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  • I must have been about 12 years old

    譯者: Wilde Luo 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • when my dad took me to an exhibition on space,

    當我父親帶我參加一場 關於太空的展覽時,

  • not far from here, in Brussels.

    我肯定有 12 歲了。

  • And the year was about -- I think it was 1988,

    那展覽離這不遠,在布魯塞爾。

  • so it was the end of the Cold War.

    那一年應該是 1988 年,

  • There was a bit of an upmanship going on between the Americans and the Russians

    是冷戰結束的時候。

  • bringing bits to that exhibition.

    美國人和俄羅斯人都想和對方 在技術水平上爭個高低,

  • NASA brought a big blow-up space shuttle,

    先在那場展覽中小試牛刀。

  • but the Russians, they brought a Mir space station.

    美國國家航空暨太空總署(NASA) 展示一個大型充氣式的太空梭,

  • It was actually the training module,

    而俄國人則展示了「米爾太空站」。

  • and you could go inside and check it all out.

    它實際上是一個訓練艙,

  • It was the real thing --

    你可以進入體驗一番。

  • where the buttons were, where the wires were,

    它可是真材實料:

  • where the astronauts were eating, where they were working.

    那裏面有按鈕、纜線,

  • And when I came home,

    太空人在裏面飲食、工作。

  • the first thing I did, I started drawing spaceships.

    我一回到家,

  • Now, these weren't science fiction spaceships, no.

    就開始描繪太空船的樣子。

  • They were actually technical drawings.

    如今,它們不再是 科幻小說中的太空船了,

  • They were cutaway sections

    它們實際上是工程圖紙。

  • of what kind of structure would be made out of,

    它們是一些剖面圖,

  • where the wires were, where the screws were.

    制訂了一種將被製造出來的結構體,

  • So fortunately, I didn't become a space engineer,

    以及如何佈置纜線、螺絲等。

  • but I did become an architect.

    因此,幸運的是, 我雖然沒成為太空工程師,

  • These are some of the projects that I've been involved with

    但成了建築師。

  • over the last decade and a half.

    這些是我在過去 15 年來

  • All these projects are quite different, quite different shapes,

    曾經參與的一些建築項目。

  • and it is because they are built for different environments.

    這些建築的形態 都與一般樣式大相徑庭,

  • They have different constraints.

    因為它們是為不同的環境而建,

  • And I think design becomes really interesting

    建造它們受到不同條件的限制。

  • when you get really harsh constraints.

    我認為當條件限制非常嚴苛,

  • Now, these projects have been all over the world.

    設計會成為一項妙趣橫生的工作。

  • A few years ago, this map wasn't good enough.

    目前,這些建築項目已遍佈世界各地。

  • It was too small.

    幾年前,這張地圖並不盡如人意。

  • We had to add this one,

    它太狹隘了。

  • because we were going to do a project on the Moon

    我們得加上這個,

  • for the European Space Agency;

    因為我們將要在月球上

  • they asked us to design a Moon habitat --

    為歐洲太空總署做一個項目,

  • and one on Mars with NASA,

    他們要求我們在月球上設計棲息地;

  • a competition to look at a habitation on Mars.

    同樣的,與太空總署 在火星上也做一個,

  • Whenever you go to another place,

    這是一場在火星上 研究「棲息地」的競爭。

  • as an architect

    作為一名建築師,

  • and try to design something,

    每當你到別的地方,

  • you look at the local architecture, the precedents that are there.

    嘗試去設計什麽東西,

  • Now, on the Moon, it's kind of difficult, of course,

    你會先研究當地原先的建築物。

  • because there's only this.

    當然這在月球上有點困難,

  • There's only the Apollo missions.

    因為眼前只有這些,

  • So last that we went there, I wasn't even born yet,

    只有「阿波羅任務」。

  • and we only spent about three days there.

    上一次人類到達那裏時, 我還未出生,

  • So for me, that's kind of a long camping trip, isn't it,

    人類在那裏約只停留了三天。

  • but a rather expensive one.

    所以這對於我而言 像是一次漫長的野營,

  • Now, the tricky thing,

    但是極其昂貴。

  • when you're going to build on another planet or a moon,

    棘手的事情在於

  • is how to get it there, how to get it there.

    當你將在其他行星 或者衛星上建造設施時,

  • So first of all,

    如何把東西送到那裏?

  • to get a kilogram, for example, to the Moon's surface,

    所以首先,

  • it will cost about 200,000 dollars,

    例如,要將一公斤物品送到月球表面

  • very expensive.

    差不多要花費 20 萬美元,

  • So you want to keep it very light.

    非常昂貴。

  • Second, space. Space is limited. Right?

    所以,你要讓它非常輕。

  • This is the Ariane 5 rocket.

    第二,佔用的空間。 太空船的容量有限。

  • The space you have there

    這是亞利安 5 號運載火箭。

  • is about four and a half meters by seven meters, not that much.

    它裡頭的空間大約

  • So it needs to be an architectural system

    不到 4.5 公尺乘以 7 公尺。

  • that is both compact, or compactable, and light,

    所以,它應當是一個

  • and I think I've got one right here.

    兼顧小巧與輕便的建築系統,

  • It's very compact,

    我這裡有一個。

  • and it's very light.

    非常小巧,

  • And actually,

    也非常輕便。

  • this is one I made earlier.

    實際上,

  • Now, there's one problem with it,

    這個是我之前準備的。

  • that inflatables

    但是,它有一個缺陷,

  • are quite fragile.

    這些充氣物

  • They need to be protected,

    非常脆弱。

  • specifically, when you go to a very harsh environment like the Moon.

    它們需要被保護,

  • Look at it like this.

    具體來說,時當你進入 像月球那樣嚴峻的環境時,

  • The temperature difference on a Moon base

    像這樣思考:

  • could be anything up to 200 degrees.

    月球基地的溫差

  • On one side of the base, it could be 100 degrees Celsius

    可高達攝氏 200 度。

  • and on the other side, it could be minus 100 degrees.

    月球基地的一邊 可能達到攝氏 100 度,

  • We need to protect ourselves from that.

    而另一邊可能是攝氏零下 100 度。

  • The Moon also does not have any magnetic fields,

    我們需要從中保護自己。

  • which means that any radiation -- solar radiation, cosmic radiation --

    月球也沒有任何磁場,

  • will hit the surface.

    這意味着,任何輻射 ──太陽輻射、宇宙輻射──

  • We need to protect ourselves from that as well,

    都會衝擊它表面。

  • protect the astronauts from that.

    我們也需保護自己不受輻射傷害,

  • And then third,

    保護太空人。

  • but definitely not last,

    第三點,

  • the Moon does not have any atmosphere,

    但肯定不是最後一點,

  • which means any meteorites coming into it will not get burned up,

    月球沒有大氣層,

  • and they'll hit the surface.

    意思是撞向月球的隕石 不會燃燒殆盡,

  • That's why the Moon is full of craters.

    而會直接撞擊表面。

  • Again, we need to protect the astronauts from that.

    這就是為什麽月球遍佈隕石坑。

  • So what kind of structure do we need?

    同理,我們也需保護自己 不被隕石擊中。

  • Well, the best thing is really a cave,

    所以我們需要什麼樣的結構體?

  • because a cave has a lot of mass, and we need mass.

    最好的方案其實是一個洞穴,

  • We need mass to protect ourselves from the temperatures,

    因為洞穴由大量重物構成, 我們正好需要。

  • from the radiation

    我們需要重物來保護 我們免受巨大溫差、

  • and from the meteorites.

    輻射,以及隕石的傷害。

  • So this is how we solved it.

    這就是我們的解決方案。

  • We have indeed the blue part, as you can see.

    你看得到的藍色部分

  • That's an inflatable for our Moon base.

    是為月球基地佈置的充氣物。

  • It gives a lot of living space and a lot of lab space,

    它給予了很大的生活空間和實驗空間,

  • and attached to it you have a cylinder,

    與它相連的是一個圓柱體,

  • and that has all the support structures in,

    圓柱體裏面含有所有的支撐結構、

  • all the life support and also the airlock.

    所有的生命維持設備和氣閘室。

  • And on top of that, we have a structure, that domed structure,

    在那之上,我們設計了

  • that protects ourselves,

    那個穹頂形的結構來保護我們,

  • has a lot of mass in it.

    它裏面包含許多重物。

  • Where are we going to get this material from?

    我們如何獲得這些材料?

  • Are we going to bring concrete and cement from Earth to the Moon?

    我們要把混凝土和水泥運往月球嗎?

  • Well, of course not, because it's way too heavy.

    當然不,因為那實在是太重,

  • It's too expensive.

    且太昂貴。

  • So we're going to go and use local materials.

    我們要使用當地的材料。

  • Now, local materials are something we deal with on Earth as well.

    和在地球一樣, 我們要處理當地的材料。

  • Wherever we build or whatever country we build in,

    無論在哪裏、在哪個國家建造,

  • we always look at, what are the local materials here?

    我們總會考慮:當地的材料是什麽?

  • The problem with the Moon is, what are the local materials?

    那麽在月球上,當地的材料是什麽?

  • Well, there's not that many.

    嗯,這裏沒多少材料。

  • Actually, we have one.

    實際上,我們找到了一樣。

  • It's moondust,

    它是月球的塵埃,

  • or, fancier scientific name, regolith, Moon regolith.

    或者,更專業的說法, 風化層,月球的風化層。

  • Great thing is, it's everywhere, right?

    大好消息是,它無處不在,對吧?

  • The surface is covered with it.

    月球表面被它覆蓋。

  • It's about 20 centimeters up to a few meters everywhere.

    從地下 20 公分 到地下幾公尺,到處都有。

  • But how are we going to build with it?

    然而我們如何用它來建造呢?

  • Well, we're going to use a 3D printer.

    嗯,我們會使用 3D 打印機。

  • Whenever I ask any of you what a 3D printer is,

    每當我問你們 3D 打印機是什麽,

  • you're probably all thinking, well, probably something about this size

    你也許會想,嗯, 這東西也許是這麽個大小,

  • and it would print things that are about this size.

    它會打印出這麽個大小的物體。

  • So of course I'm not going to bring a massive 3D printer to the Moon

    所以我當然不會將一台 巨大的 3D 打印機運往月球

  • to print my Moon base.

    來打印出月球基地。

  • I'm going to use a much smaller device, something like this one here.

    我會使用小得多的設備,就像這個。

  • So this is a small device, a small robot rover,

    這是一台小型設備, 小型月球漫遊機器人,

  • that has a little scoop,

    有一個小鏟斗,

  • and it brings the regolith to the dome

    它將風化層運往穹頂,

  • and then it lays down a thin layer of regolith,

    然後放置薄薄一層風化層,

  • and then you would have the robot that will solidify it,

    然後你會讓機器人進行加固,

  • layer by layer,

    一層又一層,

  • until it creates, after a few months,

    直到在幾個月後,

  • the full base.

    它們建造出完整的基地。

  • You might have noticed

    也許你已經注意到了,

  • that it's quite a particular structure that we're printing,

    我們正在打印的是 一種很特殊的結構體,

  • and I've got a little example here.

    我這裡有個小樣品。

  • What we call this is a closed-cell foam structure.

    我們稱它為「閉孔泡沫結構」。

  • Looks quite natural.

    看起來很自然。

  • The reason why we're using this

    我們用它作為那殻形結構的一部分,

  • as part of that shell structure

    原因是我們只需要固定某些部位,

  • is that we only need to solidify certain parts,

    這意味着我們減少了 來自地球的粘結材料的運輸,

  • which means we have to bring less binder from Earth,

    而它也會更輕。

  • and it becomes much lighter.

    現在──

  • Now --

    這種方法,也就是設計出某種方案,

  • that approach of designing something

    然後再為它覆蓋上保護性的穹頂,

  • and then covering it with a protective dome

    我們也應用到了火星項目中。

  • we also did for our Mars project.

    可以看到,三個穹頂。

  • You can see it here, three domes.

    也可以看到這些打印機 正在打印穹頂結構。

  • And you see the printers printing these dome structures.

    火星與月球有一個很大的區別,

  • There's a big difference between Mars and the Moon,

    聽我解釋。

  • and let me explain it.

    此圖按比例顯示

  • This diagram shows you to scale

    地球、月球的大小,

  • the size of Earth and the Moon and the real distance,

    以及兩者之間的實際距離, 約 40 萬公里。

  • about 400,000 kilometers.

    把目光轉到火星,

  • If we then go to Mars,

    火星與地球之間的距離── (四億一百萬公里)

  • the distance from Mars to Earth --

    這張圖片自火星回望地球,

  • and this picture here

    是「好奇號」火星探測器拍攝的。

  • is taken by the rover on Mars, Curiosity, looking back at Earth.

    你依稀能看到一個小亮點, 那就是地球,有 4 億公里之遙。

  • You kind of see the little speckle there, that's Earth, 400 million kilometers away.

    這個距離帶來的問題是

  • The problem with that distance

    它是地、月距離的一千倍,十分遙遠,

  • is that it's a thousand times the distance of the Earth to the Moon, pretty far away,

    不能直接用無綫電聯絡, 例如,和「好奇號」探測器聯繫