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  • There's a man out there, somewhere,

    譯者: Wen-Kuang Liu 審譯者: Sui He

  • who looks a little bit like the actor Idris Elba,

    一位男子站在那,

  • or at least he did 20 years ago.

    長的有點神似演員伊卓瑞斯·艾巴,

  • I don't know anything else about him,

    或者是艾巴20年前的樣子。

  • except that he once saved my life

    除了他鋌而走險

  • by putting his own life in danger.

    救了我一命以外,

  • This man ran across four lanes of freeway traffic in the middle of the night

    我對他一無所知。

  • to bring me back to safety

    在夜裡,男子橫穿4條高速行車道,

  • after a car accident that could have killed me.

    將我從一場致命車禍中救出,

  • And the whole thing left me really shaken up, obviously,

    並且將我帶到到安全的地方。

  • but it also left me with this kind of burning, gnawing need

    整個事件讓我相當恐慌,

  • to understand why he did it,

    但也留下了一個纏繞在心頭、 揮之不去的困惑,

  • what forces within him caused him to make the choice

    讓我想了解為什麼他要這麼做。

  • that I owe my life to,

    是什麼樣的動力

  • to risk his own life to save the life of a stranger?

    讓他決定冒著喪失性命的風險

  • In other words, what are the causes of his or anybody else's capacity for altruism?

    去拯救一個陌生人的命?

  • But first let me tell you what happened.

    換句話說,哪種因素造就了 他或者其他人的利他行為?

  • That night, I was 19 years old

    在開始之前,讓我先告訴你們這故事。

  • and driving back to my home in Tacoma, Washington,

    事件當晚,我那時19歲,

  • down the Interstate 5 freeway,

    我正要開車返回位於華盛頓州塔科馬的家,

  • when a little dog darted out in front of my car.

    要下第五洲際公路時,

  • And I did exactly what you're not supposed to do,

    一隻小狗飛奔到我的車子前方。

  • which is swerve to avoid it.

    我立刻轉向避免撞上牠,

  • And I discovered why you're not supposed to do that.

    雖然這並不是一個值得大家學習的做法。

  • I hit the dog anyways,

    並且,我發現不該這麼做的原因。

  • and that sent the car into a fishtail,

    我最終還是撞到了那條狗,

  • and then a spin across the freeway,

    我的車子也劇烈搖晃,

  • until finally it wound up in the fast lane of the freeway

    最且開始在公路上打轉,

  • faced backwards into oncoming traffic

    最後停在了公路的快車道上,

  • and then the engine died.

    逆向面對即將而來的車輛,

  • And I was sure in that moment that I was about to die too,

    此時我的引擎卻無法發動。

  • but I didn't

    我非常確定,那個瞬間,我將喪失性命

  • because of the actions of that one brave man

    但我沒有。

  • who must have made the decision

    因為一位勇敢的男子,做出行動,

  • within a fraction of a second of seeing my stranded car

    在看見我拋錨的車子後,

  • to pull over and run across four lanes of freeway traffic

    下定決心,把車停在路旁,

  • in the dark

    在昏暗不明的黑夜中,

  • to save my life.

    飛奔過4條行車道,

  • And then after he got my car working again

    救了我一命。

  • and got me back to safety and made sure I was going to be all right,

    事後他幫我的車子修理處理好,

  • he drove off again.

    並且帶我到了安全的地點 確保一切無恙後,

  • He never even told me his name,

    他才開車離去。

  • and I'm pretty sure I forgot to say thank you.

    他甚至沒有告訴我他的名字﹐

  • So before I go any further,

    而我也清楚記得,我忘記道謝了。

  • I really want to take a moment

    在我繼續講下去之前,

  • to stop and say thank you to that stranger.

    我真的很想花點時間

  • (Applause)

    好好地答謝那位陌生人。

  • I tell you all of this

    (掌聲)

  • because the events of that night changed the course of my life to some degree.

    我將這件事情告訴你們,

  • I became a psychology researcher,

    是因為那晚的事情, 某些程度上地改變了我的人生課題,

  • and I've devoted my work to understanding the human capacity to care for others.

    我成為了一位心理學研究者,

  • Where does it come from, and how does it develop,

    並且致力於理解人類照顧他人的能力。

  • and what are the extreme forms that it can take?

    究竟這能力是怎麼來的? 又是怎麼發展的?

  • These questions are really important to understanding basic aspects

    為什麼在極端的情況也能展現出來?

  • of human social nature.

    這些問題對於理解人類的社會性來說,

  • A lot of people, and this includes everybody

    是相當重要的基本方面。

  • from philosophers and economists to ordinary people

    有許多人,包括各種職業

  • believe that human nature is fundamentally selfish,

    像是哲學家、經濟學家甚至是一般人,

  • that we're only ever really motivated by our own welfare.

    都認為人性是自私的,

  • But if that's true, why do some people, like the stranger who rescued me,

    人們總是因為有利可圖才行動。

  • do selfless things, like helping other people

    但如果人真如此, 為何有些人會做一些對無私的事

  • at enormous risk and cost to themselves?

    像是冒著風險幫助別人,

  • Answering this question

    或像那位陌生人一樣幫助我呢?

  • requires exploring the roots of extraordinary acts of altruism,

    要想回答這個疑問,

  • and what might make people who engage in such acts

    我們需要探索利他行為的根源,

  • different than other people.

    為什麼有些人不同於他人,

  • But until recently, very little work on this topic had been done.

    會願意參與這樣非凡的舉動呢?

  • The actions of the man who rescued me

    到目前為止,幾乎沒有研究探討這樣的議題。

  • meet the most stringent definition of altruism,

    幫助我的那位男子

  • which is a voluntary, costly behavior

    符合了利他主義的最極端定義,

  • motivated by the desire to help another individual.

    即是志願性地、大投入地

  • So it's a selfless act intended to benefit only the other.

    並且強烈地渴望幫助他人。

  • What could possibly explain an action like that?

    這是無私的舉動,他們試圖帶給人們利益。

  • One answer is compassion, obviously,

    該如何解釋這樣的舉動呢?

  • which is a key driver of altruism.

    顯然,第一個答案是同情心,

  • But then the question becomes,

    這是驅動利他行為的重點。

  • why do some people seem to have more of it than others?

    但這樣問題又變成了

  • And the answer may be that the brains of highly altruistic people

    為什麼某些人 會比其他人更有同情心?

  • are different in fundamental ways.

    答案可能是具高度利他行為的人們

  • But to figure out how,

    本質上腦袋就跟其他人不同。

  • I actually started from the opposite end,

    為了去找出緣由,

  • with psychopaths.

    我從反面思考著手,

  • A common approach to understanding basic aspects of human nature,

    研究一些精神病患者。

  • like the desire to help other people,

    想要研究幫助他人的天性,

  • is to study people in whom that desire is missing,

    我們採用了一個普遍的研究方法,

  • and psychopaths are exactly such a group.

    即是去研究某些失去這些天性的人們,

  • Psychopathy is a developmental disorder

    像是一些精神病患者就很符合這項特徵。

  • with strongly genetic origins,

    這些精神病患者由於基因上的缺陷,

  • and it results in a personality that's cold and uncaring

    導致發展過程中具有缺陷,

  • and a tendency to engage in antisocial and sometimes very violent behavior.

    最終造成他們的冷酷無情,

  • Once my colleagues and I at the National Institute of Mental Health

    這讓他們傾向利用一些 反社會甚至暴利行為解決事情。

  • conducted some of the first ever brain imaging research

    在國家心理衛生研究院

  • of psychopathic adolescents,

    我和同事拍攝了第一例

  • and our findings, and the findings of other researchers now,

    我們及後續研究者的發現

  • have shown that people who are psychopathic

    都顯示出患有精神疾病的人們

  • pretty reliably exhibit three characteristics.

    擁有三個相關性極高的特徵。

  • First, although they're not generally insensitive to other people's emotions,

    首先,他們對於感受別人的情緒 並沒有遲鈍的表現,

  • they are insensitive to signs that other people are in distress.

    但是對於他人的痛苦情緒卻難以感受。

  • And in particular,

    特別是,

  • they have difficulty recognizing fearful facial expressions like this one.

    他們對於辨識恐懼的臉部表情有障礙,像這張圖。

  • And fearful expressions convey urgent need and emotional distress,

    而恐懼的表情傳遞了 一個人的急迫及精神上的痛苦,

  • and they usually elicit compassion and a desire to help

    一般人見到恐懼的表情,

  • in people who see them,

    通常都會被激起同情心,並想要伸出援手,

  • so it makes sense that people who tend to lack compassion

    所以合理的推論是,缺乏同情心的人

  • also tend to be insensitive to these cues.

    其實是難以感受這些暗示的。

  • The part of the brain

    在大腦中,

  • that's the most important for recognizing fearful expressions

    分辨恐懼表情的重要部分

  • is called the amygdala.

    叫做杏仁核。

  • There are very rare cases of people who lack amygdalas completely,

    極少數的人有杏仁核發展不全的症狀,

  • and they're profoundly impaired in recognizing fearful expressions.

    而這些人對於恐懼表情的辨識 都有相當程度的障礙。

  • And whereas healthy adults and children

    儘管他們是身體健康的成人或小孩,

  • usually show big spikes in amygdala activity

    他們在看到恐懼的表情時,

  • when they look at fearful expressions,

    腦中杏仁核的活性都有嚴重的阻礙,

  • psychopaths' amygdalas are underreactive to these expressions.

    精神病患者的杏仁核 對這些表情感受不活躍。

  • Sometimes they don't react at all,

    有時候他們根本沒有反應,

  • which may be why they have trouble detecting these cues.

    或許這就是為何他們在 感受恐懼表情上會有障礙。

  • Finally, psychopaths' amygdalas are smaller than average

    精神病患者的杏仁核

  • by about 18 or 20 percent.

    比正常人還小18-20%

  • So all of these findings are reliable and robust,

    因此,這些發現的可信度相當高,

  • and they're very interesting.

    同時也是相當有趣的發現。

  • But remember that my main interest

    但請記得我主要感興趣的

  • is not understanding why people don't care about others.

    並非為何有些人不關心他人。

  • It's understanding why they do.

    而是為何人會關心他人。

  • So the real question is,

    所以真正的問題是,

  • could extraordinary altruism,

    精神病患者的相反面,

  • which is the opposite of psychopathy

    充滿同情心並可望幫助他人的人們,

  • in terms of compassion and the desire to help other people,

    那些非凡的利他行為,

  • emerge from a brain that is also the opposite of psychopathy?

    是否因為他們的大腦與 精神病患者也完全相反?

  • A sort of antipsychopathic brain,

    非精神病患者的大腦,

  • better able to recognize other people's fear,

    是否就能辨識人們恐懼的臉孔?

  • an amygdala that's more reactive to this expression

    是否他們的杏仁核對這個表情能活化?

  • and maybe larger than average as well?

    或者他們的杏仁核比正常人的還要大?

  • As my research has now shown,

    依據我的研究,

  • all three things are true.

    三者皆是。

  • And we discovered this

    透過測試那些真的具有利他行為的人,

  • by testing a population of truly extraordinary altruists.

    我們發現了這些現象。

  • These are people who have given one of their own kidneys

    那些受試者很樂意將自己的腎臟,

  • to a complete stranger.

    去提供給一位陌生人。

  • So these are people who have volunteered to undergo major surgery

    這些人自願承受大型手術,

  • so that one of their own healthy kidneys can be removed

    將他們自己的健康腎臟轉移,

  • and transplanted into a very ill stranger

    到另一位虛弱的陌生人身上,

  • that they've never met and may never meet.

    他們甚至從未見過這些陌生人。

  • "Why would anybody do this?" is a very common question.

    「為什麼會有人這樣做?」 這是一個大家都想知道的問題。

  • And the answer may be

    而答案可能是因為

  • that the brains of these extraordinary altruists

    這些具非凡利他行為的人,

  • have certain special characteristics.

    他們的大腦有一些特別之處。

  • They are better at recognizing other people's fear.

    他們更善於感受他人的恐懼。

  • They're literally better at detecting when somebody else is in distress.

    他們確實更能偵測到別人的痛苦情緒。

  • This may be in part because their amygdala is more reactive to these expressions.

    可能有部分是因為他們的杏仁核 對這些表情的反應更加活耀。

  • And remember, this is the same part of the brain that we found

    提醒一下,精神病患者腦中同一個部位

  • was underreactive in people who are psychopathic.

    對此是不活耀的。

  • And finally, their amygdalas are larger than average as well,

    最後一點,我們發現具利他行為的人,

  • by about eight percent.

    他們的杏仁核比常人大了8%。

  • So together, what these data suggest

    綜上所述,這些資訊顯示了

  • is the existence of something like a caring continuum in the world

    世界上的人們可能存在於這條愛心連續曲線上,

  • that's anchored at the one end by people who are highly psychopathic,

    有的人在精神疾病的極端,不具同情心,

  • and at the other by people who are very compassionate

    也有人非常地有同情心,

  • and driven to acts of extreme altruism.

    導致他們有極端的利他行為。

  • But I should add that what makes extraordinary altruists so different

    但我要強調,這些非凡的利他行為

  • is not just that they're more compassionate than average.

    並不僅是因為他們的同情心強於常人。

  • They are,

    他們其實是

  • but what's even more unusual about them

    更加地與眾不同,

  • is that they're compassionate and altruistic

    他們的同情心跟利他行為

  • not just towards people who are in their own innermost circle

    不僅是對於最接近自己的人際關係,

  • of friends and family. Right?

    像是朋友跟家人,對吧?

  • Because to have compassion for people that you love and identify with

    因為對你所愛的人有同情心,

  • is not extraordinary.

    並不能算是非凡的行為。

  • Truly extraordinary altruists' compassion extends way beyond that circle,

    真正非凡的利他者的同情心,會延伸至圈外.

  • even beyond their wider circle of acquaintances

    甚至延伸到熟人圈之外,

  • to people who are outside their social circle altogether,

    延伸到自己社交圈以外的所有人,

  • total strangers,

    所有的陌生人,

  • just like the man who rescued me.

    就像是那位拯救我的男子那樣。

  • And I've had the opportunity now to ask a lot of altruistic kidney donors

    我曾問願意捐贈腎臟的人們:

  • how it is that they manage to generate such a wide circle of compassion

    如何才能將自己的同情心的範圍擴大,

  • that they were willing to give a complete stranger their kidney.

    擴大到使他們願意將腎臟 捐給完全不認識的陌生人?

  • And I found it's a really difficult question for them to answer.

    而我發現這對他們來說是非常困難的問題,

  • I say, "How is it that you're willing to do this thing

    我問:「是什麼讓你願意去做這件

  • when so many other people don't?

    大多數人都不願意做的事?

  • You're one of fewer than 2,000 Americans

    每2000位美國人中都不會有一位像你這樣

  • who has ever given a kidney to a stranger.

    願意將腎臟捐給陌生人的人,

  • What is it that makes you so special?"

    是什麼讓你變得如此特別?」

  • And what do they say?

    他們怎麼說?

  • They say, "Nothing.

    他們說:「沒什麼,

  • There's nothing special about me.

    對我來說這沒什麼特別。

  • I'm just the same as everybody else."

    我跟其他人都是一樣的。」

  • And I think that's actually a really telling answer,

    而我想,這確實就是真正的答案了,

  • because it suggests that the circles of these altruists don't look like this,

    因為正顯示出了, 這些人的人際圈看起來不像這樣,

  • they look more like this.

    而是像這樣,

  • They have no center.

    他們沒有中心自我。

  • These altruists literally don't think of themselves

    這些利他主義者不認為

  • as being at the center of anything,

    自己是在任何事物的中心,

  • as being better or more inherently important than anybody else.

    他們並不覺得自己 比其他人更優秀或獨特。

  • When I asked one altruist why donating her kidney made sense to her,

    當我問一位利他主義者, 為什麼捐贈腎臟對她來說是正常的,

  • she said, "Because it's not about me."

    她說:「因為這不只是關係到我自己。」

  • Another said,

    另一位利他主義者說:

  • "I'm not different. I'm not unique.

    「我跟其他人沒什麼不同,我並不是獨一無二。

  • Your study here is going to find out that I'm just the same as you."

    你的研究中應該也發現了,其實我與你沒什麼不同。」

  • I think the best description for this amazing lack of self-centeredness

    我認為對於這樣缺乏自我中心的性格, 最好的敘述是

  • is humility,

    謙卑,

  • which is that quality that in the words of St. Augustine

    而謙卑二字正是使聖奧古斯丁,

  • makes men as angels.

    最後成為天使的原因。

  • And why is that?

    為什麼呢?

  • It's because if there's no center of your circle,

    因為如果你的人際圈中沒有中心,

  • there can be no inner rings or outer rings,

    那就沒有內圈,也沒有外圈了,

  • nobody who is more or less worthy of your care and compassion

    沒有人更值得也沒有人不值得

  • than anybody else.

    你去表現同情心。

  • And I think that this is what really distinguishes extraordinary altruists

    我認為這是最非凡利他者與一般人

  • from the average person.

    最大的差異。

  • But I also think that this is a view of the world that's attainable by many

    但我認為對大多數的人來說,

  • and maybe even most people.

    這是一個崇高的願景。

  • And I think this because at the societal level,

    我認為從社會層面上來看,

  • expansions of altruism and compassion are already happening everywhere.

    利他主義及同情心已經擴張到每個角落。

  • The psychologist Steven Pinker and others have shown

    心理學家史迪芬.平克跟其他研究者表示,

  • that all around the world people are becoming less and less accepting

    世界上的人們越來越難

  • of suffering in ever-widening circles of others,

    接受人際圈以外的人們受到折磨,

  • which has led to declines of all kinds of cruelty and violence,

    所以許多殘忍、暴力的事件才會越來越少

  • from animal abuse to domestic violence to capital punishment.

    像是虐待動物、家庭暴力及死刑。

  • And it's led to increases in all kinds of altruism.

    而各種利他行為越來越多。

  • A hundred years ago, people would have thought it was ludicrous

    一百多年前,人們認為

  • how normal and ordinary it is

    捐贈血液及骨髓,

  • for people to donate their blood and bone marrow

    是非常荒謬可笑的事,

  • to complete strangers today.

    但在今日,這項行為卻是相當普遍。

  • Is it possible that a hundred years from now

    也許在百年之後,

  • people will think that donating a kidney to a stranger

    人們會認為捐讚腎臟給陌生人

  • is just as normal and ordinary

    是一件再普通不過的事,

  • as we think donating blood and bone marrow is today?

    就像我們今日認為捐血跟骨髓很普通一樣。

  • Maybe.

    或許,

  • So what's at the root of all these amazing changes?

    這些驚人變化的根源,

  • In part it seems to be

    某部分或許是

  • increases in wealth and standards of living.

    源自於財富的增加或生活水平的進步。

  • As societies become wealthier and better off,

    社會變得更富有、更好,

  • people seem to turn their focus of attention outward,

    人們會開始將注意力轉向其他方面。

  • and as a result, all kinds of altruism towards strangers increases,

    因此,對陌生人的利他行為增加了,

  • from volunteering to charitable donations and even altruistic kidney donations.

    從志工服務、慷慨地捐錢甚至是捐出自己的腎臟。

  • But all of these changes also yield

    但所有的改變都顯示

  • a strange and paradoxical result,

    一個奇怪又矛盾的結果,

  • which is that even as the world is becoming a better and more humane place,

    世界正在變得更好更友善,

  • which it is,

    然而,

  • there's a very common perception that it's becoming worse

    大眾的理解是,世界變得更糟糕更暴力了,

  • and more cruel, which it's not.

    這跟前面敘述的牴觸。

  • And I don't know exactly why this is,

    我並不清楚為何會如此,

  • but I think it may be that we now just know so much more

    但我認為可能是因為我們

  • about the suffering of strangers in distant places,

    只能在能力範圍內,關心我們所知正在受苦的人們,

  • and so we now care a lot more

    而如今的我們能夠知道

  • about the suffering of those distant strangers.