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  • I'm going to speak to you about the global refugee crisis

    譯者: Phyllis Huang 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • and my aim is to show you that this crisis

    今天談的是全球難民危機的問題。

  • is manageable, not unsolvable,

    我想讓各位知道,

  • but also show you that this is as much about us and who we are

    這危機是可解決的, 而非無計可施。

  • as it is a trial of the refugees on the front line.

    也讓各位知道這關乎我們, 以及我們是誰。

  • For me, this is not just a professional obligation,

    這是對於前線難民的試驗。

  • because I run an NGO supporting refugees and displaced people around the world.

    對我來說,這不只是種職業義務,

  • It's personal.

    只因我在非營利機構支援, 並安置在世界各處的難民。

  • I love this picture.

    這與個人切身相關。

  • That really handsome guy on the right,

    我很愛這張照片。

  • that's not me.

    右邊那個很帥的男生,

  • That's my dad, Ralph, in London, in 1940

    不是我。

  • with his father Samuel.

    那是我父親雷夫, 1940 年在倫敦拍的。

  • They were Jewish refugees from Belgium.

    旁邊是他父親撒姆爾。

  • They fled the day the Nazis invaded.

    他們是比利時的猶太難民,

  • And I love this picture, too.

    在納粹入侵當天逃走。

  • It's a group of refugee children

    我也很愛這張照片。

  • arriving in England in 1946 from Poland.

    這是一群難民孩子,

  • And in the middle is my mother, Marion.

    1946 年從波蘭遷到英國。

  • She was sent to start a new life

    中間那位是我母親瑪麗安,

  • in a new country

    為了有新人生,她被送走,

  • on her own

    到了一個新國家,

  • at the age of 12.

    而且是獨自一人,

  • I know this:

    在 12 歲時。

  • if Britain had not admitted refugees

    我知道

  • in the 1940s,

    要是英國在 1940 年代

  • I certainly would not be here today.

    拒絕難民,

  • Yet 70 years on, the wheel has come full circle.

    我今天就不會站在這裡了。

  • The sound is of walls being built,

    但 70 年後,時代巨輪轉了回來,

  • vengeful political rhetoric,

    那些築起高牆的聲音、

  • humanitarian values and principles on fire

    充滿報復性的政治語言,

  • in the very countries that 70 years ago said never again

    受到挑戰的人道價值觀以及原則,

  • to statelessness and hopelessness for the victims of war.

    出現在 70 年前

  • Last year, every minute,

    對戰爭受害者宣告 不會再無家可歸的國家。

  • 24 more people were displaced from their homes

    去年的每一分鐘,

  • by conflict, violence and persecution:

    至少有 24 人

  • another chemical weapon attack in Syria,

    因著衝突、暴力與迫害 被迫離開家鄉:

  • the Taliban on the rampage in Afghanistan,

    敘利亞發生另一起化武攻擊、

  • girls driven from their school in northeast Nigeria by Boko Haram.

    塔利班在阿富汗橫行、

  • These are not people moving to another country

    奈及利亞東北部的激進組織 「博科聖地」將女孩逐出學校。

  • to get a better life.

    這些人移到另一個城市

  • They're fleeing for their lives.

    不是為了過更好的生活,

  • It's a real tragedy

    而是為了活命。

  • that the world's most famous refugee can't come to speak to you here today.

    這是真正的悲劇。

  • Many of you will know this picture.

    世上最有名的難民 今天無法在這和你們對話。

  • It shows the lifeless body

    你們大多看過這張照片。

  • of five-year-old Alan Kurdi,

    這是具無生命的身體,

  • a Syrian refugee who died in the Mediterranean in 2015.

    是五歲的艾倫.庫爾迪,

  • He died alongside 3,700 others trying to get to Europe.

    一名 2015 年死於 地中海的敘利亞難民,

  • The next year, 2016,

    身邊還有 3700 名難民 試圖逃到歐洲。

  • 5,000 people died.

    隔年,2016 年,

  • It's too late for them,

    5000 人死亡。

  • but it's not too late for millions of others.

    對他們來說一切都太遲了,

  • It's not too late for people like Frederick.

    但對其他數以百萬的難民還不遲。

  • I met him in the Nyarugusu refugee camp in Tanzania.

    對像費得列克 這樣的人來說還不算晚。

  • He's from Burundi.

    我在坦尚尼亞的 尼亞魯古蘇難民營認識他。

  • He wanted to know where could he complete his studies.

    他從蒲隆地來,

  • He'd done 11 years of schooling. He wanted a 12th year.

    想知道自己可以在哪裡完成學業。

  • He said to me, "I pray that my days do not end here

    他已經讀了十一年的書, 也想繼續讀下去。

  • in this refugee camp."

    他告訴我:「我向神呼求, 我不想死在這裡,

  • And it's not too late for Halud.

    死在這個難民營。」

  • Her parents were Palestinian refugees

    對哈魯德來說也不算遲。

  • living in the Yarmouk refugee camp outside Damascus.

    她的父母是巴勒斯坦難民,

  • She was born to refugee parents,

    住在大馬士革外的雅爾矛克難民營。

  • and now she's a refugee herself in Lebanon.

    她是難民的孩子,

  • She's working for the International Rescue Committee to help other refugees,

    如今也成為黎巴嫩的難民。

  • but she has no certainty at all

    她在國際救援委員會 幫忙其他難民,

  • about her future,

    但對於自己的未來,

  • where it is or what it holds.

    她沒有任何把握,

  • This talk is about Frederick, about Halud

    像是未來在哪裡,或未來有什麼。

  • and about millions like them:

    這場演講是關於費得列克, 關於哈魯德,

  • why they're displaced,

    以及無數名和他們一樣的難民:

  • how they survive, what help they need and what our responsibilities are.

    關於他們為何遷移、

  • I truly believe this,

    如何生存、需要什麼幫助, 以及我們的責任。

  • that the biggest question in the 21st century

    我真心認為,

  • concerns our duty to strangers.

    21 世紀最大的問題

  • The future "you" is about your duties

    在於我們對陌生人的責任。

  • to strangers.

    未來的「你們」,是關乎

  • You know better than anyone,

    你們對於陌生人的責任。

  • the world is more connected than ever before,

    各位比其他人更清楚,

  • yet the great danger

    這個世界的連結比從前緊密得多,

  • is that we're consumed by our divisions.

    但更大的危機在於

  • And there is no better test of that

    我們都被分歧這事消耗掉了。

  • than how we treat refugees.

    從我們對待難民的態度

  • Here are the facts: 65 million people

    最能看出問題所在。

  • displaced from their homes by violence and persecution last year.

    事實是,去年有六千五百萬人

  • If it was a country,

    因為暴力及迫害被迫離開家,

  • that would be the 21st largest country in the world.

    假如這些人組成一個國家,

  • Most of those people, about 40 million, stay within their own home country,

    將會是 21 世紀世界最大的國家。

  • but 25 million are refugees.

    這群人中,約四千萬人待在祖國,

  • That means they cross a border into a neighboring state.

    但其中二千五百萬名是難民。

  • Most of them are living in poor countries,

    這表示他們跨越國界到鄰國。

  • relatively poor or lower-middle-income countries, like Lebanon,

    他們大多住在貧困國家,

  • where Halud is living.

    相對貧困或中低收入國家, 例如黎巴嫩,

  • In Lebanon, one in four people is a refugee,

    哈魯德的居住地。

  • a quarter of the whole population.

    在黎巴嫩, 每四人就有一人是難民,

  • And refugees stay for a long time.

    是全數人口的四分之一。

  • The average length of displacement

    而且難民會待很長的時間。

  • is 10 years.

    他們流離失所的平均時間

  • I went to what was the world's largest refugee camp, in eastern Kenya.

    是 10 年。

  • It's called Dadaab.

    我去過肯亞東部世界最大的難民營,

  • It was built in 1991-92

    它叫達達布,

  • as a "temporary camp" for Somalis fleeing the civil war.

    在 1991 到 1992 間成立,

  • I met Silo.

    作為索馬利亞人 逃離內戰的「短暫營區」。

  • And naïvely I said to Silo,

    我遇見西蘿,

  • "Do you think you'll ever go home to Somalia?"

    並且很天真地問她:

  • And she said, "What do you mean, go home?

    「妳覺得自己可能回到 索馬利亞的家嗎?」

  • I was born here."

    她說:「你說回家是什麼意思?

  • And then when I asked the camp management

    我就是在這裡出生的。」

  • how many of the 330,000 people in that camp were born there,

    然後我問營區的管理員,

  • they gave me the answer:

    33 萬人中有多少人 是在那裡出生的。

  • 100,000.

    他們的答案是

  • That's what long-term displacement means.

    10 萬。

  • Now, the causes of this are deep:

    這是長期流離失所真正的意思。

  • weak states that can't support their own people,

    注意,這個現象的成因很深層:

  • an international political system

    較弱勢的國家無法支持人民、

  • weaker than at any time since 1945

    國際政治系統

  • and differences over theology, governance, engagement with the outside world

    也處於 1945 年以來最糟的狀況,

  • in significant parts of the Muslim world.

    加上穆斯林世界主要地區的

  • Now, those are long-term, generational challenges.

    神學觀、統治方式 及相處模式和外界有極大不同。

  • That's why I say that this refugee crisis is a trend and not a blip.

    這些都是長期且普遍的挑戰。

  • And it's complex, and when you have big, large, long-term, complex problems,

    所以我認為難民危機是種趨勢, 而非暫時性變動。

  • people think nothing can be done.

    而當人們遇到龐大、長期 且複雜的問題時,

  • When Pope Francis went to Lampedusa,

    就會認為無計可施了。

  • off the coast of Italy, in 2014,

    教宗方濟各到蘭佩杜薩島時,

  • he accused all of us and the global population

    2014 年在義大利海岸邊

  • of what he called "the globalization of indifference."

    控訴我們和全球人民

  • It's a haunting phrase.

    犯了他所謂「冷漠全球化」的罪。

  • It means that our hearts have turned to stone.

    這是個讓人難以忘記的詞。

  • Now, I don't know, you tell me.

    意思是我們的心已經變為石頭了。

  • Are you allowed to argue with the Pope, even at a TED conference?

    我也不知道,請告訴我,

  • But I think it's not right.

    你們能和教宗爭論嗎, 甚至是在 TED 會議中?

  • I think people do want to make a difference,

    但我覺得他錯了。

  • but they just don't know whether there are any solutions to this crisis.

    我認為人們想要改變,

  • And what I want to tell you today

    只是不知道有什麼辦法可以解決。

  • is that though the problems are real, the solutions are real, too.

    而我今天要告訴各位的,

  • Solution one:

    就是問題很真實, 但解決方法也很實際。

  • these refugees need to get into work in the countries where they're living,

    方法一:

  • and the countries where they're living need massive economic support.

    這些難民必須在居住地找到工作,

  • In Uganda in 2014, they did a study:

    而這些國家需要龐大的經濟支援。

  • 80 percent of refugees in the capital city Kampala

    2014 年烏干達有份研究顯示:

  • needed no humanitarian aid because they were working.

    首都康培拉的難民有八成

  • They were supported into work.

    因為有工作而不需要人道協助。

  • Solution number two:

    他們受到支持而能工作。

  • education for kids is a lifeline, not a luxury,

    解決方案二:

  • when you're displaced for so long.

    孩童教育是條救命線, 而非一種奢侈,

  • Kids can bounce back when they're given the proper social, emotional support

    尤其是被迫離鄉這麼久。

  • alongside literacy and numeracy.

    有適當的社會、情感支援, 孩童就能重新振作,

  • I've seen it for myself.

    同時具有識字力及計算能力。

  • But half of the world's refugee children of primary school age

    我曾親眼見識過。

  • get no education at all,

    但世上有一半 已經該上小學的難民孩童

  • and three-quarters of secondary school age get no education at all.

    完全沒受任何教育;

  • That's crazy.

    而該上中學的孩子 有四分之三也沒受任何教育。

  • Solution number three:

    這太誇張了。

  • most refugees are in urban areas, in cities, not in camps.

    解決方案三:

  • What would you or I want if we were a refugee in a city?

    多數難民都住在都會或城市, 而非難民營。

  • We would want money to pay rent or buy clothes.

    若我們是城市的難民, 你我會想要什麼?

  • That is the future of the humanitarian system,

    我們會需要錢來付租金或買衣服。

  • or a significant part of it:

    這正是未來人道系統該做的,

  • give people cash so that you boost the power of refugees

    或至少是其中很重要的一部分:

  • and you'll help the local economy.

    給人們現金,提升難民的能力,

  • And there's a fourth solution, too,

    同時也會促進當地經濟。

  • that's controversial but needs to be talked about.

    還有第四個方法。

  • The most vulnerable refugees need to be given a new start

    有點爭議,但仍需要提出來討論。

  • and a new life in a new country,

    最脆弱的難民需要在新的國家

  • including in the West.

    有個新的開始,新的人生。

  • The numbers are relatively small, hundreds of thousands, not millions,

    包括在西方世界。

  • but the symbolism is huge.

    這些難民數量相對較少, 大概數十萬人,

  • Now is not the time to be banning refugees,

    但有龐大的象徵意義。

  • as the Trump administration proposes.

    現在不是禁止難民的時候,

  • It's a time to be embracing people who are victims of terror.

    就像川普政府提議的那樣。

  • And remember --

    是時候去擁抱那些 身受恐懼所苦的人了。

  • (Applause)

    請記得……

  • Remember, anyone who asks you, "Are they properly vetted?"

    (掌聲)

  • that's a really sensible and good question to ask.

    記得,如果有人問你: 「他們受過調查了嗎?」

  • The truth is, refugees arriving for resettlement

    這是合情理的好問題。

  • are more vetted than any other population arriving in our countries.

    真相是,要定居的難民

  • So while it's reasonable to ask the question,

    比其他人口受到更多的審查。

  • it's not reasonable to say that refugee is another word for terrorist.

    所以儘管這個問題很合理,

  • Now, what happens --

    但說難民等於恐怖分子卻很不合理。

  • (Applause)

    好,那……

  • What happens when refugees can't get work,

    (掌聲)

  • they can't get their kids into school,

    當這些難民找不到工作、

  • they can't get cash, they can't get a legal route to hope?

    無法讓孩子們就學、

  • What happens is they take risky journeys.

    沒有錢,也不能指望 合法管道求生,怎麼辦?

  • I went to Lesbos, this beautiful Greek island, two years ago.

    結果就是他們 選擇走風險較大的途徑。

  • It's a home to 90,000 people.

    兩年前我到過美麗的 希臘列斯伏斯島,

  • In one year, 500,000 refugees went across the island.

    那裡有 9 萬人。

  • And I want to show you what I saw

    一年內,50 萬名難民 途經這座島嶼。

  • when I drove across to the north of the island:

    我想讓你們看看 當時我所看到的景象。

  • a pile of life jackets of those who had made it to shore.

    當時我正要開往島嶼北部,

  • And when I looked closer,

    那裡堆滿了 平安抵達岸上者的救生衣。

  • there were small life jackets for children,

    而當我看得更仔細時,

  • yellow ones.

    發現當中有給孩童的小救生衣,

  • And I took this picture.

    黃色的。

  • You probably can't see the writing, but I want to read it for you.

    我拍了這張照片。

  • "Warning: will not protect against drowning."

    你可能看不到上頭的字, 但我想讀給你聽:

  • So in the 21st century,

    「警告:無法保證不溺水。」

  • children are being given life jackets

    所以在 21 世紀,

  • to reach safety in Europe

    孩童有救生衣

  • even though those jackets will not save their lives

    可以安全抵達歐洲,

  • if they fall out of the boat that is taking them there.

    即使那些救生衣無法在 他們掉到船外時

  • This is not just a crisis, it's a test.

    拯救他們的性命。

  • It's a test that civilizations have faced down the ages.

    這不只是危機,更是種考驗。

  • It's a test of our humanity.

    這是文明面臨的長期考驗,

  • It's a test of us in the Western world

    對人性的考驗。

  • of who we are and what we stand for.

    這要考驗在西方世界的我們,

  • It's a test of our character, not just our policies.

    我們是誰,還有我們為何而戰。

  • And refugees are a hard case.

    這在考驗我們的人格, 而不僅是政策。

  • They do come from faraway parts of the world.

    而難民問題是個艱難的例子。

  • They have been through trauma.

    他們的確來自世界偏遠之地、

  • They're often of a different religion.

    曾受過創傷,

  • Those are precisely the reasons we should be helping refugees,

    通常和我們擁有不同信仰,

  • not a reason not to help them.

    這正是我們應該幫助難民的原因,

  • And it's a reason to help them because of what it says about us.

    而非不幫助他們的原因。

  • It's revealing of our values.

    我們要幫助難民, 因為這會顯出我們是怎樣的人。

  • Empathy and altruism are two of the foundations of civilization.

    那透露出我們的價值觀。

  • Turn that empathy and altruism into action

    同理及利他主義是文明的兩座基石。

  • and we live out a basic moral credo.

    把同理心和利他主義化為行動,

  • And in the modern world, we have no excuse.

    並活出基本道德信條。

  • We can't say we don't know what's happening in Juba, South Sudan,

    在當代世界,我們責無旁貸。

  • or Aleppo, Syria.

    我們不能說自己不知道 南蘇丹的朱巴

  • It's there, in our smartphone

    或敘利亞的阿勒坡發生什麼事。

  • in our hand.

    這些新聞就在我們的手機裡,

  • Ignorance is no excuse at all.

    在我們的手中。

  • Fail to help, and we show we have no moral compass at all.

    無知不再是藉口。

  • It's also revealing about whether we know our own history.

    冷眼旁觀顯示出 我們完全沒有道德感。

  • The reason that refugees have rights around the world

    這也透露出我們是否了解自身歷史。

  • is because of extraordinary Western leadership

    難民在這個世界有人權,

  • by statesmen and women after the Second World War

    是因為西方卓越的領導力,

  • that became universal rights.

    二戰後由政治家主導,

  • Trash the protections of refugees, and we trash our own history.

    因而成為普世權利。

  • This is --

    踐踏保護難民權利 就等於踐踏自己的歷史。

  • (Applause)

    這也……

  • This is also revealing about the power of democracy

    (掌聲)

  • as a refuge from dictatorship.

    這也顯示出民主的力量,

  • How many politicians have you heard say,

    作為一種逃離獨裁的手段。

  • "We believe in the power of our example, not the example of our power."

    你們聽過多少政客說過:

  • What they mean is what we stand for is more important than the bombs we drop.

    「我們相信典範的力量, 而非力量的示範」?

  • Refugees seeking sanctuary

    意思是為何而戰比丟炸彈還重要。

  • have seen the West as a source of hope and a place of haven.

    尋求聖所的難民

  • Russians, Iranians,

    知道西方是希望的來源和避難所。

  • Chinese, Eritreans, Cubans,

    俄國人、伊朗人、

  • they've come to the West for safety.

    中國人、厄利垂亞人和古巴人

  • We throw that away at our peril.

    都來西方尋求安全居所。

  • And there's one other thing it reveals about us:

    我們冒著風險丟開他們。

  • whether we have any humility for our own mistakes.

    而這透露出一件事情:

  • I'm not one of these people

    我們是否虛心看待自己犯的錯誤。