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  • In March 2017,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • the mayor of Cape Town officially declared Cape Town a local disaster,

    2017 年三月,

  • as it had less than four months left of usable water.

    開普敦的市長正式宣佈 開普敦的地方性災難:

  • Residents were restricted to 100 liters of water per person, per day.

    當地可用的水只剩下 不到四個月的存量。

  • But what does that really mean?

    居民被限制每人每天 只能使用一百公升的水。

  • With 100 liters of water per day,

    但那真正的意思是什麼?

  • you can take a five-minute shower,

    若你每天有一百公升的水,

  • wash your face twice

    你可以做一次五分鐘的沖澡、

  • and probably flush the toilet about five times.

    洗臉兩次,

  • You still didn't brush your teeth,

    可能可以沖馬桶大約五次。

  • you didn't do laundry,

    你還沒有刷牙、

  • and you definitely didn't water your plants.

    你還沒有洗衣服,

  • You, unfortunately, didn't wash your hands after those five toilet flushes.

    你肯定也還沒有給植物澆水。

  • And you didn't even take a sip of water.

    不幸的是,五次沖完馬桶之後 你都沒有洗手。

  • The mayor described this as that it means

    你甚至還沒有喝一口水。

  • a new relationship with water.

    市長的形容方式是:這意味著

  • Today, seven months later,

    要和水建立新的關係。

  • I can share two things about my second home with you.

    現今,七個月後,

  • First: Cape Town hasn't run out of water just yet.

    關於我的第二個家, 我可以與各位分享兩件事。

  • But as of September 3rd,

    第一:開普頓還沒有把水用盡。

  • the hundred-liter limit dropped to 87 liters.

    但截至九月三日為止,

  • The mayor defined the city's new normal as one of permanent drought.

    一百公升的限制被減到八十七公升。

  • Second:

    市長把該市的新常態 定義為永久的乾旱。

  • what's happening in Cape Town is pretty much coming to many other cities

    第二:

  • and countries in the world.

    發生在開普頓的事, 也即將襲擊世界上許多

  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,

    其他城市及國家。

  • excluding countries that we don't have data for,

    根據聯合國糧食及農業組織,

  • less than five percent of the world's population

    除了我們沒有資料的國家之外,

  • is living in a country that has more water today than it did 20 years ago.

    不到 5% 的世界人口

  • Everyone else is living in a country that has less water today.

    住在目前可用水量 比二十年前還多的國家中。

  • And nearly one out of three are living in a country

    所有其他人居住的國家, 現今的可用水量都比較少。

  • that is facing a water crisis.

    接近三分之一的人所居住的國家

  • I grew up in Jordan,

    正在面臨用水危機。

  • a water-poor country that has experienced absolute water scarcity since 1973.

    我在約旦長大,

  • And still, in 2017,

    該國的水資源很缺乏,從 1973 年 開始就在經歷絕對的水資源短缺。

  • only 10 countries in the world have less water than Jordan.

    2017 年,全世界

  • So dealing with a lack of water is quite ingrained in my soul.

    仍然只有十個國家的 可用水比約旦還少。

  • As soon as I was old enough to learn how to write my name,

    處理缺水問題可說是 深植在我的靈魂中。

  • I also learned that I need to conserve water.

    到了我會寫自己名字的年紀,

  • My parents would constantly remind my siblings and I to close the tap

    我就已經學到我要懂得省水了。

  • when we brushed our teeth.

    我父母會經常提醒我和我的手足,

  • We used to fill balloons with flour instead of water when we played.

    在刷牙的時候要把水龍頭關好,

  • It's just as much fun, though.

    我們以前在玩耍時, 是把氣球裝滿麵粉而不是水。

  • (Laughter)

    不過,那也一樣好玩。

  • And a few years ago,

    (笑聲)

  • when my friends and I were dared to do the Ice Bucket Challenge,

    幾年前,

  • we did that with sand.

    我和我朋友鼓起勇氣做冰桶挑戰時,

  • (Laughter)

    我們是用沙子來做。

  • And you might think that, you know, that's easy,

    (笑聲)

  • sand is not ice cold.

    你們可能會認為那很簡單,

  • I promise you, sand goes everywhere,

    沙子又不是冰冷的。

  • and it took ages to get rid of it.

    我向你們保證, 沙子會鑽進任何地方,

  • But what perhaps I didn't realize

    要花好長的時間才能清理掉。

  • as I played with flour balloons as a child,

    但當我小時候在玩麵粉氣球時,

  • and as I poured sand on my head as an adult,

    以及我長大後把沙子

  • is that some of the techniques that seem second nature to me

    從頭上倒下去時,可能並不了解,

  • and to others who live in dry countries

    對我以及其他住在乾旱國家的人而言

  • might help us all address what is fast becoming a global crisis.

    似乎是第二天性的一些技巧,

  • I wish to share three lessons today,

    可能可以協助我們所有人處理 這個正在快速擴展到全球的危機。

  • three lessons from water-poor countries

    今天,我想要分享三課,

  • and how they survived and even thrived despite their water crisis.

    從水資源缺乏國家學到的三課,

  • Lesson one:

    以及它們如何存活, 甚至在水資源危機之下還能繁榮。

  • tell people how much water they really have.

    第一課:

  • In order to solve a problem,

    告訴人們他們真正有多少水資源。

  • we need to acknowledge that we have one.

    為了解決問題,

  • And when it comes to water,

    我們得要先承認我們有問題。

  • people can easily turn a blind eye,

    當談到水資源時,

  • pretending that since water is coming out of the tap now,

    人們很容易就視若無睹,

  • everything will be fine forever.

    假裝既然現在還有水從水龍頭出來,

  • But some smart, drought-affected countries

    一切就會永遠沒問題。

  • have adopted simple, innovative measures

    但,一些受到乾旱影響的聰明國家

  • to make sure their citizens, their communities and their companies

    已經採用了簡單、創新的手段,

  • know just how dry their countries are.

    來確保它們的公民、 它們的社區、它們的公司

  • When I was in Cape Town earlier this year,

    都知道它們的國家有多乾旱。

  • I saw this electronic billboard on the freeway,

    今年早些時候,我在開普頓,

  • indicating how much water the city had left.

    我在高速公路上看到電子告示板,

  • This is an idea they may well have borrowed from Australia

    上面顯示出該城市還剩多少水。

  • when it faced one of the worst droughts of the country's history

    這個點子很可能是向澳洲學的,

  • from 1997 to 2009.

    當時澳洲正面臨該國 史上最嚴重的乾旱之一,

  • Water levels in Melbourne dropped to a very low capacity

    發生在 1997 至 2009 年間。

  • of almost 26 percent.

    墨爾本的水位掉到非常低,

  • But the city didn't yell at people.

    幾乎只剩 26%。

  • It didn't plead with them not to use water.

    但該城市沒有對人民吼叫。

  • They used electronic billboards to flash available levels of water

    它沒有懇求人民不要用水。

  • to all citizens across the city.

    他們用電子告示板來 迅速傳遞剩水量資訊

  • They were honestly telling people how much water they really have,

    給該市的所有市民。

  • and letting them take responsibility for themselves.

    他們很誠實地告訴人民 他們真正還有多少水可以用,

  • By the end of the drought, this created such a sense of urgency

    讓人民自己負起責任。

  • as well as a sense of community.

    到乾旱末期,這方式創造出了急迫感

  • Nearly one out of three citizens in Melbourne had invested

    以及社區團結感。

  • in installing rainwater holding tanks for their own households.

    墨爾本幾乎三分之一的市民都自費

  • Actions that citizens took didn't stop at installing those tanks.

    安裝雨水蓄水池 供他們自己的家庭使用。

  • With help from the city,

    市民所採取的行動, 並不僅止於安裝蓄水池。

  • they were able to do something even more impactful.

    在該市的協助之下,

  • Taking me to lesson two:

    他們還能夠做出更有影響的事情。

  • empower people to save water.

    這就帶到了第二課:

  • Melbourne wanted people to spend less water in their homes.

    讓人民能夠做到節水。

  • And one way to do that is to spend less time in the shower.

    墨爾本希望人民在家中能少用點水。

  • However, interviews revealed that some people, women in particular,

    其中一種做法,就是縮短淋浴時間。

  • weren't keen on saving water that way.

    然而,訪談顯示, 有些人,特別是女性,

  • Some of them honestly said,

    對於這種節水方式並不熱衷。

  • "The shower is not just to clean up.

    當中有些人很誠實地說:

  • It's my sanctuary.

    「淋浴並不只是清洗而已。

  • It's a space I go to relax, not just clean up."

    它是我的聖所。

  • So the city started offering water-efficient showerheads for free.

    它是個讓我能夠放鬆的空間, 不僅僅是清洗用。」

  • And then, now some people complained that the showerheads looked ugly

    所以,該市開始 免費提供省水蓮蓬頭。

  • or didn't suit their bathrooms.

    接著,有些人抱怨說 那些蓮蓬頭看起來很醜陋,

  • So what I like to call "The Showerhead Team"

    或是和他們的浴室不搭。

  • developed a small water-flow regulator

    所以,被我稱為 「蓮蓬頭團隊」的團隊

  • that can be fitted into existing showerheads.

    開發出了一種小型的水流調節器,

  • And although showerhead beauty doesn't matter much to me,

    能夠裝在既有的蓮蓬頭裡面。

  • I loved how the team didn't give up

    雖然對我來說蓮蓬頭 好不好看並不重要,

  • and instead came up with a simple, unique solution

    但我很欣賞那個團隊沒有放棄,

  • to empower people to save water.

    反而還想出了簡單、 獨特的解決方案,

  • Within a span of four years,

    來讓人民能夠做到節水。

  • more than 460,000 showerheads were replaced.

    在四年的期間,

  • When the small regulator was introduced,

    超過 46 萬個蓮蓬頭被置換掉。

  • more than 100,000 orders of that were done.

    當小型調節器推出的時候,

  • Melbourne succeeded in reducing the water demands per capita

    有超過十萬筆的訂單。

  • by 50 percent.

    墨爾本成功地使 每人平均水需求量減半。

  • In the United Arab Emirates,

    在阿拉伯聯合大公國,

  • the second-most water-scarce country in the world,

    世界上水資源第二稀少的國家,

  • officials designed what they called the "Business Heroes Toolkit" in 2010.

    官員在 2010 年設計了他們 所謂的「企業英雄工具組」。

  • The aim was to motivate and empower businesses

    目標是要讓企業有動機和能力

  • to reduce water and energy consumption.

    去減少水資源和能源的消耗。

  • The toolkit practically taught companies

    該工具組能實際教導公司

  • how to measure their existing water-consumption levels

    如何測量它們現有的水消耗量,

  • and consisted of tips to help them reduce those levels.

    還提供一些秘訣 來協助它們降低消耗量。

  • And it worked.

    結果此舉奏效。

  • Hundreds of organizations downloaded the toolkit.

    數以百計的組織下載了這套工具組。

  • And several of them joined

    當中有許多組織都加入了

  • what they called the "Corporate Heroes Network,"

    「企業英雄網路」, 這是它們取的名稱,

  • where companies can voluntarily take on a challenge

    在這個網路中, 公司可以自願接受挑戰,

  • to reduce their water-consumption levels to preset targets

    來減少其水資源消耗量 到某個預設目標,

  • within a period of one year.

    在一年內要達成。

  • Companies which completed the challenge saved on average 35 percent of water.

    完成挑戰的公司 平均省下 35% 的水。

  • And one company, for example,

    比如,有一間公司,

  • implemented as many water-saving tips as they could in their office space.

    在辦公室中盡可能 把所有的省水秘訣都用上。

  • They replaced their toilet-flushing techniques, taps, showerheads --

    他們換了沖馬桶的方式、 水龍頭、蓮蓬頭──

  • you name it.

    任何你想得到的。

  • If it saved water, they replaced it,

    如果能省水,他們就置換,

  • eventually reducing their employees' water consumption by half.

    最終,員工的水資源消耗量減半。

  • Empowering individuals and companies to save water is so critical,

    讓個人和公司有辦法 能夠省水,是很重要的,

  • yet not sufficient.

    但光這樣還不夠。

  • Countries need to look beyond the status quo

    國家得要把視野放到超越現況之外,

  • and implement country-level actions

    採取國家等級的行動,

  • to save water.

    來節省水。

  • Taking me to lesson three:

    於是要談到第三課:

  • look below the surface.

    看到表面底下。

  • Water savings can come from unexpected places.

    省水能夠出現在意想不到的地方。

  • Singapore is the eighth most water-scarce country in the world.

    新加坡是世界上水資源 第八稀少的國家。

  • It depends on imported water for almost 60 percent of its water needs.

    該國的水需求中, 近六成要仰賴進口水來滿足。

  • It's also a very small island.

    它也是個很小的島國。

  • As such, it needs to make use of as much space as possible

    確切來說,他們需要 盡可能使用最大的空間

  • to catch rainfall.

    來收集雨水。

  • So in 2008,

    所以,2008 年,

  • they built the Marina Barrage.

    他們建造了濱海堤壩。

  • It's the first-ever urban water reservoir built in the middle of the city-state.

    這是史上第一個 建立在城邦中的都市水壩。

  • It's the largest water catchment in the country,

    它是新加坡最大的集水設施,

  • almost one-sixth the size of Singapore.

    尺寸大約是新加坡的六分之一。

  • What's so amazing about the Marina Barrage

    濱海堤壩之所以很了不起,

  • is that it has been built to make the maximum use of its large size

    是因為它的大尺寸被運用到極至,

  • and its unexpected yet important location.

    且它的所在地雖然是意想不到的, 卻相當重要。

  • It brings three valuable benefits to the country:

    它為國家帶來了三項珍貴的益處:

  • it has boosted Singapore's water supply by 10 percent;

    它讓新加坡的水供應量提升了一成;

  • it protects low areas around it from floods

    它能保護周圍的低窪區域 不受洪水災害,