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  • Translator: Tomás Guarna Reviewer: Sebastian Betti

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yabing Lv

  • We lost a lot of time at school learning spelling.

    我們過去在學校 花了很多時間學習拼字,

  • Kids are still losing a lot of time at school with spelling.

    現在孩子們仍然在學校 花很多時間學習拼字。

  • That's why I want to share a question with you:

    這就是為什麼我要 與各位分享一個問題:

  • Do we need new spelling rules?

    我們是否需要新的拼字規則?

  • I believe that yes, we do.

    我相信是的,我們需要。

  • Or even better, I think we need to simplify the ones we already have.

    我認為更好的做法的是, 我們要簡化既有的拼字規則。

  • Neither the question nor the answer are new in the Spanish language.

    對於西班牙語而言, 這個問題和答案都不是新的。

  • They have been bouncing around from century to century

    一個世紀接著一個世紀, 它們一直在被討論著。

  • since 1492, when in the first grammar guide of the Spanish language,

    1492 年,安東尼奧德內布里亞 在其所著的第一本

  • Antonio de Nebrija, set a clear and simple principle for our spelling:

    西班牙語語法指南中,制定了 清晰且簡單的拼字原則:

  • "... thus, we have to write words as we pronounce them,

    「...因此,我們寫出字詞的方式 必須和讀出它們的方式一樣,

  • and pronounce words as we write them."

    讀出字詞的方式也要 和寫出它們的方式一樣。」

  • Each sound was to correspond to one letter,

    每一個音對應一個字母,

  • each letter was to represent a single sound,

    每一個字母代表單一個音,

  • and those which did not represent any sound should be removed.

    而那些沒有代表任何音的字母 都應該被刪除。

  • This approach, the phonetic approach,

    這個語音學方法,

  • which says we have to write words as we pronounce them,

    指的是字詞的寫法 應該要依據它們的讀法,

  • both is and isn't at the root of spelling as we practice it today.

    這個方法同時是也不是 我們現今拼字的根源。

  • It is, because the Spanish language, in contrast to English, French or others,

    「是」的原因,是因為 相對於英語、法語及其他語言,

  • always strongly resisted writing words too differently

    西班牙語總是強烈抗拒用 和字詞讀法很不同的方式

  • to how we pronounce them.

    來寫出它們。

  • But the phonetic approach is also absent today,

    但現今,語音學方法也消失了,

  • because when, in the 18th century, we decided how we would standardize

    因為,在十八世紀, 當我們在決定如何將我們的寫法

  • our writing,

    給標準化時,

  • there was another approach which guided a good part of the decisions.

    有另一種方法大大影響了那個決定,

  • It was the etymological approach,

    就是詞源學方法,

  • the one that says we have to write words

    這個方法主張,字詞的寫法

  • according to how they were written in their original language,

    應該要根據它們在原始語言中的寫法,

  • in Latin, in Greek.

    比如拉丁語、希臘語。

  • That's how we ended up with silent H's, which we write but don't pronounce.

    這是為什麼我們的字詞中會有 H, 但 H 卻不用發音;

  • That's how we have B's and V's that, contrary to what many people believe,

    這就是為什麼 B 和 V 這兩字母 在西班牙語的發音是一樣的;

  • were never differentiated in Spanish pronunciation.

    這與許多人的認知相反。

  • That's how we wound up with G's,

    這就是為什麼我們的字詞中會有 G,

  • that are sometimes aspirated, as in "gente,"

    G 有時是送氣音,如 gente(ㄏ),

  • and other times unaspirated, as in "gato."

    其他時候則是不送氣音,如 gato(類似ㄍ);

  • That's how we ended up with C's, S's and Z's,

    這就是為什麼我們的字詞中 會有 C、S、Z,

  • three letters that in some places correspond to one sound,

    在某些地方,這三個 字母的發音是一樣的。

  • and in others, to two, but nowhere to three.

    在其他地方,會有兩種不同的發音, 但沒有任何地方是有三種不同發音的。

  • I'm not here to tell you anything you don't know from your own experience.

    我在此要告訴各位的事 各位從自身經驗中其實都能知道。

  • We all went to school,

    我們都曾上過學,

  • we all invested big amounts of learning time,

    我們都曾投資大量時間學習時間、

  • big amounts of pliant, childlike brain time

    許多容易受影響的、兒時的大腦時間

  • in dictation,

    在聽寫上,

  • in the memorization of spelling rules filled, nevertheless, with exceptions.

    花在背誦拼字規則, 不過這些規則又存在許多例外,

  • We were told in many ways, implicitly and explicitly,

    我們被以許多方式告知, 或隱誨的或明確的,

  • that in spelling, something fundamental to our upbringing was at stake.

    告知說,拼字中有某種東西 對我們的教養是很重要的。

  • Yet, I have the feeling

    然而,我感覺到

  • that teachers didn't ask themselves why it was so important.

    連老師都沒有自問過 為什麼拼字這麼重要。

  • In fact, they didn't ask themselves a previous question:

    事實上,他們也沒自問 再更前面的一個問題:

  • What is the purpose of spelling?

    拼字的目的是什麼?

  • What do we need spelling for?

    我們為什麼需要拼字?

  • And the truth is, when someone asks themselves this question,

    事實是,當有人自問這個問題,

  • the answer is much simpler and less momentous

    答案比我們通常相信的

  • than we'd usually believe.

    要簡單許多且沒那麼重要。

  • We use spelling to unify the way we write, so we can all write the same way,

    我們使用拼字,來統一我們的書寫方式, 這樣我們才能以同樣的方式寫字,

  • making it easier for us to understand when we read to each other.

    使我們在把文字 讀給任何人聽時,更容易理解。

  • But unlike in other aspects of language such as punctuation,

    但不同於語言的其他方面, 如標點符號,

  • in spelling, there's no individual expression involved.

    拼字不會涉及到任何個人表達,

  • In punctuation, there is.

    標點符號就會涉及到。

  • With punctuation, I can choose to change the meaning of a phrase.

    我可以選擇不同的標點符號, 來改變措辭的含義。

  • With punctuation, I can impose a particular rhythm to what I am writing,

    我可以用標點符號在我寫的文句裡 加入特定的節奏,

  • but not with spelling.

    但是拼寫就無法這樣做。

  • When it comes to spelling, it's either wrong or right,

    拼寫是對錯分明的,

  • according to whether it conforms or not to the current rules.

    它是否符合目前的規則, 就決定了它的對錯。

  • But then, wouldn't it be more sensible to simplify the current rules

    但,正因如此,把目前的規則 簡化不就很合理嗎?

  • so it would be easier to teach, learn and use spelling correctly?

    這麼一來,就能更容易正確地 教導、學習、使用拼字,不是嗎?

  • Wouldn't it be more sensible to simplify the current rules

    把目前的規則簡化不就很合理嗎?

  • so that all the time we devote today to teaching spelling,

    這麼一來,我們就能把現今 所有花在教導拼字的時間,

  • we could devote to other language issues

    用來處理其他的語言問題,

  • whose complexities do, in fact, deserve the time and effort?

    其他那些複雜度真的高到 值得花時間和精力的問題?

  • What I propose is not to abolish spelling,

    我提議的並不是廢除拼字、

  • and have everyone write however they want.

    不是讓大家以自己想要的方式寫字。

  • Language is a tool of common usage,

    語言是一種常用的工具,

  • and so I believe it's fundamental that we use it following common criteria.

    所以我相信, 遵循共同準則是很重要的。

  • But I also find it fundamental

    但還有一點我也覺得很重要,

  • that those common criteria be as simple as possible,

    就是那些共同準則要越簡單越好,

  • especially because if we simplify our spelling,

    特別是因為,如果我們把拼字簡化,

  • we're not leveling it down;

    並不會讓它變差;

  • when spelling is simplified,

    當拼字被簡化時,

  • the quality of the language doesn't suffer at all.

    語言的品質完全不會受到影響。

  • I work every day with Spanish Golden Age literature,

    我的工作每天要接觸 西班牙黃金時代的文學,

  • I read Garcilaso, Cervantes, Góngora, Quevedo,

    我閱讀加爾西拉索、塞凡提斯、 科多瓦、奎維多的著作,

  • who sometimes write "hombre" without H,

    他們有時候寫 hombre 沒有加 H,

  • sometimes write "escribir" with V,

    他們有時寫 escribir 會用 V 代替 B。

  • and it's absolutely clear to me

    我非常清楚知道,

  • that the difference between those texts and ours is one of convention,

    這些文本和我們的文本之間, 差異只是在常規,

  • or rather, a lack of convention during their time.

    或者說,差異是 在他們的時代裡沒有常規。

  • But it's not a difference of quality.

    但文本的品質上並沒有差異。

  • But let me go back to the masters,

    但讓我回到這些大師作家們,

  • because they're key characters in this story.

    因為他們是這個故事中的關鍵人物。

  • Earlier, I mentioned this slightly thoughtless insistence

    先前,我提到了這個 有點缺乏考慮的堅持,

  • with which teachers pester and pester us

    在拼字上,老師們不斷用這種堅持

  • over spelling.

    在灌輸我們。

  • But the truth is, things being as they are,

    但事實是,依照現在的狀況,

  • this makes perfect sense.

    這是完全合理的。

  • In our society, spelling serves as an index of privilege,

    在我們的社會中,拼字的功能 是做為特權的指標,

  • separating the cultured from the brute, the educated from the ignorant,

    將受教化的人與粗鄙的人區別開, 將受過教育的人與無知的人區別開,

  • independent of the content that's being written.

    與寫了什麼內容無關。

  • One can get or not get a job

    一個人是否能得到一份工作,

  • because of an H that one put or did not.

    取決於他拼字會不會漏掉 H。

  • One can become an object of public ridicule

    一個人可能會成為公眾嘲笑的對象,

  • because of a misplaced B.

    只是因為錯置了一個 B。

  • Therefore, in this context,

    因此,在這種情境下,

  • of course, it makes sense to dedicate all this time to spelling.

    當然,把所有的時間 花在拼字上是合理的。

  • But we shouldn't forget

    但我們不該忘記,

  • that throughout the history of our language,

    貫穿整個語言史,

  • it has always been teachers

    一直都是老師

  • or people involved in the early learning of language

    或較早學習語言的人,

  • who promoted spelling reforms,

    提倡拼字的改革,

  • who realized that in our spelling there was often an obstacle

    他們意識到,用拼字來傳播知識時,

  • to the transmission of knowledge.

    常常會遇到障礙。

  • In our case, for example,

    比如,在我們的例子中,

  • Sarmiento, together with Andrés Bello, spearheaded the biggest spelling reform

    薩米恩托與安德烈斯貝洛 引領了西班牙語史上

  • to take place in the Spanish language:

    最大的拼字改革:

  • the mid-19th century Chilean reform.

    即十九世紀中期的智利安改革。

  • Then, why not take over the task of those teachers

    那麼,為什麼不接繼這些老師的任務,

  • and start making progress in our spelling?

    開始在我們的拼寫上做出進展?

  • Here, in this intimate group of 10,000,

    這裡,在這個融洽的一萬人團體中,

  • I'd like to bring to the table

    我想要提出

  • some changes that I find reasonable to start discussing.

    一些我認為合理的變化, 做為討論的開端。

  • Let's remove the silent H.

    在我們拼字時該寫 H

  • In places where we write an H but pronounce nothing,

    但 H 又不用發音的情況下, 就把不發音的 H 刪除吧,

  • let's not write anything.

    不用發音就不用寫了。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • It's hard for me to imagine what sentimental attachment

    我很難想像有什麼感傷的依附

  • can justify to someone all the hassle caused by the silent H.

    可以把不發音的 H 所造成的所有麻煩給正當化。.

  • B and V, as we said before,

    至於 B 和 V,如我們之前所說,

  • were never differentiated in the Spanish language --

    在西班牙語中從來就沒有任何區別…

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Let's choose one; it could be either. We can discuss it, talk it over.

    讓我們從中選一個就好,哪一個都可以。 我們可以討論、研究如何選。

  • Everyone will have their preferences and can make their arguments.

    每個人都會有自己的偏好 並可以提出他們的論點。

  • Let's keep one, remove the other.

    讓我們留下其中一個,刪除另一個。

  • G and J, let's separate their roles.

    至於 G 和 J,讓我們分開他們的角色。

  • G should keep the unaspirated sound, like in "gato," "mago," andguila,"

    G 應該保持不送氣的發音(類似ㄍ), 像 gato、mago、águila,

  • and J should keep the aspirated sound,

    而 J 應保持送氣的發音(ㄏ),

  • as in "jarabe," "jirafa," "gente," "argentino."

    如 jarabe、jirafa、gente、argentino。

  • The case of C, S and Z is interesting,

    至於 C、S、Z,則很有意思,

  • because it shows that the phonetic approach must be a guide,

    因為它們的狀況顯示出, 語音學方法是一種指南,

  • but it can't be an absolute principle.

    但並不是絕對的原則。

  • In some cases, the differences in pronunciation must be addressed.

    在某些情況下, 發音差異的問題必須要處理。

  • As I said before, C, S and Z,

    如我先前說的,C、S、Z

  • in some places, correspond to one sound, in others to two.

    在某些地方會對應到同一個發音, 其他地方則對應兩個發音。

  • If we go from three letters to two, we're all better off.

    如果我們把三個字母縮為兩個, 狀況就會變得比較好。

  • To some, these changes may seem a bit drastic.

    對一些人而言, 這些改變可能看似有些極端,

  • They're really not.

    其實不然。

  • The Royal Spanish Academy, all of language academies,

    西班牙皇家語言學院, 所有的語言學院,

  • also believes that spelling should be progressively modified;

    也都相信拼字應該漸漸修改;

  • that language is linked to history, tradition and custom,

    相信語言與歷史、傳統、習俗相關;

  • but that at the same time, it is a practical everyday tool

    但也相信語言亦是日常實用工具,

  • and that sometimes this attachment to history, tradition and custom

    且有時對於歷史、傳統、習俗的依附,

  • becomes an obstacle for its current usage.

    反而會阻礙語言在現今的使用。

  • Indeed, this explains the fact

    的確,這就解釋了

  • that our language, much more than the others we are geographically close to,

    比起其他在地理上 鄰近的語言,我們的語言

  • has been historically modifying itself based on us,

    在歷史上一直根據我們而在調整,

  • for example, we went from "ortographia" to "ortografía,"

    比如,從 ortographia 改成 ortografía、

  • from "theatro" to "teatro," from "quantidad" to "cantidad,"

    從 theatro 改成 teatro、 從 quantidad 改成 cantidad、

  • from "symbolo" to "símbolo."

    從 symbolo 改成 símbolo。

  • And some silent H's are slowly being stealthily removed:

    有些不發音的 H 已 不知不覺被刪除了:

  • in the Dictionary of the Royal Academy,

    在皇家學院字典中,

  • "arpa" and "armonía" can be written with or without an H.

    「arpa」及「armonía」的拼字方式, 可以加 H 也可以不加 H,

  • And everybody is OK.

    且大家都沒異議。

  • I also believe

    我也相信,

  • that this is a particularly appropriate moment to have this discussion.

    現在是特別適合討論這一點的時候,

  • It's always said that language changes spontaneously,

    人們總是說,語言改變是自發性的,

  • from the bottom up,

    由基層開始向上改變,

  • that its users are the ones who incorporate new words

    新字詞是由使用者納入的,

  • and who introduce grammatical changes,

    也是他們制定了文法的改變,