孩子,

  • from refugee camp teachers,

    他們試圖求助的對象 包括非政府組織人員、

  • professional medics,

    難民營老師、

  • other parents.

    專業醫務員、

  • One mother I met had only been in a camp for four days,

    及其他父母。

  • and had already made two attempts

    我見到一位母親,她才到營中四天,

  • at seeking support for her eight-year-old daughter

    就已經做了兩項嘗試,

  • who was having terrifying nightmares.

    試著尋求支助,幫助她那飽受

  • But sadly, these attempts are almost always useless.

    可怕惡夢所苦的八歲女兒。

  • Refugee camp doctors, when available,

    但不幸的是, 那些嘗試幾乎總是無用的。

  • are almost always too busy,

    當難民營醫生能接受看診時,

  • or don't have the knowledge or the time for basic parenting supports.

    他們幾乎總是很忙碌,

  • Refugee camp teachers and other parents are just like them --

    或是沒有知識或時間 來協助養育方面的問題。

  • part of a new refugee community who's struggling with new needs.

    難民營老師和其他父母的 狀況都和他們一樣──

  • So then we began to think.

    都是新難民社區的一部份, 且為了新的需求而掙扎著。

  • How could we help these families?

    所以我們開始想,

  • The families were struggling with things much bigger than they could cope with.

    我們要如何協助這些家庭?

  • The Syrian crisis made it clear

    這些家庭所遇到的困難 遠超過他們能處理的程度。

  • how incredibly impossible it would be to reach families on an individual level.

    敘利亞危機讓我們知道,

  • How else could we help them?

    想在個人層級上去接觸家庭 是非常不可能的。

  • How would we reach families at a population level

    我們還能用什麼 其他方式協助他們?

  • and low costs

    我們要如何在非常非常恐怖的時期,

  • in these terrifying, terrifying times?

    在群體居民的層級上,

  • After hours of speaking to NGO workers,

    以低成本接觸到家庭?

  • one suggested a fantastic innovative idea

    在和非政府組織人員 談了數小時後,

  • of distributing parenting information leaflets via bread wrappers --

    有個人提出一項非常創新的好建議,

  • bread wrappers that were being delivered to families in a conflict zone in Syria

    用包麵包的紙 來發送養育資訊的傳單。

  • by humanitarian workers.

    人道主義工作者會把包麵包的紙

  • So that's what we did.

    送到敘利亞衝突區的家庭中。

  • The bread wrappers haven't changed at all in their appearance,

    所以我們就那麼做了。

  • except for the addition of two pieces of paper.

    包麵包的紙在外表上完全沒改變,

  • One was a parenting information leaflet that had basic advice and information

    只是多了額外的兩張紙:

  • that normalized to the parent what they might be experiencing,

    一張是養育資訊傳單, 上面有基本建議和資訊,

  • and what their child might be experiencing.

    都是一般父母自身 可能正在經歷的狀況、

  • And information on how they could support themselves and their children,

    他們的孩子可能正在經歷的狀況。

  • such as information like spending time talking to your child,

    傳單上也提供如何支持 他們自己和孩子的相關資訊,

  • showing them more affection,

    這些資訊包括 比如花時間和孩子說話、

  • being more patient with your child,

    對他們展現更多感情、

  • talking to your children.

    對孩子更有耐心、

  • The other piece of paper was a feedback questionnaire,

    和孩子說話。

  • and of course, there was a pen.

    另一張紙是回饋問卷,

  • So is this simply leaflet distribution,

    當然,也有附一枝筆。

  • or is this actually a possible means of delivering psychological first aid

    所以,這只不過是發傳單?

  • that provides warm, secure, loving parenting?

    或是這真的是種可行的手段, 能提供溫暖、安全、慈愛的養育,

  • We managed to distribute 3,000 of these in just one week.

    將心理急救遞送過去給他們?

  • What was incredible was we had a 60 percent response rate.

    我們只在一週內 就成功發送出 3000 份,

  • 60 percent of the 3,000 families responded.

    很不可思議的是回應率有 60%,

  • I don't know how many researchers we have here today,

    三千個家庭中有 60% 回覆了問卷。

  • but that kind of response rate is fantastic.

    我不知道今天 在現場有多少研究者,

  • To have that in Manchester would be a huge achievement,

    但這種回應率實在太棒了。

  • let alone in a conflict zone in Syria --

    在曼徹斯特若有這種回應率 就可以算是很大的成就,

  • really highlighting how important these kinds of messages were to families.

    何況是在敘利亞的衝突區。

  • I remember how excited and eager we were for the return of the questionnaires.

    這突顯出這類資訊 對那些家庭有多重要。

  • The families had left hundreds of messages --

    我還記得收到回覆的回卷時, 我們有多興奮和熱切。

  • most incredibly positive and encouraging.

    那些家庭留下了數以百計的訊息──

  • But my favorite has got to be,

    大部份都非常正面且鼓舞人心。

  • "Thank you for not forgetting about us and our children."

    但我最愛的是這一則:

  • This really illustrates the potential means

    「謝謝你們沒有忘記 我們和我們的孩子。」

  • of the delivery of psychological first aid to families,

    這真的說明了將心理急救

  • and the return of feedback, too.

    遞送到家庭中的可行手段,

  • Just imagine replicating this using other means

    同時還可得到回饋。

  • such as baby milk distribution, or female hygiene kits,

    想像一下套用其他手段 來複製這做法,

  • or even food baskets.

    比如兒童牛奶配送、 或是女性衛生包、

  • But let's bring this closer to home,

    甚至食物籃。

  • because the refugee crisis

    但是我們先把這帶到 離家近一點的地方,

  • is one that is having an effect on every single one of us.

    因為難民危機

  • We're bombarded with images daily of statistics and of photos,

    對我們每個人都有影響。

  • and that's not surprising,

    我們每天被統計數字 和照片給轟炸著。

  • because by last month,

    那並不讓人意外,

  • over one million refugees had reached Europe.

    因為上個月,

  • One million.

    有超過一百萬難民抵達歐洲,

  • Refugees are joining our communities,

    一百萬!

  • they're becoming our neighbors,

    難民開始加入我們的社區,

  • their children are attending our children's schools.

    他們變成我們的鄰居,

  • So we've adapted the leaflet to meet the needs of European refugees,

    他們的孩子會跟 我們的孩子上同一間學校。

  • and we have them online, open-access,

    所以我們修改了傳單 以符合歐洲難民的需求。

  • in areas with a really high refugee influx.

    我們把它們放上網,開放取用,

  • For example, the Swedish healthcare uploaded it onto their website,

    放在有大量難民湧入的區域,

  • and within the first 45 minutes,

    比如,瑞士健康照顧 就把它上傳到他們的網站上。

  • it was downloaded 343 times --

    才上傳 45 分鐘,

  • really highlighting how important it is

    就有 343 次下載。

  • for volunteers, practitioners and other parents

    這顯示出,非常重要的是要

  • to have open-access, psychological first-aid messages.

    讓志工、醫生、及其他父母

  • In 2013, I was sitting on the cold, hard floor of a refugee camp tent

    能取得公開取用的心理急救訊息。

  • with mothers sitting around me as I was conducting a focus group.

    在 2013 年,我在難民營的帳篷中 坐在冰冷的硬地板上,

  • Across from me stood an elderly lady

    我在進行一個焦點團體訪談, 許多母親圍繞在我身邊。

  • with what seemed to be a 13-year-old girl lying beside her,

    我對面站著一個老女人,

  • with her head on the elderly lady's knees.

    有個看似 13 歲的女孩 躺在她身邊,

  • The girl stayed quiet throughout the focus group,

    頭放在老女人的膝蓋上。

  • not talking at all,

    整過個程中女孩很安靜,

  • with her knees curled up against her chest.

    完全沒說話,

  • Towards the end of the focus group,

    整個人蜷曲著,膝蓋靠向胸部。

  • and as I was thanking the mothers for their time,

    在焦點團體訪談尾聲,

  • the elderly lady looked at me while pointing at the young girl,

    我正在感謝母親們花時間來,

  • and said to me, "Can you help us with...?"

    老女人看著我,手指向那女孩,

  • Not quite sure what she expected me to do,

    對我說:「你能幫幫我們嗎……?」

  • I looked at the young girl and smiled,

    我不太確定她期望我做什麼,

  • and in Arabic I said,

    我微笑看著小女孩,

  • "Salaam alaikum. Shu-ismak?"

    我用阿拉伯語說:

  • "What's your name?"

    「Salaam alaikum. Shu-ismak?」

  • She looked at me really confused and unengaged,

    「你好,你叫什麼名字?」

  • but then said, "Halul."

    她看著我,表情困惑, 完全在狀況外。

  • Halul is the pet's name for the Arabic female name, Hala,

    但接著她說:「赫魯爾。」

  • and is only really used to refer to really young girls.

    赫魯爾是寵物用的名字, 來自阿拉伯女性名字赫拉,

  • At that point I realized that actually Hala was probably much older than 13.

    只會用來稱呼非常小的女孩。

  • It turns out Hala was a 25-year-old mother to three young children.

    那時,我了解到赫拉的 實際年齡很可能遠大於 13 歲。

  • Hala had been a confident, bright, bubbly, loving, caring mother

    結果赫拉是 25 歲, 且是三個孩子的媽。

  • to her children,

    對她的孩子來說,赫拉過去 是個有自信、聰明、活潑、

  • but the war had changed all of that.

    慈愛、關懷的母親,

  • She had lived through bombs being dropped in her town;

    但戰爭改變了一切。

  • she had lived through explosions.

    她經歷過炸彈被投在她的小鎮上,

  • When fighter jets were flying around their building,

    她經歷過爆炸。

  • dropping bombs,

    當戰機在他們的樓房附近飛行,

  • her children would be screaming, terrified from the noise.

    投下炸彈,

  • Hala would frantically grab pillows and cover her children's ears

    她的孩子會尖叫,害怕那噪音,

  • to block out the noise,

    赫拉會瘋狂地抓枕頭 來蓋住孩子的耳朵,

  • all the while screaming herself.

    擋住噪音,

  • When they reached the refugee camp

    她自己則一直尖叫。

  • and she knew they were finally in some kind of safety,

    當他們到達難民營,

  • she completely withdrew to acting like her old childhood self.

    她知道他們終於得到某種安全了,

  • She completely rejected her family --

    她完全退縮回去, 行為舉止回到孩童時期,

  • her children, her husband.

    她完全排拒她的家庭、

  • Hala simply could no longer cope.

    她的孩子、她的先生。

  • This is a parenting struggle with a really tough ending,

    赫拉就是再也無法承受了。

  • but sadly, it's not uncommon.

    這是個養育的掙扎困境, 而結局很困苦。

  • Those who experience armed conflict and displacement

    但很讓人悲傷的是,這很常見。

  • will face serious emotional struggles.

    經歷過武裝衝突和遷移的人,

  • And that's something we can all relate to.

    會要面對嚴重的情緒掙扎。

  • If you have been through a devastating time in your life,

    那是我們都能懂的,

  • if you have lost someone or something you really care about,

    如果你在人生中有經過 讓你身心交瘁的時期,

  • how would you continue to cope?

    如果你失去過 你非常在乎的人或物,

  • Could you still be able to care for yourself and for your family?

    你要如何繼續承受下去?

  • Given that the first years of a child's life are crucial

    你仍然能夠照顧 你自己和你的家庭嗎?

  • for healthy physical and emotional development,

    孩子生命中的前幾年,

  • and that 1.5 billion people are experiencing armed conflict --

    對他們的身體和情緒 能否健康發展,是很關鍵的。

  • many of whom are now joining our communities --

    而那十五億人在經歷武裝衝突──

  • we cannot afford to turn a blind eye

    當中許多人加入了我們的社區──

  • to the needs of those who are experiencing war and displacement.

    我們不能視若無睹,

  • We must prioritize these families' needs --

    不能忽略那些經歷了 戰爭和遷移的人的需求。

  • both those who are internally displaced, and those who are refugees worldwide.

    我們得優先處理這些家庭的需求,

  • These needs must be prioritized by NGO workers, policy makers,

    包括留在國內被迫遷移的人、 以及全世界的難民。

  • the WHO, the UNHCR and every single one of us

    這些需求需要被優先處理, 由非政府組織人員、政策制訂者、