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  • What's one thing that every person in this room is going to become?

    譯者: Ziyu Lin 審譯者: Yabing Lv

  • Older.

    在座的每個人都會變成什麼樣?

  • And most of us are scared stiff at the prospect.

    變老。

  • How does that word make you feel?

    而且大多數人一想到變老就嚇壞了。

  • I used to feel the same way.

    這個詞會讓你產生怎樣的感覺呢?

  • What was I most worried about?

    我過去也有這樣的感受。

  • Ending up drooling in some grim institutional hallway.

    我曾經最擔心的是什麼呢?

  • And then I learned that only four percent of older Americans

    最終在養老院 陰冷的走廊上流著口水。

  • are living in nursing homes,

    之後我了解到 只有 4% 的美國老年人,

  • and the percentage is dropping.

    居住在養老院。

  • What else was I worried about?

    而且這個百分比正在下降。

  • Dementia.

    我還曾擔心過什麼呢?

  • Turns out that most of us can think just fine to the end.

    失智症。

  • Dementia rates are dropping, too.

    其實大多數人在去世前 都保持著正常的思考能力。

  • The real epidemic is anxiety over memory loss.

    失智症的比例也在下降。

  • (Laughter)

    真正的流行病是我們對失憶的焦慮。

  • I also figured that old people were depressed

    (笑聲)

  • because they were old and they were going to die soon.

    同時,我發現老人們是抑鬱沮喪的。

  • (Laughter)

    因為他們老了, 而且很快就會去世了。

  • It turns out that the longer people live,

    (笑聲)

  • the less they fear dying,

    其實人活的越長,

  • and that people are happiest at the beginnings and the end of their lives.

    越無懼死亡。

  • It's called the U-curve of happiness,

    而且人們在生命最初 和最末的階段是最開心的。

  • and it's been borne out by dozens of studies around the world.

    這被稱作 U 型幸福曲線。

  • You don't have to be a Buddhist or a billionaire.

    這個結論是由全世界許多研究產生的。

  • The curve is a function of the way aging itself affects the brain.

    你不需要是佛教徒或者億萬富翁。

  • So I started feeling a lot better about getting older,

    這個曲線說明了 年齡自身對大腦的影響作用。

  • and I started obsessing about why so few people know these things.

    所以我開始對變老感覺好多了。

  • The reason is ageism:

    然而我開始困擾 為什麼很少人明白這些道理。

  • discrimination and stereotyping on the basis of age.

    原因是:年齡主義。

  • We experience it anytime someone assumes we're too old for something,

    針對年齡的歧視和刻板印象。

  • instead of finding out who we are and what we're capable of,

    每時每刻都有人認為

  • or too young.

    我們太老了、不適合做某件事。

  • Ageism cuts both ways.

    而不是了解清楚

  • All -isms are socially constructed ideas -- racism, sexism, homophobia --

    我們是怎樣的人,我們的能力如何。

  • and that means we make them up,

    或者是太年輕了,不適合做某事。

  • and they can change over time.

    年齡主義對兩方面都有影響。

  • All these prejudices pit us against each other

    所有「主義」都是 社會建構的觀念——

  • to maintain the status quo,

    種族主義、性別歧視主義、 同性戀恐懼症。

  • like auto workers in the US competing against auto workers in Mexico

    這意味著我們創造了這些觀念,

  • instead of organizing for better wages.

    而且它們能隨時間改變。

  • (Applause)

    所有這些偏見使我們針鋒相對,

  • We know it's not OK to allocate resources by race or by sex.

    只為維持現狀。

  • Why should it be OK to weigh the needs of the young against the old?

    就像美國的汽車工人 和墨西哥的汽車工人互相競爭,

  • All prejudice relies on "othering" -- seeing a group of people

    而不是聯合起來,爭取更高的薪酬。

  • as other than ourselves:

    (鼓掌)

  • other race, other religion, other nationality.

    我們知道不能 根據種族或性別分配資源,

  • The strange thing about ageism:

    那為什麼要將年輕人 和年長者的需求對立看待呢?

  • that other is us.

    所有的偏見都來自於「他者」——

  • Ageism feeds on denial -- our reluctance to acknowledge

    將一群人視為「他者」,

  • that we are going to become that older person.

    跟我們自身區別。

  • It's denial when we try to pass for younger

    他們來自其它的種族、 宗教信仰、國籍。

  • or when we believe in anti-aging products,

    關於年齡主義, 有件很奇怪的事情是:

  • or when we feel like our bodies are betraying us,

    我們終將成為「他者。」

  • simply because they are changing.

    年齡主義建立在否認之上—— 我們不願意承認

  • Why on earth do we stop celebrating the ability to adapt and grow

    我們終有一天也將成為老人。

  • as we move through life?

    我們假裝自己還年輕,

  • Why should aging well mean struggling to look and move

    我們相信抗衰老產品,

  • like younger versions of ourselves?

    我們感覺身體背叛了自己,

  • It's embarrassing to be called out as older

    其實只是因為身體衰老了。

  • until we quit being embarrassed about it,

    我們究竟為什麼不再讚美自己 在進入生命新階段時

  • and it's not healthy to go through life dreading our futures.

    適應和成長的能力呢?

  • The sooner we get off this hamster wheel of age denial,

    為什麼變老意味著 努力保持年輕時的容貌,

  • the better off we are.

    像年輕時一樣行動?

  • Stereotypes are always a mistake, of course,

    被別人稱作老年人是件 很尷尬的事情,

  • but especially when it comes to age,

    除非我們不再 因為衰老而感到難為情。

  • because the longer we live,

    而且對未來感到恐懼 也不是健康的生活方式。

  • the more different from one another we become.

    我們越早放下對衰老循環般的恐懼,

  • Right? Think about it.

    我們的生活就會越好。

  • And yet, we tend to think of everyone in a retirement home

    當然,刻板印象常常是錯誤的

  • as the same age: old --

    關於年齡的刻板印象尤其錯誤。

  • (Laughter)

    因為我們越年長,

  • when they can span four decades.

    就越來越不同於他人。

  • Can you imagine thinking that way about a group of people

    對嗎?想想看。

  • between the ages of 20 and 60?

    但我們還是傾向於認為 養老院的所有人

  • When you get to a party, do you head for people your own age?

    都是一樣的年紀:老年人。

  • Have you ever grumbled about entitled millennials?

    (笑聲)

  • Have you ever rejected a haircut or a relationship or an outing

    儘管他們的年齡跨度有四十年。

  • because it's not age-appropriate?

    你能想像用這種方式來考慮

  • For adults, there's no such thing.

    一組 20 歲到 60 歲之間的人嗎?

  • All these behaviors are ageist.

    當你參加聚會的時候, 是否會去尋找和你年紀相仿的人?

  • We all do them,

    你是否抱怨過千禧世代?

  • and we can't challenge bias unless we're aware of it.

    你是否拒絕過一種髮型、 一段感情或者一次出遊,

  • Nobody's born ageist,

    因為年齡不合適?

  • but it starts at early childhood,

    對於成年人來說, 這些事情不會發生。

  • around the same time attitudes towards race and gender start to form,

    這些都是歧視年齡的行為。

  • because negative messages about late life bombard us

    我們都有這些歧視行為。

  • from the media and popular culture at every turn.

    我們無法挑戰這種偏見, 除非我們認識到它的存在。

  • Right? Wrinkles are ugly.

    沒有人是天生的年齡歧視者,

  • Old people are pathetic.

    但年齡歧視在童年早期就已發生,

  • It's sad to be old.

    在種族、性別意識產生的同時。

  • Look at Hollywood.

    因為關於老年的信息 對我們進行狂轟濫炸,

  • A survey of recent Best Picture nominations

    每時每刻來自 媒體和流行文化的轟炸。

  • found that only 12 percent of speaking or named characters

    對嗎?皺紋是醜的。

  • were age 60 and up,

    老年人是可憐的。

  • and many of them were portrayed as impaired.

    衰老令人悲傷。

  • Older people can be the most ageist of all,

    看看好萊塢,

  • because we've had a lifetime to internalize these messages

    關於最佳影片提名的一項調查顯示,

  • and we've never thought to challenge them.

    影片中僅有 12% 的主要角色

  • I had to acknowledge it

    是 60 歲以上的老年人,

  • and stop colluding.

    而且許多角色被描繪成 有缺陷的、受損害的。

  • "Senior moment" quips, for example:

    老年人自己可能是年齡歧視 最強有力的支持者。

  • I stopped making them when it dawned on me

    因為我們有一生的時間 來內化這些歧視的信息,

  • that when I lost the car keys in high school,

    而且從未想過要挑戰它們。

  • I didn't call it a "junior moment."

    我不得不承認

  • (Laughter)

    而且退出這種集體歧視。

  • I stopped blaming my sore knee on being 64.

    比如說:老糊塗。

  • My other knee doesn't hurt,

    我不再使用這些諷刺性的詞語,

  • and it's just as old.

    因為我發現當我在高中 丟失了車鑰匙的時候,

  • (Laughter)

    我並沒有將它稱之為 「青年人的糊塗。」

  • (Applause)

    (笑聲)

  • We are all worried about some aspect of getting older,

    我不再將膝蓋疼歸咎於 64 歲高齡,

  • whether running out of money,

    我的另一個膝蓋並不疼,

  • getting sick, ending up alone,

    但它也一樣老。

  • and those fears are legitimate and real.

    (笑聲)

  • But what never dawns on most of us

    (鼓掌)

  • is that the experience of reaching old age

    我們都會對變老的某些方面感到擔憂,

  • can be better or worse depending on the culture

    也許是經濟上的困難,

  • in which it takes place.

    也許是疾病,孤老終生,

  • It is not having a vagina that makes life harder for women.

    而且這些恐懼都是 合情合理的、真實存在的。

  • It's sexism.

    但是我們大多數人沒有發現的是,

  • (Applause)

    衰老的經歷

  • It's not loving a man that makes life harder for gay guys.

    是幸福還是痛苦,

  • It's homophobia.

    取決於你所屬的文化。

  • And it is not the passage of time that makes getting older

    並不是陰道讓女性的生活更加艱難。

  • so much harder than it has to be.

    是性別歧視。

  • It is ageism.

    (鼓掌,喝彩)

  • When labels are hard to read

    並不是同性之愛 讓男同志的生活更加困苦。

  • or there's no handrail

    是同性戀恐懼症。

  • or we can't open the damn jar,

    並不是時間的流逝

  • we blame ourselves,

    讓衰老更加艱辛。

  • our failure to age successfully,

    是年齡歧視。

  • instead of the ageism that makes those natural transitions shameful

    當我們很難看清標籤的時候,

  • and the discrimination that makes those barriers acceptable.

    或者是沒有欄杆的時候,

  • You can't make money off satisfaction,

    或者是打不開可惡的罐頭時,

  • but shame and fear create markets,

    我們譴責自己,

  • and capitalism always needs new markets.

    我們把失敗歸咎於年齡,

  • Who says wrinkles are ugly?

    而不是歸咎於年齡主義, 它使人們羞愧於年齡的自然更替。

  • The multi-billion-dollar skin care industry.

    也沒有歸咎於年齡歧視, 它讓人們接受這些壁壘。

  • Who says perimenopause and low T and mild cognitive impairment

    你無法從人們 對生活的滿足感中賺錢,

  • are medical conditions?

    但是羞愧和恐懼能夠創造市場,

  • The trillion-dollar pharmaceutical industry.

    而且資本主義總是需要新的市場。

  • (Cheers)

    誰說皺紋是醜陋的?

  • The more clearly we see these forces at work,

    那些價值數十億美元的 皮膚保養產業這樣說。

  • the easier it is to come up with alternative, more positive

    誰說近更年期、 睪丸素偏低、輕度認知障礙

  • and more accurate narratives.

    是醫學上的疾病呢?

  • Aging is not a problem to be fixed or a disease to be cured.

    那些上萬億的製藥產業這樣說。

  • It is a natural, powerful, lifelong process that unites us all.

    (歡呼)

  • Changing the culture is a tall order, I know that, but culture is fluid.

    我們越清楚這些力量如何運作,

  • Look at how much the position of women has changed in my lifetime

    就越容易找到替代方法,

  • or the incredible strides that the gay rights movement

    找到更積極、準確的敘述方式。

  • has made in just a few decades, right?

    衰老不是一個需要解決的問題, 也不是一種需要治療的疾病。

  • (Applause)

    它是自然的、有力的、終身的進程, 它將所有人聯結在一起。

  • Look at gender.

    我知道改變文化是很困難的, 但是文化是流動的。

  • We used to think of it as a binary, male or female,

    看看在我的一生中, 女性的地位得到了多麼大的提升。

  • and now we understand it's a spectrum.

    或者是同志平權運動 取得的驚人飛躍,

  • It is high time to ditch the old-young binary, too.

    僅僅發生在過去的幾十年中,對嗎?

  • There is no line in the sand between old and young,

    (鼓掌)

  • after which it's all downhill.

    看看性別議題。

  • And the longer we wait to challenge that idea,

    我們以前認為性別 是二元的,男性或女性,

  • the more damage it does to ourselves and our place in the world,

    我們現在了解到性別是連續的光譜。

  • like in the workforce, where age discrimination is rampant.

    現在也是時候拋棄 老人與年輕人的二元對立了。

  • In Silicon Valley, engineers are getting Botoxed and hair-plugged

    老人與年輕人之間 沒有明確的分界線,

  • before key interviews --

    這樣想一切都容易多了。

  • and these are skilled white men in their 30s,

    我們越晚挑戰這個觀點,

  • so imagine the effects further down the food chain.

    它對我們自身和我們 在世界的定位就傷害越大。

  • (Laughter)

    比如在工作場所, 在那裡年齡歧視猖獗。

  • The personal and economic consequences are devastating.

    在矽谷,工程師 注射肉毒桿菌、做人工植髮,

  • Not one stereotype about older workers holds up under scrutiny.

    來迎接重要的面試。

  • Companies aren't adaptable and creative because their employees are young;

    而且他們是技術高超的、 三十多歲的白人男性,

  • they're adaptable and creative despite it.

    所以可以想像 食物鏈下游所受的影響。

  • Companies --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    個人的、經濟上的後果 是非常沉重的。

  • (Applause)

    现在許多關於老年工作者的 刻板印象需要仔細斟酌。

  • We know that diverse companies aren't just better places to work;

    公司不會因為年輕員工 而具有適應能力和創造力。

  • they work better.

    沒有年輕員工, 公司也能保有適應能力和創造力。

  • And just like race and sex, age is a criterion for diversity.

    公司──

  • A growing body of fascinating research

    (笑聲)

  • shows that attitudes towards aging

    (鼓掌)

  • affect how our minds and bodies function at the cellular level.

    多元化的公司不僅是 適合工作的地方,

  • When we talk to older people like this (Speaks more loudly)

    而且它們工作得更好。

  • or call them "sweetie" or "young lady" --

    和種族、性別一樣, 年齡也是檢驗多樣性的標準。

  • it's called elderspeak --

    越來越多很有吸引力的研究顯示,

  • they appear to instantly age,

    關於衰老的態度

  • walking and talking less competently.

    會在細胞層面上影響我們的 大腦和身體的運作。

  • People with more positive feelings towards aging

    當我們這樣與老年人溝通(音量提高)

  • walk faster,

    或者稱他們為「親愛的」 或者「年輕的女士」——

  • they do better on memory tests,

    這種溝通方式被稱作「老人語」——

  • they heal quicker, and they live longer.

    他們似乎會立即衰老,

  • Even with brains full of plaques and tangles,

    步伐不再矯健,談吐不再自信。

  • some people stayed sharp to the end.

    那些對衰老持有積極態度的人,

  • What did they have in common?

    他們走得更快,

  • A sense of purpose.

    他們在記憶測試上的表現更好,

  • And what's the biggest obstacle to having a sense of purpose in late life?

    他們康復得更快, 而且他們活得更久。

  • A culture that tells us that getting older means shuffling offstage.

    即使是在充滿了 斑塊和纏結的大腦裡,

  • That's why the World Health Organization is developing

    有些人直到去世前頭腦依然敏銳。

  • a global anti-ageism initiative

    他們有什麼共同點呢?

  • to extend not just life span but health span.

    目標明確。

  • Women experience the double whammy

    在晚年生活中,什麼會 嚴重阻礙人們保有目標呢?

  • of ageism and sexism,

    一種文化,認定衰老 即走下人生舞台。

  • so we experience aging differently.

    這是為什麼世界衛生組織開展

  • There's a double standard at work here -- shocker --

    全球反對年齡歧視的倡議。

  • (Laughter)

    不僅增加壽命,還能延續健康。

  • the notion that aging enhances men and devalues women.

    女性經歷著雙重打擊,

  • Women reinforce this double standard when we compete to stay young,

    來自年齡主義和性別歧視主義,

  • another punishing and losing proposition.

    所以我們對衰老有不同的體會。

  • Does any woman in this room really believe

    這裡運作著雙重標準——震驚——

  • that she is a lesser version --

    (笑聲)

  • less interesting, less fun in bed, less valuable --

    衰老讓男性增值,卻使女性貶值。

  • than the woman she once was?

    當女性爭著保持年輕的時候, 這樣的雙重標準得以增強。

  • This discrimination affects our health,

    保持年輕是艱苦的、 註定失敗的想法。

  • our well-being and our income,

    這個房間裡難道真的有女人相信

  • and the effects add up over time.

    衰老後的她成為了次等品──

  • They are further compounded by race and by class,

    不再有趣,不再性感,不再有價值──

  • which is why, everywhere in the world,

    和年輕時的她相比?

  • the poorest of the poor are old women of color.

    這樣的歧視影響著我們的健康,

  • What's the takeaway from that map?

    我們的幸福和收入,

  • By 2050, one out of five of us,

    而且影響與日俱增。

  • almost two billion people,

    種族和階級因素 使這種歧視雪上加霜,

  • will be age 60 and up.

    這就是為什麼在世界上每一個角落,

  • Longevity is a fundamental hallmark of human progress.

    最窮的人往往是 有色人種的老年婦女。

  • All these older people represent a vast unprecedented and untapped market.

    我們能從這張地圖上 了解到什麼知識呢?

  • And yet, capitalism and urbanization have propelled age bias

    到 2050 年, 五個人中就會有一個,

  • into every corner of the globe,

    大概總計二十億人,

  • from Switzerland, where elders fare the best,

    是 60 歲以上的老年人。

  • to Afghanistan, which sits at the bottom of the Global AgeWatch Index.

    長壽是人類進步的重要標誌。

  • Half of the world's countries aren't mentioned on that list

    年長者代表著一個巨大的、 史無前例的、從未被涉足的市場。

  • because we don't bother to collect data on millions of people

    然而,資本主義和城市化把年齡偏見

  • because they're no longer young.

    推進到世界的每一個角落,

  • Almost two-thirds of people over 60 around the world

    從瑞士,在那裡老年人 得到了最好的照顧,

  • say they have trouble accessing healthcare.

    到阿富汗,在全球老齡 觀察指數中墊底。

  • Almost three-quarters say their income doesn't cover basic services

    世界上近半數的國家 沒有出現在排行榜中,

  • like food, water, electricity, and decent housing.

    因為我們不屑於收集 進兩百萬人的數據,

  • Is this the world we want our children, who may well live to be a hundred,

    因為他們不再年輕。

  • to inherit?

    在全球 60 歲以上的老年人中, 近三分之二認為

  • Everyone -- all ages, all genders, all nationalities --

    他們獲得醫療衛生服務是困難的。

  • is old or future-old,

    進四分之三的老年人認為 他們的收入無法支付基本生活費用,

  • and unless we put an end to it, ageism will oppress us all.

    比如食物、水、電和像樣的住房。

  • And that makes it a perfect target for collective advocacy.

    這真的是我們想讓 子孫後代繼承的世界嗎?

  • Why add another -ism to the list when so many, racism in particular,

    他們可能會活到 100 多歲。

  • call out for action?

    每個人——不分年齡、性別、國籍——

  • Here's the thing:

    已經衰老或終將衰老,

  • we don't have to choose.

    如果我們不終結它, 年齡歧視將會壓迫我們每一個人。

  • When we make the world a better place to grow old in,

    這讓它成為了集體倡議的最佳目標。

  • we make it a better place in which to be from somewhere else,

    為什麼又把一個「主義」 加入到鬥爭的行列中?

  • to have a disability,

    許多的主義,特別是種族歧視主義, 還沒有得到徹底根除。

  • to be queer, to be non-rich, to be non-white.

    事情是這樣的:

  • And when we show up at all ages for whatever cause matters most to us --

    我們不需要進行選擇。