Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Chris Anderson: So Robert spent the last few years

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • think about how weird human behavior is,

    克里斯安德森:過去幾年,羅勃

  • and how inadequate most of our language trying to explain it is.

    都在思考人類的行為有多怪異,

  • And it's very exciting to hear him explain some of the thinking behind it

    以及我們試圖解釋這些行為 所用的語言有多麼不妥。

  • in public for the first time.

    能聽到他初次公開說明 這背後的一些想法,

  • Over to you now, Robert Sapolsky.

    是很讓人非常興奮的。

  • (Applause)

    接下來就交給羅勃薩波斯基。

  • Robert Sapolsky: Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • The fantasy always runs something like this.

    羅勃薩波斯基:謝謝。

  • I've overpowered his elite guard,

    幻想總是像這樣的:

  • burst into his secret bunker

    我擊敗了他的精英守衛,

  • with my machine gun ready.

    闖入了他的秘密地下碉堡,

  • He lunges for his Luger.

    手持隨時待發的機關槍。

  • I knock it out of his hand.

    他衝向他的盧格手槍,

  • He lunges for his cyanide pill.

    我把槍從他的手中擊落。

  • I knock that out of his hand.

    他衝向他的自殺藥丸,

  • He snarls,

    我把藥丸從他的手中擊落。

  • comes at me with otherworldly strength.

    他咆哮起來,

  • We grapple, we fight,

    以無比的力量衝向我。

  • I manage to pin him down

    我們扭打起來,

  • and put on handcuffs.

    我將他壓倒在地,

  • "Adolf Hitler," I say,

    給他上了手銬。

  • "I arrest you for crimes against humanity."

    我說:「阿道夫希特勒,

  • Here's where the Medal of Honor version of the fantasy ends

    我以違反人性的罪名逮捕你。」

  • and the imagery darkens.

    榮譽勳章版本的幻想於此結束,

  • What would I do if I had Hitler?

    影像漸漸暗去。

  • It's not hard to imagine once I allow myself.

    如果我抓到希特勒,我會怎麼做?

  • Sever his spine at the neck.

    這並不難想像, 只要我允許我自己想像就可以。

  • Take out his eyes with a blunt instrument.

    把他的脊椎從頸部切斷、

  • Puncture his eardrums. Cut out his tongue.

    用鈍器挖出他的眼睛、

  • Leave him alive on a respirator,

    刺穿他的耳膜、 切掉他的舌頭、

  • tube-fed, not able to speak or move or see or hear, just to feel,

    讓他靠著呼吸器活著,

  • and then inject him with something cancerous

    用鼻胃管餵食,不能說話、不能活動、 看不見、聽不到,只是有感覺,

  • that's going to fester and pustulate

    然後對他注射致癌物質,

  • until every cell in his body is screaming in agony,

    讓他身上潰爛和長膿皰,

  • until every second feels like an eternity in hell.

    直到他身上的每一個細胞 都在痛苦地哀號,

  • That's what I would do to Hitler.

    直到每一秒都感覺像 在地獄裡的永恆。

  • I've had this fantasy since I was a kid,

    我會對希特勒如此做。

  • still do sometimes,

    我從小就有這個幻想,

  • and when I do, my heart speeds up --

    到現在仍然有時還會有。

  • all these plans for the most evil, wicked soul in history.

    在幻想時,我的心跳加快--

  • But there's a problem,

    這些對史上最邪惡、惡毒的靈魂 所做的計畫。

  • which is I don't actually believe in souls or evil,

    但是有個問題,

  • and I think wicked belongs in a musical.

    就是我其實不相信靈魂或邪惡,

  • But there's some people I would like to see killed,

    且我認為惡毒屬於音樂劇。 (註:Wicked 是一齣音樂劇的名字)

  • but I'm against the death penalty.

    我樂見某些人死掉,

  • But I like schlocky violent movies,

    但是我反對死刑。

  • but I'm for strict gun control.

    我喜歡低成本的暴力電影,

  • But then there was a time I was at a laser tag place,

    但是我贊成嚴格管制槍械。

  • and I had such a good time hiding in a corner shooting at people.

    但是有一次, 我在一個玩鐳射對戰的地方,

  • In other words, I'm your basic confused human when it comes to violence.

    我很享受躲在角落裡射擊人。

  • Now, as a species, we obviously have problems with violence.

    換句話說,談到暴力時, 基本上我是個很困惑的人。

  • We use shower heads to deliver poison gas,

    從整個物種的層面來看, 我們這物種顯然有暴力問題。

  • letters with anthrax, airplanes as weapons,

    我們使用淋浴頭來噴毒氣,

  • mass rape as a military strategy.

    用信件傳播炭疽桿菌,用飛機當武器, (註:2001 年美國有炭疽攻擊事件)

  • We're a miserably violent species.

    以大量強暴作為軍事戰略。

  • But there's a complication,

    我們是可悲暴力的物種。

  • which is we don't hate violence,

    但是有個複雜的枝節,

  • we hate the wrong kind.

    那就是我們並不憎恨暴力,

  • And when it's the right kind,

    我們憎恨錯誤的暴力。

  • we cheer it on, we hand out medals,

    如果暴力是正確的,

  • we vote for, we mate with our champions of it.

    我們為它喝采,我們頒予勳章,

  • When it's the right kind of violence,

    我們投票給他們, 我們想和當中最出類拔萃者交往。

  • we love it.

    如果暴力是正確的,

  • And there's another complication,

    我們喜愛它。

  • which is, in addition to us being this miserably violent species,

    還有另一個枝節,

  • we're also this extraordinarily altruistic, compassionate one.

    那就是,除了我們是非常暴力的物種,

  • So how do you make sense of the biology of our best behaviors,

    我們也是極度利他、 有同理心的物種。

  • our worst ones and all of those ambiguously in between?

    對於我們最好的行為、最不好的行為、

  • Now, for starters,

    在兩者之間的模糊地帶的行為, 背後的生物學理論是什麼?

  • what's totally boring is understanding the motoric aspects of the behavior.

    首先,

  • Your brain tells your spine, tells your muscles

    去了解行為的肌肉運動面向 是非常無聊的。

  • to do something or other,

    你的大腦告訴你的脊椎, 告訴你的肌肉,

  • and hooray, you've behaved.

    去做某事或其他事,

  • What's hard is understanding the meaning of the behavior,

    然後,好哇~你就做出行為了。

  • because in some settings, pulling a trigger is an appalling act;

    困難的是了解行為的意義,

  • in others, it's heroically self-sacrificial.

    因為在某些狀況下, 扣下扳機是個駭人的行為;

  • In some settings, putting your hand one someone else's

    但在其他情況下, 那又是英勇自我犧牲的行為。

  • is deeply compassionate.

    在某些狀況下, 將你的手放在別人的手上,

  • In others, it's a deep betrayal.

    是表示深切的同情。

  • The challenge is to understand

    但在其他情況下, 那則是很嚴重的背叛。

  • the biology of the context of our behaviors,

    我們的挑戰是要了解

  • and that's real tough.

    我們的行為情境背後的生物學,

  • One thing that's clear, though, is you're not going to get anywhere

    而那是很難的。

  • if you think there's going to be the brain region or the hormone

    但有一點很清楚,如果你認為會有

  • or the gene or the childhood experience

    確切的大腦區域、激素、

  • or the evolutionary mechanism that explains everything.

    基因、童年經驗

  • Instead, every bit of behavior has multiple levels of causality.

    或進化機制能解釋一切, 那你是不會有進展的。

  • Let's look at an example.

    反之,每個行為背後都有多重原因。

  • You have a gun.

    我們來看一個例子。

  • There's a crisis going on:

    你有一支槍。

  • rioting, violence, people running around.

    有一個危機正在發生:

  • A stranger is running at you in an agitated state --

    有群眾暴動,有人使用暴力, 人們跑來跑去。

  • you can't quite tell if the expression is frightened, threatening, angry --

    一位陌生人很激動地跑向你——

  • holding something that kind of looks like a handgun.

    你無法明確判斷他的表情是 害怕、威脅或生氣——

  • You're not sure.

    他手上拿著的東西 看起來像是一把槍。

  • The stranger comes running at you

    你不確定。

  • and you pull the trigger.

    那個陌生人衝向你,

  • And it turns out that thing in this person's hand

    而你扣下扳機了。

  • was a cell phone.

    結果,這個人的手裡的東西

  • So we asked this biological question:

    是一支手機。

  • what was going on that caused this behavior?

    所以我們問這個生物學問題:

  • What caused this behavior?

    是什麼導致了這種行為?

  • And this is a multitude of questions.

    什麼導致了這種行為?

  • We start.

    這是大哉問。

  • What was going on in your brain one second before you pulled that trigger?

    我們開始。

  • And this brings us into the realm of a brain region called the amygdala.

    你在扣下扳機前的一秒前, 你的腦子裡在想什麼?

  • The amygdala, which is central to violence, central to fear,

    這就將我們帶到大腦中 被稱為杏仁核的那一區了。

  • initiates volleys of cascades

    杏仁核是暴力和恐懼的中心,

  • that produce pulling of a trigger.

    它會啟動一連串的反應,

  • What was the level of activity in your amygdala one second before?

    造成你去扣扳機。

  • But to understand that, we have to step back a little bit.

    在前一秒鐘你的杏仁核的 活動度有多高?

  • What was going on in the environment seconds to minutes before

    但要了解這點,我們必須後退一步。

  • that impacted the amygdala?

    在幾秒鐘、幾分鐘前, 周遭的環境中發生了哪些

  • Now, obviously, the sights, the sounds of the rioting,

    會影響到杏仁核的事?

  • that was pertinent.

    很顯然,是暴動的影象和聲音,

  • But in addition,

    那是相關的。

  • you're more likely to mistake a cell phone for a handgun

    但,此外,

  • if that stranger was male

    如果那位陌生人是高大 且不同種族的男性,

  • and large and of a different race.

    你比較有可能

  • Furthermore, if you're in pain,

    將手機誤認為手槍。

  • if you're hungry, if you're exhausted,

    再者,如果你正遭受痛苦,

  • your frontal cortex is not going to work as well,

    如果你很飢餓,或是如果你累壞了,

  • part of the brain whose job it is to get to the amygdala in time

    你的前額葉皮質就不會運作得很好,

  • saying, "Are you really sure that's a gun there?"

    是腦的那一部分負責 要及時聯絡杏仁核,

  • But we need to step further back.

    並說:「你確定那是一把槍嗎?」

  • Now we have to look at hours to days before,

    但我們必須再退到更早以前。

  • and with this, we have entered the realm of hormones.

    我們必須看看幾小時、幾天前,

  • For example, testosterone,

    這就帶我們進入了激素的領域了。

  • where regardless of your sex,

    例如,睪丸激素,

  • if you have elevated testosterone levels in your blood,

    不管你的性別為何,

  • you're more likely to think a face with a neutral expression

    如果你血液中的睾丸激素升高了,

  • is instead looking threatening.

    你更有可能把表情中性的臉孔

  • Elevated testosterone levels, elevated levels of stress hormones,

    當作具有威脅性。

  • and your amygdala is going to be more active

    睾丸激素升高,應激激素升高,

  • and your frontal cortex will be more sluggish.

    會讓你的杏仁核更活躍,

  • Pushing back further, weeks to months before,

    你的前額葉皮質會更遲鈍。

  • where's the relevance there?

    再進一步推到幾週、幾個月前,

  • This is the realm of neural plasticity,

    這時的相關性是什麼?

  • the fact that your brain can change in response to experience,

    有個叫神經可塑性的領域,

  • and if your previous months have been filled with stress and trauma,

    也就是你的大腦可以 根據經驗而改變。

  • your amygdala will have enlarged.

    如果你前幾個月的生活 充滿壓力和創傷,

  • The neurons will have become more excitable,

    你的杏仁核會擴大。

  • your frontal cortex would have atrophied,

    神經元會變得比較容易興奮,

  • all relevant to what happens in that one second.

    前額葉皮質會萎縮,

  • But we push back even more, back years,

    這些都與扣扳機的那一秒有關聯。

  • back, for example, to your adolescence.

    但我們再向前追溯到幾年前,

  • Now, the central fact of the adolescent brain

    比如,回到你的青春期。

  • is all of it is going full blast

    青春期大腦的重要特色是,

  • except the frontal cortex,

    除了前額葉皮質以外的部份,

  • which is still half-baked.

    都是馬力全開的狀態,

  • It doesn't fully mature until you're around 25.

    前額葉皮質尚未成熟,

  • And thus, adolescence and early adulthood

    要到大約 25 歲時它才會完全成熟。

  • are the years where environment and experience sculpt your frontal cortex

    因此,青春期和成年前期

  • into the version you're going to have as an adult in that critical moment.

    是環境與經驗塑造 你的前額葉皮質的時期,

  • But pushing back even further,

    形成你在成年後 那一關鍵時刻的前額葉皮質。

  • even further back to childhood and fetal life

    但再向前追溯,

  • and all the different versions that that could come in.

    回到童年和胎兒期,

  • Now, obviously, that's the time that your brain is being constructed,

    以及可能形成的各式版本。

  • and that's important,

    很顯然,這個時期 你的大腦正在被建造中,

  • but in addition, experience during those times

    那很重要,

  • produce what are called epigenetic changes,

    但除此之外,那些時期的經驗

  • permanent, in some cases,

    會產生所謂的表觀遺傳變化,

  • permanently activating certain genes, turning off others.

    在某些情況下,這些改變是永久性的,

  • And as an example of this,

    會永久性地啟動某些基因、 關閉其他基因。

  • if as a fetus you were exposed to a lot of stress hormones through your mother,

    有一個例子可以說明。

  • epigenetics is going to produce your amygdala in adulthood

    如果在胎兒時期,你接觸到 很多來自母親的應激激素,

  • as a more excitable form,

    表觀遺傳學會造成 你在成年期的前額葉皮質,

  • and you're going to have elevated stress hormone levels.

    成為比較會激動的形式,

  • But pushing even further back,

    而你也將會有較高的應激激素。

  • back to when you were just a fetus,

    再向前追溯,

  • back to when all you were was a collection of genes.

    回到你只是胎兒時,

  • Now, genes are really important to all of this,

    回到你只是一堆基因時。

  • but critically, genes don't determine anything,

    基因對這一切而言都很重要,

  • because genes work differently in different environments.

    但關鍵是,基因不決定什麼,

  • Key example here:

    因為在不同的環境中, 基因的運作會有所不同。

  • there's a variant of a gene called MAO-A,

    這裡有個重要的例子:

  • and if you have that variant,

    有一種基因變體叫做 MAO-A(單胺氧化酶 A),

  • you are far more likely to commit antisocial violence

    如果你有那種基因,

  • if, and only if, you were abused as a child.

    你就非常有可能會做出 反社會的暴力行為,

  • Genes and environment interact,

    但前提是,你在孩提時被虐待過。

  • and what's happening in that one second before you pull that trigger

    基因和環境會交互作用,

  • reflects your lifetime of those gene-environment interactions.

    在你扣下扳機前一秒所發生的事,

  • Now, remarkably enough, we've got to push even further back now,

    反應出的是你一生中的 基因和環境的交互作用。

  • back centuries.

    現在,我們還要再向前追溯,

  • What were your ancestors up to.

    回到幾世紀前。

  • And if, for example, they were nomadic pastoralists,

    你的祖先在做什麼?

  • they were pastoralists,

    比如,他們是遊牧的放牧者,

  • people living in deserts or grasslands

    他們是放牧者,

  • with their herds of camels, cows, goats,

    住在沙漠或草原的人,

  • odds are they would have invented what's called a culture of honor

    帶著他們成群的駱駝、牛隻、山羊,

  • filled with warrior classes,

    有可能他們發明了所謂的榮譽文化,

  • retributive violence, clan vendettas,

    這種文化充滿了勇士階級、

  • and amazingly, centuries later,

    懲罰式的暴力、家族世仇。

  • that would still be influencing the values with which you were raised.

    驚人的是,幾世紀之後,

  • But we've got to push even further back,

    那仍然會影響到養育你的價值觀。

  • back millions of years,

    但我們還要再向回追溯,

  • because if we're talking about genes,

    再向前數百萬年,

  • implicitly we're now talking about the evolution of genes.

    因為如果我們要談論基因,

  • And what you see is, for example,

    背後其實就是在談基因的演化。

  • patterns across different primate species.

    比如,你所看見的這個,

  • Some of them have evolved for extremely low levels of aggression,

    是跨不同靈長數物種的模式。

  • others have evolved in the opposite direction,

    有些在演化之後的 侵略程度是極低的,

  • and floating there in between by every measure are humans,

    其他的演化方向則恰恰相反,

  • once again this confused, barely defined species

    而落在兩者之間的,就是人類,

  • that has all these potentials to go one way or the other.

    這個困惑且幾乎不明確的物種,

  • So what has this gotten us to?

    會朝哪個方向偏移都是有可能的。

  • Basically, what we're seeing here is,

    所以這代表什麼?

  • if you want to understand a behavior,

    基本上,我們在這裡所看到的是,

  • whether it's an appalling one, a wondrous one,

    如果你想要了解一個行為,

  • or confusedly in between,

    不論是駭人的行為、 令人驚奇的行為,

  • if you want to understand that,

    或在當中模糊地帶的行為,

  • you've got take into account what happened a second before

    如果你想了解它,

  • to a million years before,

    你需要考量的 是從一秒前發生了什麼,

  • everything in between.

    一直到數百萬年前發生了什麼,

  • So what can we conclude at this point?

    中間的一切都要考量。

  • Officially, it's complicated.

    所以,在這個時點, 我們能下什麼結論?

  • Wow, that's really helpful.

    正式宣佈,這極為複雜。

  • It's complicated,

    哇,這實在太有幫助。

  • and you'd better be real careful, real cautious

    這極為複雜,

  • before you conclude you know what causes a behavior,

    你最好要非常小心、非常謹慎,

  • especially if it's a behavior you're judging harshly.

    不要輕易認定 你知道一個行為的成因,

  • Now, to me, the single most important point about all of this

    特別是針對你在嚴厲評斷的行為。

  • is one having to do with change.

    對我來說,這一切當中 最重要的一點

  • Every bit of biology I have mentioned here can change in different circumstances.

    和改變有關。

  • For example, ecosystems change.

    我在這裡所提到的所有生物學

  • Thousands of years ago, the Sahara was a lush grassland.

    都有可能在不同的情況下有所改變。

  • Cultures change.

    比如,生態系統會改變。

  • In the 17th century, the most terrifying people in Europe were the Swedes,

    數千年前,薩哈拉沙漠是蒼翠的草原。

  • rampaging all over the place.

    文化會改變。

  • This is what the Swedish military does now.

    十七世紀最可怕的歐洲人是瑞典人,

  • They haven't had a war in 200 years.

    狂暴的行為遍及各處。

  • Most importantly,

    現在,瑞典軍隊做的是這種事。

  • brains change.

    他們已經有兩百年沒有過戰爭了。

  • Neurons grow new processes.

    最重要的是,

  • Circuits disconnect.

    大腦會改變。

  • Everything in the brain changes,

    神經元會長出新的進程,

  • and out of this come extraordinary examples of human change.

    有些迴路會斷開,

  • First one:

    大腦中的一切都會改變,

  • this is a man named John Newton,

    這就造成了人類改變的非凡例子。

  • a British theologian

    第一個例子:

  • who played a central role in the abolition of slavery from the British Empire

    這個人名叫約翰牛頓,

  • in the early 1800s.

    是位英國神學家,

  • And amazingly, this man spent decades as a younger man

    在 1800 年代前期大英帝國 廢除奴隸事件中

  • as the captain of a slave ship,

    扮演中心角色。

  • and then as an investor in slavery,

    驚人的是,這個人年輕時

  • growing rich from this.

    當了數十年的奴隸船船長,

  • And then something changed.

    接著又去當奴隸制度的投資者,