Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • We are all activists now.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: NAN-KUN WU

  • (Applause)

    我們現在都是激進份子。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • I'll just stop here.

    謝謝你們。

  • (Laughter)

    我言盡於此。

  • From the families who are fighting to maintain funding for public schools,

    (笑聲)

  • the tens of thousands of people who joined Occupy Wall Street

    包括那些致力於維持 對公立學校提供資金的家庭、

  • or marched with Black Lives Matter

    數萬名參加「佔據華爾街」或是

  • to protest police brutality against African Americans,

    「黑人生命也很要緊」遊行

  • families that join rallies,

    以抗議警察殘酷對待 非裔美國人的人、

  • pro-life and pro-choice,

    加入集會的家庭、

  • those of us who are afraid

    反墮胎及主張墮胎合法化者、

  • that our friends and neighbors are going to be deported

    我們當中害怕

  • or that they'll be added to lists

    自己的朋友及鄰居會被驅逐出境

  • because they are Muslim,

    或是因為身為回教徒

  • people who advocate for gun rights and for gun control

    而被加入名單的人、

  • and the millions of people who joined the women's marches

    擁護持槍權利及擁護槍枝控制的人,

  • all across the country this last January.

    以及去年一月來自全國各地

  • (Applause)

    加入女性遊行的數百萬人。

  • We are all activists now,

    (掌聲)

  • and that means that we all have something to worry about from surveillance.

    我們現在都是激進份子,

  • Surveillance means government collection and use

    那意味著我們都要擔心監控。

  • of private and sensitive data about us.

    監控意味著:政府收集並使用

  • And surveillance is essential

    我們的私人及敏感資料。

  • to law enforcement and to national security.

    對於法律執行以及國家安全而言,

  • But the history of surveillance

    監控是必要的。

  • is one that includes surveillance abuses

    但監控的歷史

  • where this sensitive information has been used against people

    包括了監控濫用,

  • because of their race,

    這敏感資料被用在 對人們不利的用途,

  • their national origin,

    只因為他們的種族、

  • their sexual orientation,

    他們的國籍、

  • and in particular, because of their activism,

    他們的性向,

  • their political beliefs.

    特別是因為他們的激進主義、

  • About 53 years ago,

    他們的政治信仰。

  • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his "I have a dream" speech

    約五十三年前,

  • on the Mall in Washington.

    馬丁路德金恩博士在華盛頓的 紀念堂前發表了他的演說,

  • And today the ideas behind this speech of racial equality and tolerance

    「我有一個夢」。

  • are so noncontroversial

    現今,這場演說背後 關於種族平等及包容的想法

  • that my daughters study the speech in third grade.

    非常沒有爭議,

  • But at the time,

    我女兒三年級時就能 在學校學到這場演說。

  • Dr. King was extremely controversial.

    但當時,

  • The legendary and notorious FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover believed,

    金恩博士是個非常爭議的人。

  • or wanted to believe,

    惡名昭彰的傳奇性聯邦調查局 局長艾德加胡佛相信,

  • that the Civil Rights Movement was a Soviet communist plot

    或是想要相信,

  • intended to destabilize the American government.

    黑人民權運動是蘇聯共產黨的陰謀,

  • And so Hoover had his agents put bugs in Dr. King's hotel rooms,

    意圖是要暗中顛覆美國政府。

  • and those bugs picked up conversations between civil rights leaders

    所以胡佛派他的探員在金恩博士的 飯店房間中裝了竊聽器,

  • talking about the strategies and tactics of the Civil Rights Movement.

    那些竊聽器取得了 民權運動領導人之間的對談,

  • They also picked up sounds of Dr. King

    他們在談論黑人 民權運動的策略和戰術。

  • having sex with women who were not his wife,

    他們也取得了金恩博士

  • and J. Edgar Hoover saw the opportunity here

    和他妻子以外的女人做愛的聲音,

  • to discredit and undermine the Civil Rights Movement.

    胡佛在這裡看到了機會,

  • The FBI sent a package of these recordings

    可以毀謗和暗中破壞黑人民權運動。

  • along with a handwritten note to Dr. King,

    聯邦調查局把這些錄音

  • and a draft of this note was found in FBI archives years later,

    以及一張手寫字條 一起打包寄給金恩博士,

  • and the letter said,

    多年後在聯邦調查局的檔案中 發現了這張字條的草稿,

  • "You are no clergyman and you know it.

    信上說:

  • King, like all frauds, your end is approaching."

    「你不是神職人員, 且你很清楚這一點。

  • The letter even seemed to encourage Dr. King to commit suicide,

    金恩,和所有騙子一樣, 你的末日快到了。」

  • saying, "King, there is only one thing left for you to do.

    這封信甚至似乎在 鼓勵金恩博士自殺,

  • You know what it is.

    信上說:「金恩, 你只剩下一件事要做。

  • You better take it before your filthy, abnormal, fraudulent self

    你知道是什麼事。

  • is bared to the nation."

    你最好在你那骯髒、不正常、詐欺的 自我赤祼祼呈現在國人面前

  • But the important thing is,

    之前去完成這件事。」

  • Dr. King was not abnormal.

    但,重要的是,

  • Every one of us has something that we want to hide from somebody.

    金恩博士並沒有不正常。

  • And even more important,

    我們每一個人都會有想要隱藏 不讓某人知道的事。

  • J. Edgar Hoover wasn't abnormal either.

    更重要的是,

  • The history of surveillance abuses

    胡佛也沒有不正常。

  • is not the history of one bad, megalomaniacal man.

    監控濫用的歷史

  • Throughout his decades at the FBI,

    並不是一個狂妄自大的壞人的歷史。

  • J. Edgar Hoover enjoyed the support of the presidents that he served,

    胡佛待在聯邦調查局的數十年間,

  • Democratic and Republican alike.

    有著他所服侍的總統的支持,

  • After all, it was John F. Kennedy and his brother Robert Kennedy

    不論民主黨或共和黨都一樣。

  • who knew about and approved the surveillance of Dr. King.

    畢竟,約翰甘迺迪 及羅勃甘迺迪這兩兄弟

  • Hoover ran a program called COINTELPRO for 15 years

    知道並核准金恩博士被監控一事。

  • which was designed to spy on and undermine civic groups

    胡佛執行了「COINTELPRO」 反情報專案十五年的時間,

  • that were devoted to things like civil rights,

    專案目的在監視和破壞那些

  • the Women's Rights Movement,

    致力於民權、女權運動等的公民團體,

  • and peace groups and anti-war movements.

    以及和平團體和反戰運動。

  • And the surveillance didn't stop there.

    且監控並不止於此。

  • Lyndon Baines Johnson,

    林登詹森

  • during the election campaign,

    在競選期間,

  • had the campaign airplane of his rival Barry Goldwater bugged

    在他的對手貝利高華德的 競選專機上裝了竊聽器,

  • as part of his effort to win that election.

    這是他贏得選舉的手段之一。

  • And then, of course, there was Watergate.

    當然,還有水門案。

  • Burglars were caught

    竊賊被逮到

  • breaking into the Democratic National Committee headquarters

    闖入水門飯店中的民主黨

  • at the Watergate Hotel,

    全國委員會總部,

  • the Nixon administration was involved in covering up the burglary,

    尼克森政府涉及掩飾這場盜竊案,

  • and eventually Nixon had to step down as president.

    最後尼克森辭掉總統一職。

  • COINTELPRO and Watergate were a wake-up call for Americans.

    COINTELPRO 及水門案 喚醒了美國人。

  • Surveillance was out of control

    監控失去了控制,

  • and it was being used to squelch political challengers.

    它被用來鎮壓挑戰政治的人。

  • And so Americans rose to the occasion

    所以美國人勇敢起來面對挑戰,

  • and what we did was we reformed surveillance law.

    我們的做法是改革監控法律。

  • And the primary tool we used to reform surveillance law

    我們用來改革監控法律的主要工具

  • was to require a search warrant

    就是要求政府要有搜索令,

  • for the government to be able to get access to our phone calls and our letters.

    才能取得我們的通話以及信件。

  • Now, the reason why a search warrant is important

    搜索令之所以很重要,

  • is because it interposes a judge

    是因為它會讓一名法官介入

  • in the relationship between investigators and the citizens,

    到調查者與市民之間的關係中,

  • and that judge's job is to make sure

    該法官的工作是要確保

  • that there's good cause for the surveillance,

    監控是有足夠動機理由的、

  • that the surveillance is targeted at the right people,

    監控的目標是正確的,

  • and that the information that's collected

    且收集到的資料

  • is going to be used for legitimate government purposes

    會被用在合法的政府用途上,

  • and not for discriminatory ones.

    而非歧視性的用途。

  • This was our system,

    這是我們的體制,

  • and what this means is

    這意味著,

  • that President Obama did not wiretap Trump Tower.

    歐巴馬總統並沒有竊聽川普大廈。

  • The system is set up to prevent something like that from happening

    體制建立的目的就是要避免這類事情

  • without a judge being involved.

    在沒有法官介入的情況下發生。

  • But what happens when we're not talking about phone calls or letters anymore?

    但當我們談的不再是電話或信件時, 又會發生什麼事?

  • Today, we have technology

    現今,我們的科技

  • that makes it cheap and easy for the government to collect information

    讓政府能用很廉價 又容易的方式來收集

  • on ordinary everyday people.

    市井小民的資訊。

  • Your phone call records

    你的電話記錄

  • can reveal whether you have an addiction,

    可以洩露出你是否有毒癮、

  • what your religion is,

    你的宗教信仰、

  • what charities you donate to,

    你捐錢給什麼慈善機構、

  • what political candidate you support.

    你支持哪位政治候選人。

  • And yet, our government collected, dragnet-style,

    但,我們的政府多年來 都在用拖網式的方式

  • Americans' calling records for years.

    收集美國人的通話記錄。

  • In 2012, the Republican National Convention

    2012 年,共和黨全國大會

  • highlighted a new technology it was planning to use,

    強調它打算使用的一種新科技,

  • facial recognition,

    臉孔辨識,

  • to identify people who were going to be in the crowd

    用以在人群中辨識出可能的

  • who might be activists or troublemakers

    激進份子或麻煩製造者,

  • and to stop them ahead of time.

    並提早阻止他們。

  • Today, over 50 percent of American adults

    現今,有超過 50% 美國成年人的面紋(臉部資訊)

  • have their faceprint in a government database.

    都已存在政府資料庫中。

  • The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

    菸酒槍炮及爆裂物管理局

  • concocted a plan

    策劃了一個計畫,

  • to find out what Americans were going to gun shows

    用來找出哪些美國人會去槍展,

  • by using license plate detectors

    方法是用車牌偵測器

  • to scan the license plates of cars

    來掃瞄這些展場停車場中

  • that were in the parking lots of these events.

    停放的車輛的車牌號碼。

  • Today, we believe that over 70 percent of police departments

    我們相信現在至少 70% 的警局

  • have automatic license plate detection technology

    都有自動車牌偵測科技,

  • that they're using to track people's cars as they drive through town.

    當人們開車經過這些市鎮時 就能追縱他們的車子。

  • And all of this information,

    所有這些資訊,

  • the license plates, the faceprints,

    包括車牌、面紋、

  • the phone records,

    電話記錄、

  • your address books, your buddy lists,

    你的通訊錄、你的朋友名單、

  • the photos that you upload to Dropbox or Google Photos,

    你上傳到 Dropbox 或 Google Photos 的照片,

  • and sometimes even your chats and your emails

    有時甚至還有你的 聊天記錄和電子郵件,

  • are not protected by a warrant requirement.

    都沒有受到搜索令的保護。

  • So what that means is we have all of this information on regular people

    那意味著,有這麼多 關於一般人的資訊,

  • that's newly available at very low expense.

    現在都可以用很低的代價就取得。

  • It is the golden age for surveillance.

    現在是監控的黃金年代。

  • Now, every parent is going to understand what this means.

    每個父母親都會了解 這背後的意義。

  • When you have a little baby

    當你有個小寶寶,

  • and the baby's young,

    寶寶年紀很小,

  • that child is not able to climb out of its crib.

    她還沒辦法爬出有欄杆的嬰兒床。

  • But eventually your little girl gets older

    但遲早你的女兒會長大,

  • and she's able to climb out of the crib,

    她將能夠爬出嬰兒床,

  • but you tell her, "Don't climb out of the crib. OK?"

    但你告訴她: 「別爬出嬰兒床,好嗎?」

  • And every parent knows what's going to happen.

    每個父母親都知道會發生什麼事。

  • Some of those babies are going to climb out of the crib.

    有些寶寶會爬出嬰兒床。

  • Right? That's the difference between ability and permission.

    對嗎?這就是能力 和允許之間的差別。

  • Well, the same thing is true with the government today.

    對現今的政府來說也是一樣的。

  • It used to be that our government didn't have the ability

    以前,我們的政府沒有能力

  • to do widespread, massive surveillance on hundreds of millions of Americans

    可以對上億的美國人 進行廣泛的大型監控

  • and then abuse that information.

    並濫用那些資訊。

  • But now our government has grown up,

    但,現在,我們的政府長大了,

  • and we have that technology today.

    現今我們就有那樣的科技。

  • The government has the ability,

    我們的政府有能力了,

  • and that means the law is more important than ever before.

    那意味著法律比以前更重要了。

  • The law is supposed to say

    法律應該要說,