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  • Translator: Carolina Casado Parras

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: BO buffet

  • Why do people deliberately destroy cultural heritage?

    為什麼人們會蓄意破壞文化遺產?

  • By doing so,

    他們是否認為,

  • do they believe they're erasing our history?

    這麼做就能抹滅我們的歷史?

  • Our cultural memory?

    抹滅我們的文化記憶?

  • It's true that we are losing cultural heritage to erosion

    的確,造成我們失去 文化遺產的原因包括侵蝕

  • and natural disasters,

    以及天災,

  • but this is something that is simply difficult to avoid.

    但這些原因是很難避免的。

  • I'm here to show you today how we can use pictures --

    我今天在這裡要呈現給各位看的, 是我們如何能用照──

  • your pictures --

    你們的照片──

  • to reclaim the history that is being lost

    透過創新科技、

  • using innovative technology

    以及志願者的努力,

  • and the effort of volunteers.

    來試圖恢復失去的歷史。

  • In the early 20th century,

    在二十世紀初,

  • archaeologists discovered hundreds of statues and artifacts

    考古學家在北伊拉克的 哈特拉古城發現了

  • at the ancient city of Hatra,

    數以百計的雕像

  • in northern Iraq.

    及工藝品。

  • Statues like this one were found in fragments,

    像這樣的雕像,被找到時都已破損,

  • some of them missing their heads or arms,

    有些少了頭或是手臂,

  • yet the clothing that they are wearing

    但它們的穿著

  • and their pose

    以及它們的姿勢,

  • can still tell us their story.

    仍然能將它們的故事告訴我們。

  • For example,

    比如,

  • we believe that by wearing a knee-length tunic

    我們相信,穿著長達膝蓋的 短袖束腰外衣,

  • and open bare feet,

    且赤腳的裝扮,

  • this was representative of a priest.

    代表的是祭師。

  • However, with a closer look at this particular piece,

    然而,如果更仔細地看這片碎片,

  • we can see that this tunic being worn was elaborately decorated,

    我們能看到,它穿的這件 短袖束腰外衣有被精心裝飾過,

  • which has led many researchers to believe

    這點讓許多研究者相信,

  • this was actually a statue of a king performing his religious functions.

    這雕像其實是個國王, 在履行其宗教相關的職責。

  • When the Mosul Cultural Museum opened in 1952 in northern Iraq,

    當北伊拉克的摩蘇爾 文化博物館於 1952 年開張,

  • this statue, as well as others,

    這座雕像,以及其他雕像,

  • were placed there to preserve them for future generations.

    保存進了該博物館中, 為了下一代。

  • Following the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003,

    在 2003 年美國攻打伊拉克之後,

  • a few statues and artifacts were relocated to Baghdad,

    少部份的雕像及工藝品 被重新安置到巴格達,

  • but this statue remained.

    但這座雕像還留著。

  • Then in February of last year, a video was released,

    去年二月,一支影片被釋出,

  • and it instantly went viral.

    且馬上被瘋傳。

  • Maybe some of you remember seeing it.

    也許在座有些人還記得看過它。

  • Here's a short clip.

    這裡是一小段影片。

  • (Video) (Singing in Arabic)

    (影片)(阿拉伯語歌聲)

  • (Singing ends)

    (歌聲結束)

  • Not a very pleasant sight, right?

    不是很令人愉快的景象,對吧?

  • Did you notice anything familiar in the video?

    在影片中,你們是否有 注意到什麼熟悉的東西?

  • There it is.

    就是它。

  • There is that very statue,

    就是這座雕像,

  • as it was toppled over,

    它被人推倒,

  • breaking into pieces.

    摔成碎片。

  • When Matthew Vincent and I saw this video,

    當馬修文森和我看到這支影片,

  • we were shocked.

    我們十分震驚。

  • Since we are archaeologists using innovative technology

    因為我們是使用創新技術

  • for digital preservation,

    來做數位保存的考古學家,

  • an idea sprung to mind.

    我們想到了一個點子。

  • Maybe we can crowdsource the images that were taken of these artifacts

    也許我們可以針對這些工藝品 被摧毀之前拍下的影片

  • before they were destroyed,

    做群眾外包,

  • to create digital reconstructions.

    來創造數位重建。

  • If we can do that,

    如果我們能那麼做,

  • maybe we can put them into a virtual museum

    也許就能把它們放到虛擬博物館中,

  • to tell that story.

    來訴說那故事。

  • And so two weeks after we saw this video,

    於是,在我們看到 那支影片的兩週後,

  • we started the project called Project Mosul.

    我們開始了一個專案, 稱為摩蘇爾計畫。

  • Remember the pictures of the statue I showed you before?

    還記得我先前展示的雕像照片嗎?

  • This is actually the crowdsourced reconstruction of it

    這其實是它在被摧毀之前的

  • before it was destroyed.

    群眾外包重建成果。

  • Now, many of you may be wondering,

    很多人可能會想知道,

  • how exactly does this work?

    這是怎麼做到的?

  • Well, the key to this technology is called photogrammetry,

    這項技術的關鍵,叫做攝影測量法,

  • and it was invented here, in Germany.

    它是在這裡,在德國被發明出來的。

  • It is the technology that allows us to use two-dimensional images

    正是這項技術,讓我們 可以用同一件物品

  • taken of the same object from different angles

    從不同角度拍攝的二維圖像,

  • to create a 3D model.

    來建立一個三維模型。

  • I know you may be thinking this sounds like magic -- but it's not.

    我知道你們可能會心想, 這聽起來像魔術,但並不是。

  • Let me show you how it works.

    讓我來展示一下怎麼做。

  • Here are two crowdsourced images of the same statue.

    這是同一座雕像的 兩張群眾外包影像。

  • What the computer can do

    電腦能夠做的是,

  • is it can detect similar features between the photographs --

    偵測兩張照片間的相似特徵──

  • similar features of the object.

    這件物品的相似特徵。

  • Then, by using multiple photos,

    然後,使用多張照片,

  • in this case, it can begin to reconstruct the object in 3D.

    在這個例子中,就能開始 進行這個物件的三維重建。

  • In this case,

    在這個例子中,

  • you have the position of the cameras when each image was taken,

    每張影像在拍攝時的照相機位置

  • shown in blue.

    用藍色來標示。

  • Now, this is a partial reconstruction, I admit,

    我承認,這是部份重建,

  • but why would I say partial?

    但我為什麼會說是部份?

  • Well, simply because the statue was positioned against a wall.

    很簡單,因為該雕像是靠牆擺放的。

  • We don't have photographs taken of it from the back.

    我們沒有它背後的照片。

  • If I wanted to complete a full digital reconstruction of this statue,

    如果我想要完成這座雕像的 完整數位重建,

  • I would need a proper camera,

    我會需要一台適當的照相機、

  • tripods, proper lighting,

    三腳架、適當的燈光,

  • but we simply can't do that with crowdsourced images.

    但用群眾外包影像時, 就無法這麼做。

  • Think about it:

    想想看:

  • How many of you, when you visit a museum,

    在座有多少人, 在造訪一間博物館時,

  • take photographs of all parts of the statue,

    會去拍一座雕像的每個部份,

  • even the back side of it?

    甚至它的背面?

  • Well, maybe if some of you find Michelangelo's David interesting,

    嗯,也許有些人會覺得 米開朗基羅的大衛像蠻有趣的,

  • I guess --

    我猜是吧……

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But the thing is,

    但重點是,

  • if we can find more images of this object,

    如果我們能找到 越多這個物品的影像,

  • we can improve the 3D model.

    我們就能改善它的三維模型。

  • When we started the project,

    當我們開始這個專案時,

  • we started it with the Mosul Museum in mind.

    我們心中想的是摩蘇爾博物館,

  • We figured we may get a few images,

    心想也許能得到幾張影像,

  • some people interested,

    讓幾個人感興趣,

  • make one or two virtual reconstructions,

    完成一、兩個虛擬重建,

  • but we had no idea that we had sparked something that would grow so quickly.

    我們完全沒料到我們 點燃了某種快速燃燒的火花。

  • Before we knew it,

    在我們知道之前,

  • we realized it was obvious:

    我們了解到,很顯然:

  • we could apply this same idea to lost heritage anywhere.

    我們能把這個點子應用到 任何地方的失落遺產。

  • And so, we decided to change the name of the project to Rekrei.

    所以,我們決定把專案 改名為 Rekrei(重建)。

  • Then, in the summer of last year,

    接著,去年夏天,

  • "The Economist" magazine's media lab reached out to us.

    「經濟人」雜誌的 媒體實驗室來找我們。

  • They asked us,

    他們問我們:

  • "Hey, would you like us to build a virtual museum

    「嘿,你們要不要我們 建立一座虛擬博物館,

  • to put the reconstructions back inside,

    把重建的文物放回到裡面,

  • to tell the story?"

    讓它們來說故事?」

  • Can you imagine us saying no?

    你們覺得我們會拒絕嗎?

  • Of course not.

    當然不能。

  • We said yes!

    我們說好!

  • We were so excited.

    我們好興奮。

  • This was exactly the initial dream of that project.

    這正是這個專案最初的夢想。

  • And so now,

    所以,現在,

  • any of you can experience RecoVR Mosul on your phone,

    每個人都可以用手機 來體驗「重建摩蘇爾虛擬實境」,

  • using Google Cardboard

    也可以用 Google Cardboard 3D虛擬實境裝置,

  • or a tablet or even YouTube 360.

    平板電腦、甚至 YouTube 360。

  • Here is a screenshot from the virtual museum.

    這是虛擬博物館的一張截圖,

  • And there it is ...

    它就在這裡……

  • the partial reconstruction of the statue,

    那座雕像的部份重建,

  • as well as the Lion of Mosul,

    還有摩蘇爾之獅,

  • the first reconstruction completed by our project.

    它是我們的專案 第一個完成的重建作品。

  • Although the video doesn't explicitly show the Lion of Mosul being destroyed,

    雖然那支影片並沒有明確顯示 摩蘇爾之獅被摧毀,

  • we have many other examples of large artifacts being destroyed

    但有許多例子都是 大型工藝品被摧毀,

  • that were simply too large to have been stolen.

    只因為它們太大,無法被偷走。

  • For example,

    比如,

  • the Gate of Nimrud in northern Iraq.

    北伊拉克的尼姆魯德門,

  • This is a digital reconstruction from before,

    這是用它以前的樣子 進行的數位重建,

  • and this is actually during the destruction.

    這是它實際被摧毀的樣子。

  • Or the Lion of Al-Lāt, in Palmyra, Syria:

    或是敘利亞帕邁拉的 阿拉伯獅子神像:

  • before ...

    摧毀之前……

  • and after.

    及摧毀之後。

  • Although virtual reconstructions are primarily the main focus

    雖然虛擬重建 是我們專案的主要重心,

  • of our project,

    有些人一直在問這個問題:

  • some people have been asking the question:

    我們能用 3D 列印 把它們印出來嗎?

  • Can we print them in 3D?

    我們認為,3D 列印 並非失落遺產的

  • We believe 3D printing doesn't offer a straightforward solution

    直接解決方案。

  • to lost heritage.

    一旦一件物品被摧毀,

  • Once an object is destroyed,

    它就不在了。

  • it's gone.

    但 3D 列印的確能夠幫助 說出其背後的故事。

  • But 3D printing does offer an addition to tell that story.

    比如,我可以給各位看……

  • For example, I can show you here ...

    這是哈特拉的雕像,

  • There is the statue from Hatra

    以及摩蘇爾之獅。

  • and the Lion of Mosul.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝。

  • Thank you.

    如果你靠近看,

  • Now, if you look closely,

    你會注意到有些部份是用彩色列印,

  • you'll notice that there are some parts that have been printed in color,

    有些部份則是白色或灰色。

  • and some parts that are in white or gray.

    加上這部份的目的 只是要保持雕像的完好。

  • This part was added simply to hold the statues up.

    當你參觀博物館時,它們也同樣

  • This works the same way if you visit a museum,

    這樣處理找到時已是碎片的雕像;

  • and a statue is found in fragments;

    雕像會被重組起來給人們觀賞。

  • it's put together for the people to see it.

    這樣是合理的,對吧?

  • This makes sense, right?

    然而,我們更感興趣的是,

  • However, we're much more interested

    虛擬實境能為失落遺產提供什麼。

  • in what virtual reality has to offer for lost heritage.

    這裡有個例子,這是在帕邁拉

  • Here is an example of one of the tower tombs

    被摧毀的兩座墓塔之一。

  • that was destroyed in Palmyra.

    用 3D 模型網站 Sketchfab 的 網上看圖軟體,

  • Using Sketchfab's online viewer,

    可以看見我們已經重建了 這座墓外部的三個部份,

  • we can show that we have reconstructed three parts of the exterior of the tomb,

    但我們也有內部的照片,

  • but we also have photos of the inside,

    所以我們開始在對牆壁以及天花板

  • so we're beginning to create a reconstruction of the wall

    進行重建。

  • and the ceiling.

    考古學家在那裡努力了 非常非常多年,

  • Archaeologists worked there for many, many years,

    所以我們也有 這項遺產的建築平面圖。

  • so we also have architectural drawing plans of this lost heritage.

    不幸的是,我們不只是在 有衝突和戰爭的地區才會失去

  • Unfortunately, we are not only losing cultural heritage to areas of conflict

    文化遺產,

  • and at war --

    天災也是原因之一。

  • we're also losing it to natural disasters.

    這是加德滿都王宮廣場的三維模型,

  • This is a 3D model of Durbar Square in Kathmandu,

    在去年四月地震之前它是這樣子的,

  • before the earthquake that occurred last April ...

    這是地震後的狀況。

  • and this is after.

    你也許會想,

  • You may be thinking,

    你並不只是用遊客的照片 來建立這些三維模型,

  • you didn't create these 3D models with only tourist photographs,

    的確沒錯。

  • and that's true.

    但這代表的意義是,

  • But what this represents

    大型政府組織以及私人產業能夠

  • is the ability for large, public organizations and private industry

    協力進行像我們這樣的方案。

  • to come together for initiatives like ours.

    我們的專案要面對的主要挑戰之一,

  • And so one of the major challenges of our project, really,

    是要找到在物品被摧毀 之前的照片,對吧?

  • is to find photographs that were taken before something happens, right?

    而網路基本上就是個 有百萬張影像的資料庫,對吧?

  • Well, the internet is basically a database with millions of images, right?

    沒錯。

  • Exactly.

    於是,我們開始開發一種工具,

  • So we have begun to develop a tool

    讓我們能從如 Flickr 等網站,依據地理標籤

  • that allows us to extract images from websites like Flickr,

    取得影像,

  • based on their geotags,

    再用它們來完成重建。

  • to complete reconstructions.

    因為我們不只在天災 和戰爭中失去文化遺產,

  • Because we're not only losing cultural heritage to natural disasters and in war,

    還有其他造成遺產失落的原因。

  • but we're also losing it to something else.

    只看這兩張照片,能猜出來嗎?

  • Any idea, just looking at these two pictures?

    也許有點難記得,

  • Maybe it's a little difficult to remember,

    這例子在幾週之前才剛發生,

  • but only a few weeks ago,

    因為人類的愚昧而造成損毀。

  • this was the example of human destruction by human stupidity.

    因為里斯本的一名遊客 想要爬上這座雕像,

  • Because a tourist in Lisbon wanted to climb onto this statue

    來跟它自拍。

  • and take a selfie with it --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    結果拉著雕像一起摔倒。

  • and pulled it down with him.

    所以我們已經在尋找照片

  • So we're already finding photographs

    來完成這個雕像的數位重建。

  • to complete a digital reconstruction of this.

    我們必須要記住,

  • We need to remember

    文化遺產的損毀並非 近期才有的現象。

  • that the destruction of cultural heritage isn't a recent phenomenon.

    在十六世紀,

  • In the 16th century,

    歐洲祭師和探險家在美洲 燒毀了數以千計的馬雅書籍,

  • European priests and explorers burned thousands of Maya books in the Americas,

    只有少數還存留下來。

  • of which we only have a handful left.

    快轉到 2001 年,

  • Fast-forward to 2001,

    塔利班炸毀了阿富汗的巴米揚大佛。

  • when the Taliban blew up the Bamiyan Buddhas in Afghanistan.

    你們要知道,

  • You see,

    文化遺產是我們共有的全球歷史。

  • cultural heritage is about our shared global history.

    它協助我們與祖先 及祖先的故事做連結,

  • It helps us connect with our ancestors and their stories,

    但每天,我們都在失去 它的一小部份,因為天災、

  • but we're losing pieces of it every day to natural disasters

    還有地區衝突。

  • and in areas of conflict.

    當然,人命的損失是最讓人心碎的。

  • Of course, the loss of human life is the most heartbreaking loss ...

    但文化遺產讓我們能 保有對這些人的記憶,

  • but cultural heritage offers us a way to preserve the memory of the people

    讓後世也能認識他們。

  • for future generations.

    我們需要你們的協助, 來恢復失落的歷史

  • We need your help to reclaim the history that is being lost.

    你們願意加入我們嗎?

  • Will you join us?

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

Translator: Carolina Casado Parras

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: BO buffet

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