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  • Joseph Keller used to jog around the Stanford campus,

    譯者: 庭芝 梁 審譯者: ZHENG Shu

  • and he was struck by all the women jogging there as well.

    約瑟夫·凱勒習慣在 史丹福大學校園周圍慢跑,

  • Why did their ponytails swing from side to side like that?

    在那裡慢跑的其他女性, 引發了他的好奇:

  • Being a mathematician, he set out to understand why.

    為什麼她們的馬尾總是左右晃動著?

  • (Laughter)

    身為一名數學家, 他決定要弄清楚原因。

  • Professor Keller was curious about many things:

    (笑聲)

  • why teapots dribble

    凱勒教授對許多事情都很好奇:

  • or how earthworms wriggle.

    為什麼茶水會順著壺嘴滴下來,

  • Until a few months ago, I hadn't heard of Joseph Keller.

    或是蚯蚓如何蠕動。

  • I read about him in the New York Times,

    幾個月之前, 我還不知道約瑟夫·凱勒是誰。

  • in the obituaries.

    我在紐約時報看到他的消息,

  • The Times had half a page of editorial dedicated to him,

    在訃聞版。

  • which you can imagine is premium space for a newspaper of their stature.

    紐約時報的編輯 用了半個版面來向他致敬。

  • I read the obituaries almost every day.

    你可以想像得到, 對一家大報社來說,

  • My wife understandably thinks I'm rather morbid

    這代表著極高的尊崇。

  • to begin my day with scrambled eggs and a "Let's see who died today."

    我幾乎每天都會閱讀訃聞版。

  • (Laughter)

    我的妻子曉得我這個 有點病態的習慣:

  • But if you think about it,

    每天早晨,我會一邊吃著炒蛋, 一邊閱讀訃聞版:

  • the front page of the newspaper is usually bad news,

    「我們來看看今天有誰去世了」。

  • and cues man's failures.

    (笑聲)

  • An instance where bad news cues accomplishment

    但是如果你仔細想想,

  • is at the end of the paper, in the obituaries.

    報紙的頭版通常刊登壞消息,

  • In my day job,

    這暗示我們某人失敗了。

  • I run a company that focuses on future insights

    然而有一種情況: 壞消息卻暗示了某人的成就,

  • that marketers can derive from past data --

    那就是在報紙的最後一版, 在訃聞版。

  • a kind of rearview-mirror analysis.

    我平常的工作,

  • And we began to think:

    是經營一間企管顧問公司, 我們關注未來的發展趨勢,

  • What if we held a rearview mirror to obituaries from the New York Times?

    並分析過去所累積的數據──

  • Were there lessons on how you could get your obituary featured --

    這是一種稱為「回顧分析」的技術。

  • even if you aren't around to enjoy it?

    我們開始思考:

  • (Laughter)

    如果我們對紐約時報的訃聞版, 進行回顧分析?

  • Would this go better with scrambled eggs?

    能否從裡面學到 「如何讓訃聞變得更為獨特」──

  • (Laughter)

    即使你以後也看不到自己的訃聞?

  • And so, we looked at the data.

    (笑聲)

  • 2,000 editorial, non-paid obituaries

    這樣做能讓訃聞更適合搭配炒蛋嗎?

  • over a 20-month period between 2015 and 2016.

    (笑聲)

  • What did these 2,000 deaths -- rather, lives -- teach us?

    所以,我們檢視了數據。

  • Well, first we looked at words.

    我們分析了總共 2000 篇 由編輯部刊登,非付費的訃聞,

  • This here is an obituary headline.

    範圍是 2015 到 2016 年的 20 個月之間。

  • This one is of the amazing Lee Kuan Yew.

    究竟這 2000 個死亡 ──應該說是生命──

  • If you remove the beginning and the end,

    教導了我們什麼?

  • you're left with a beautifully worded descriptor

    好,首先來看訃聞的用字。

  • that tries to, in just a few words, capture an achievement or a lifetime.

    這是一篇訃聞的標題。

  • Just looking at these is fascinating.

    這一位是傳奇人物李光耀。

  • Here are a few famous ones, people who died in the last two years.

    移除開頭和結尾後的內容,

  • Try and guess who they are.

    只剩短短的幾句話, 一些優美的描述辭彙,

  • [An Artist who Defied Genre]

    能讓你捕捉到亡者的成就, 或是他的一生。

  • That's Prince.

    看著這些詞彙就夠令人著迷了。

  • [Titan of Boxing and the 20th Century]

    這裡有幾位, 在這兩年內過世的名人。

  • Oh, yes.

    試著猜猜看他們是誰。

  • [Muhammad Ali]

    「一位顛覆形式的藝術家」

  • [Groundbreaking Architect]

    這是王子。

  • Zaha Hadid.

    「二十世紀的拳擊巨星」

  • So we took these descriptors

    是的,

  • and did what's called natural language processing,

    拳王阿里。

  • where you feed these into a program,

    「開創未來的建築師」

  • it throws out the superfluous words --

    札哈.哈蒂。

  • "the," "and," -- the kind of words you can mime easily in "Charades," --

    因此,我們找出這些描述詞,

  • and leaves you with the most significant words.

    進行所謂的自然語言處理。

  • And we did it not just for these four,

    也就是你將文字輸入程式,

  • but for all 2,000 descriptors.

    它能剔除不必要的文字, 例如 「the」--

  • And this is what it looks like.

    並且剔除在玩「比手畫腳」遊戲時, 很容易以手勢表示的文字,

  • Film, theatre, music, dance and of course, art, are huge.

    最後留下最重要的詞彙。

  • Over 40 percent.

    我們不只分析上面這四則,

  • You have to wonder why in so many societies

    而是分析了所有 2000 則 訃聞的描述詞彙。

  • we insist that our kids pursue engineering or medicine or business or law

    我們來看看結果是什麼樣子。

  • to be construed as successful.

    電影,戲劇,音樂,舞蹈。 當然「藝術」是最明顯的。

  • And while we're talking profession,

    出現的頻率多出 40%。

  • let's look at age --

    你不得不驚訝的是, 為什麼在大多數的社會中,

  • the average age at which they achieved things.

    我們一直認為讓孩子讀工程、 醫學、商業或法律科系,

  • That number is 37.

    才是所謂的成功。

  • What that means is, you've got to wait 37 years ...

    當我們關注職業時,

  • before your first significant achievement that you're remembered for --

    也來看看年齡──

  • on average --

    這些人功成名就的平均年齡。

  • 44 years later, when you die at the age of 81 --

    這個數字是37年。

  • on average.

    這意味著什麼? 就是你平均必須等待 37 年……

  • (Laughter)

    才能獲得第一個成就,

  • Talk about having to be patient.

    44 年後,

  • (Laughter)

    當你過世時才會被紀念,

  • Of course, it varies by profession.

    平均年齡是 81 歲。

  • If you're a sports star,

    (笑聲)

  • you'll probably hit your stride in your 20s.

    這告訴我們要有耐心。

  • And if you're in your 40s like me,

    (笑聲)

  • you can join the fun world of politics.

    當然,這會因職業而異。

  • (Laughter)

    如果你是體育明星,

  • Politicians do their first and sometimes only commendable act in their mid-40s.

    你可能會在 20 多歲打破紀錄。

  • (Laughter)

    如果你和我一樣已經 40 多歲了,

  • If you're wondering what "others" are,

    你可以加入有趣的政治圈。

  • here are some examples.

    (笑聲)

  • Isn't it fascinating, the things people do

    政治家完成他們的第一項成就, 可能也是唯一的一次,

  • and the things they're remembered for?

    大約是在45歲左右。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Our curiosity was in overdrive,

    如果你想知道「其他職業」是什麼,

  • and we desired to analyze more than just a descriptor.

    這裡有一些例子。

  • So, we ingested the entire first paragraph of all 2,000 obituaries,

    這些人所做的,

  • but we did this separately for two groups of people:

    和他們被紀念的事蹟, 是不是很令人著迷?

  • people that are famous and people that are not famous.

    (笑聲)

  • Famous people -- Prince, Ali, Zaha Hadid --

    我們的好奇心被點燃了,

  • people who are not famous are people like Jocelyn Cooper,

    我們不只想要分析描述詞。

  • Reverend Curry

    所以,我們輸入了 2000 則 訃聞的第一段全文,

  • or Lorna Kelly.

    但是將亡者分為兩群:

  • I'm willing to bet you haven't heard of most of their names.

    知名人士,以及非知名人士。

  • Amazing people, fantastic achievements, but they're not famous.

    知名人士例如:王子、 阿里、札哈.哈蒂。

  • So what if we analyze these two groups separately --

    非知名人士例如:喬斯林庫柏、

  • the famous and the non-famous?

    嘉里牧師

  • What might that tell us?

    或羅娜.凱利。

  • Take a look.

    我敢打賭,你絕對沒聽過 大多數這些人的名字。

  • Two things leap out at me.

    這些人有著令人驚訝,稀奇古怪的成就,

  • First:

    但是他們並不出名。

  • "John."

    因此,如果我們分析一下這兩群人,

  • (Laughter)

    知名和非知名人士,

  • Anyone here named John should thank your parents --

    可能得到什麼結果?

  • (Laughter)

    我們來看一下。

  • and remind your kids to cut out your obituary when you're gone.

    有兩個結果讓我驚訝。

  • And second:

    第一個:

  • "help."

    「約翰」。

  • We uncovered, many lessons from lives well-led,

    (笑聲)

  • and what those people immortalized in print could teach us.

    如果這裡有人也叫約翰的, 應該感謝你的父母──

  • The exercise was a fascinating testament to the kaleidoscope that is life,

    (笑聲)

  • and even more fascinating

    而且記得提醒你的孩子, 當你過世時要把訃聞剪下來。

  • was the fact that the overwhelming majority of obituaries

    另一個結果是:

  • featured people famous and non-famous,

    「幫助」。

  • who did seemingly extraordinary things.

    我們發現了,這些已經逝去, 在報紙上令我們緬懷的事蹟,

  • They made a positive dent in the fabric of life.

    教導我們許多事情, 教導我們如何好好活著。

  • They helped.

    這次的實驗就是 萬花筒般生命的迷人見證。

  • So ask yourselves as you go back to your daily lives:

    甚至更迷人的是,

  • How am I using my talents to help society?

    在大多數的訃聞中,

  • Because the most powerful lesson here is,

    無論是知名或非知名人士,

  • if more people lived their lives trying to be famous in death,

    他們所做的不平凡事蹟。

  • the world would be a much better place.

    他們在不停編織的人生中, 留下了有意義的印記。

  • Thank you.

    他們幫助他人。

  • (Applause)

    所以問問自己, 當你回到日常生活中:

Joseph Keller used to jog around the Stanford campus,

譯者: 庭芝 梁 審譯者: ZHENG Shu

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 笑聲 分析 凱勒 人士 成就

【TED】盧克斯-納拉揚:我從2000條訃告中學到的東西(我從2000條訃告中學到的東西|盧克斯-納拉揚)。 (【TED】Lux Narayan: What I learned from 2,000 obituaries (What I learned from 2,000 obituaries | Lux Narayan))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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