Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • So, what is capitalism?

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • Capitalism, fundamentally, is a series of marketplaces.

    資本主義是什麼?

  • You can have a marketplace for lemonade,

    基本上,資本主義是一系列的市場。

  • a marketplace for lemons,

    你可能有檸檬水的市場、

  • a marketplace for trucks that transport lemons,

    檸檬的市場、

  • a marketplace that fuels those trucks,

    運送檸檬之卡車的市場、

  • marketplaces that sell wood to build lemonade stands.

    供應那些卡車燃料的市場、

  • However, capitalism of course, as we know,

    販售木頭來建造檸檬水攤子的市場。

  • is this either celebrated term

    然而,當然,如我們所知,

  • or condemned term.

    資本主義這個詞若不是被讚揚,

  • It's either revered or it's reviled.

    就是被譴責。

  • And I'm here to argue that this is because capitalism,

    它若不是被尊敬,就是被謾罵。

  • in the modern iteration, is largely misunderstood.

    我在這裡爭辯說,這是因為

  • In my view,

    在現代迭代中的資本主義, 在很大程度上被誤解了。

  • capitalism should not be thought of as an ideology,

    依我所見,

  • but instead should be thought of as an operating system.

    資本主義不該被視為一種意識形態,

  • Think of your iPhone.

    而應該被視為是一種作業系統。

  • Your iPhone merges hardware with software.

    想想你的 iPhone。

  • Apps and hardware.

    你的 iPhone 結合硬體和軟體,

  • Now think about all the hardware as the physical reality all around you,

    結合應用程式和硬體。

  • and think of the apps as entrepreneurial activity,

    現在,把所有硬體都想成 你周邊的實體現實環境,

  • creative energy.

    把應用程式想成企業家的活動、

  • And in-between, you have an operating system.

    創意能量。

  • As you have advances in hardware,

    在兩者之間有個作業系統。

  • you have advances in software.

    當你的硬體進步時,

  • And the operating system needs to keep up.

    你的軟體也會進步。

  • It needs to be patched, it needs to be updated,

    而作業系統得要跟上。

  • new releases have to happen.

    它需要補丁、需要更新,

  • And all of these things have to happen symbiotically.

    一定要推出新版本。

  • The operating system needs to keep getting more and more advanced

    所有這些都是共生的。

  • to keep up with innovation.

    作業系統需要不斷進步,

  • And this is why, fundamentally,

    才能跟得上創新。

  • when you think about it as an operating system,

    這就是為什麼,基本上,

  • it devolves the language of ideology

    當你把它視為一種作業系統,

  • away from what traditional defenders of capitalism think.

    它就會轉移意識形態的表達方式,

  • But even if you go to the constitution,

    遠離資本主義的傳統辯護者的想法。

  • you'll notice, before the founders even got to the First Amendment --

    但,就算你去查憲法,

  • with free speech, free religion, free press,

    你會發現,在開國元老 著手憲法第一修正案之前──

  • they thought about patents and copyright.

    保護言論自由、宗教自由、 媒體自由的修正案──

  • They talked about the government's role in promoting arts and sciences.

    他們已想到專利和版權了。

  • It's the reason why I could not start a search engine tomorrow called Goggle.

    他們談到政府在推動 藝術和科學時所扮演的角色。

  • (Laughter)

    這就是為什麼我不能在明天 起造一個名叫 Goggle 的搜尋引擎。

  • Google doesn't own Gs,

    (笑聲)

  • but I couldn't do it because there could be some confusion.

    Google 並不擁有「G」,

  • So even property rights have ambiguity built into them.

    但我不能這麼做,因為會造成混淆。

  • And on and on.

    所以甚至連財產權 都預留著模糊空間。

  • And by 1900, you have other types of property that come into being.

    諸如此類。

  • For instance, imagine that in 1900, you owned 100 acres of land

    到 1900 年, 其他類型的資產出現了。

  • someplace in the Midwest.

    比如,想像你在 1900 年 擁有 100 英畝的土地,

  • It's very easy to see where your fence ends,

    位在中西部的某處。

  • your neighbor's property begins.

    很容易看見你的籬笆止於哪裡、

  • Now let me ask you,

    鄰居的產權從哪裡開始。

  • where in the sky does your property end?

    讓我請教各位,

  • Does it end at 1,000 feet,

    你的產權界線到天空的哪裡?

  • 5,000 feet, 10,000 feet?

    到 1000 英呎高為止嗎?

  • It makes no difference,

    5000 英呎?10000 英呎?

  • because other than the novelty of a few hot-air balloons,

    沒有差別,

  • man couldn't fly.

    因為除了少數的熱氣球 新奇經驗之外,

  • But within three years, he could.

    人是不能飛的。

  • Now all of a sudden, it was very much relevant

    但在三年之內,人能飛了。

  • whether your land ends at 1,000 feet in the sky,

    突然間,你的土地資產

  • 5,000 feet, 10,000 feet.

    是止於 1000 、5000 或 10000 英呎的高空,

  • And you have to have someone arbitrate that.

    就變得很重要了。

  • And indeed, that's exactly what happened.

    你需要有人仲裁。

  • And five or ten years from now,

    的確,事情的進展正是這樣。

  • when Amazon wants to deliver a package over your house to your neighbor

    再過五或十年後,

  • from that UPS truck,

    當亞馬遜想要越過你家上空,

  • we're going to have to decide: Does you property end at five feet,

    把 USP 貨車上的包裹 遞送給你鄰居時,

  • 10 feet, 50 feet, 100 feet?

    我們就得要判定:你的產權止於

  • Where does it end?

    5、10、50 還是 100 英呎高呢?

  • And there is no ideology

    到多高呢?

  • that will tell you where your property ends.

    沒有任何意識形態

  • It's an operating system.

    能告訴你你的產權界線。

  • And similarly,

    作業系統能。

  • we're going to see this with automobiles.

    我們用汽車來看類似的情況。

  • A few years after the Wright brothers figured out flight,

    萊特兄弟想出如何飛行之後幾年,

  • human beings started using more and more cars.

    人類使用汽車更頻繁了。

  • And all of a sudden,

    突然間,

  • the regulatory system -- the operating system --

    監管制度──即作業系統──

  • had to be patched to all of a sudden address the safety of consumers.

    突然需要被修補, 以處理消費者的安全問題。

  • That the consumers of vehicles were presenting danger to horses,

    使用汽車的人會危害到馬、

  • other pedestrians, trolleys, what have you.

    其他行人、電車等等。

  • And all of a sudden,

    突然間,

  • the drivers of these automobiles had to have driver's licenses, eye exams,

    汽車駕駛就需要考駕照、 通過視力檢驗,

  • registered motor vehicles, speed limits,

    車輛需要登記,路上設有速限,

  • rules of the road,

    要遵守交通規則,

  • so that horses, pedestrians, could coexist with cars.

    這麼一來,馬和行人 才能和汽車共存。

  • It had to be backwards compatible.

    它得要和過去的事物相容,

  • So a new invention had to basically fit advances from the past.

    新發明必須基本上符合過去的發展。

  • Similarly, five or ten years from now,

    同樣地,五到十年後,

  • we're going to see the same thing with self-driving cars --

    自駕車也會面臨同樣的狀況──

  • coexisting with human-driven cars.

    要和人類駕駛的汽車共存。

  • The reason why this is important, is in 10 years,

    這之所以很重要是因為,十年內,

  • another thing is going to happen beyond drones and self-driving cars,

    還會有別的東西出現, 超越無人機和自駕車,

  • but you're going to see the most valuable economy in the world --

    但你將會見到世上 市值最高的經濟體──

  • the largest economy in the world --

    世上最大的經濟體──

  • is going to be a country run by communists.

    會是共產統治的國家。

  • The Chinese seem to be very good at capitalism.

    中國人似乎對資本主義很在行。

  • And this is going to have fundamental problems

    這將會有很根本的問題,

  • and present an identity crisis for the United States.

    會讓美國產生認同危機。

  • Because for a long time,

    因為,長期以來,

  • free markets coincided with liberties such as free speech, free press,

    自由市場與言論自由、新聞自由,

  • free religion.

    宗教自由等自由,正好相吻合。

  • And all of a sudden, this equation is going to be decoupled.

    突然間,這等式將會被解離。

  • And when it gets decoupled,

    當它解離時,

  • we might find that democracy, the multitude of voices,

    我們可能會發現, 民主,大眾的聲音,

  • actually impedes capitalism

    其實會妨礙資本主義。

  • because a state that does not have any pretense of limited government

    因為一個連「假裝限制政府權利」 都免了的國家,

  • can very quickly mandate a regulatory framework for drones,

    能很快地制定監管的架構,

  • for electric cars, for self-driving cars,

    來監管無人機、電動車、自駕車,

  • for any new innovation

    和任何他們認為

  • where they feel that they can leapfrog Western societies.

    能快速超越西方社會的創新。

  • And this is a very unique thing in the American experience.

    這在美國經驗中是非常獨特的。

  • And this is why it's very important to think of American capitalism

    這就是為什麼 視美國資本主義為作業系統,

  • as an operating system and not as an ideology.

    而非意識形態,極為重要。

  • Because when you think about it as an ideology,

    因為如果你把它視為意識形態,

  • you can have good politics make for very, very bad policy.

    好的政治也可能會導致 非常非常不好的政策。

  • That market outcomes and democratic voices

    市場表現和民主聲音,

  • and battles for votes

    以及選票之爭,

  • can end up stifling progress.

    最後可能會扼殺了進步。

  • So over the next few years,

    所以,在接下來幾年,

  • as this political cycle plays out,

    隨著這政治循環的發展,

  • you're going to see American democracy

    你們將會看到美國民主

  • rise to meet the challenges that capitalism poses and modernity poses.

    面對資本主義和現代性 所帶來的挑戰。

  • And I ask policymakers to think about --

    我要求決策者考慮

  • decoupling ideology from economics,

    將意識形態與經濟學脫鉤,

  • and think about how good policy can ultimately become good politics.

    並考慮好的政策 如何最終成為好政治。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

So, what is capitalism?

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 資本主義 作業 市場 自由 意識

【TED】Bhu Srinivasan:資本主義不是一種意識形態--它是一種作業系統(資本主義不是一種意識形態--它是一種作業系統|Bhu Srinivasan)。 (【TED】Bhu Srinivasan: Capitalism isn't an ideology -- it's an operating system (Capitalism isn't an ideology -- it's an operating system | Bhu Srinivasan))

  • 92 0
    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字