字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 There's a man out there, somewhere, 譯者: Wen-Kuang Liu 審譯者: Sui He who looks a little bit like the actor Idris Elba, 一位男子站在那， or at least he did 20 years ago. 長的有點神似演員伊卓瑞斯·艾巴， I don't know anything else about him, 或者是艾巴20年前的樣子。 except that he once saved my life 除了他鋌而走險 by putting his own life in danger. 救了我一命以外， This man ran across four lanes of freeway traffic in the middle of the night 我對他一無所知。 to bring me back to safety 在夜裡，男子橫穿4條高速行車道， after a car accident that could have killed me. 將我從一場致命車禍中救出， And the whole thing left me really shaken up, obviously, 並且將我帶到到安全的地方。 but it also left me with this kind of burning, gnawing need 整個事件讓我相當恐慌， to understand why he did it, 但也留下了一個纏繞在心頭、 揮之不去的困惑， what forces within him caused him to make the choice 讓我想了解為什麼他要這麼做。 that I owe my life to, 是什麼樣的動力 to risk his own life to save the life of a stranger? 讓他決定冒著喪失性命的風險 In other words, what are the causes of his or anybody else's capacity for altruism? 去拯救一個陌生人的命？ But first let me tell you what happened. 換句話說，哪種因素造就了 他或者其他人的利他行為？ That night, I was 19 years old 在開始之前，讓我先告訴你們這故事。 and driving back to my home in Tacoma, Washington, 事件當晚，我那時19歲， down the Interstate 5 freeway, 我正要開車返回位於華盛頓州塔科馬的家， when a little dog darted out in front of my car. 要下第五洲際公路時， And I did exactly what you're not supposed to do, 一隻小狗飛奔到我的車子前方。 which is swerve to avoid it. 我立刻轉向避免撞上牠， And I discovered why you're not supposed to do that. 雖然這並不是一個值得大家學習的做法。 I hit the dog anyways, 並且，我發現不該這麼做的原因。 and that sent the car into a fishtail, 我最終還是撞到了那條狗， and then a spin across the freeway, 我的車子也劇烈搖晃， until finally it wound up in the fast lane of the freeway 最且開始在公路上打轉， faced backwards into oncoming traffic 最後停在了公路的快車道上， and then the engine died. 逆向面對即將而來的車輛， And I was sure in that moment that I was about to die too, 此時我的引擎卻無法發動。 but I didn't 我非常確定，那個瞬間，我將喪失性命 because of the actions of that one brave man 但我沒有。 who must have made the decision 因為一位勇敢的男子，做出行動， within a fraction of a second of seeing my stranded car 在看見我拋錨的車子後， to pull over and run across four lanes of freeway traffic 下定決心，把車停在路旁， in the dark 在昏暗不明的黑夜中， to save my life. 飛奔過4條行車道， And then after he got my car working again 救了我一命。 and got me back to safety and made sure I was going to be all right, 事後他幫我的車子修理處理好， he drove off again. 並且帶我到了安全的地點 確保一切無恙後， He never even told me his name, 他才開車離去。 and I'm pretty sure I forgot to say thank you. 他甚至沒有告訴我他的名字﹐ So before I go any further, 而我也清楚記得，我忘記道謝了。 I really want to take a moment 在我繼續講下去之前， to stop and say thank you to that stranger. 我真的很想花點時間 (Applause) 好好地答謝那位陌生人。 I tell you all of this （掌聲） because the events of that night changed the course of my life to some degree. 我將這件事情告訴你們， I became a psychology researcher, 是因為那晚的事情， 某些程度上地改變了我的人生課題， and I've devoted my work to understanding the human capacity to care for others. 我成為了一位心理學研究者， Where does it come from, and how does it develop, 並且致力於理解人類照顧他人的能力。 and what are the extreme forms that it can take? 究竟這能力是怎麼來的？ 又是怎麼發展的? These questions are really important to understanding basic aspects 為什麼在極端的情況也能展現出來？ of human social nature. 這些問題對於理解人類的社會性來說， A lot of people, and this includes everybody 是相當重要的基本方面。 from philosophers and economists to ordinary people 有許多人，包括各種職業 believe that human nature is fundamentally selfish, 像是哲學家、經濟學家甚至是一般人， that we're only ever really motivated by our own welfare. 都認為人性是自私的， But if that's true, why do some people, like the stranger who rescued me, 人們總是因為有利可圖才行動。 do selfless things, like helping other people 但如果人真如此， 為何有些人會做一些對無私的事 at enormous risk and cost to themselves? 像是冒著風險幫助別人， Answering this question 或像那位陌生人一樣幫助我呢？ requires exploring the roots of extraordinary acts of altruism, 要想回答這個疑問， and what might make people who engage in such acts 我們需要探索利他行為的根源， different than other people. 為什麼有些人不同於他人， But until recently, very little work on this topic had been done. 會願意參與這樣非凡的舉動呢？ The actions of the man who rescued me 到目前為止，幾乎沒有研究探討這樣的議題。 meet the most stringent definition of altruism, 幫助我的那位男子 which is a voluntary, costly behavior 符合了利他主義的最極端定義， motivated by the desire to help another individual. 即是志願性地、大投入地 So it's a selfless act intended to benefit only the other. 並且強烈地渴望幫助他人。 What could possibly explain an action like that? 這是無私的舉動，他們試圖帶給人們利益。 One answer is compassion, obviously, 該如何解釋這樣的舉動呢？ which is a key driver of altruism. 顯然，第一個答案是同情心， But then the question becomes, 這是驅動利他行為的重點。 why do some people seem to have more of it than others? 但這樣問題又變成了 And the answer may be that the brains of highly altruistic people 為什麼某些人 會比其他人更有同情心？ are different in fundamental ways. 答案可能是具高度利他行為的人們 But to figure out how, 本質上腦袋就跟其他人不同。 I actually started from the opposite end, 為了去找出緣由， with psychopaths. 我從反面思考著手， A common approach to understanding basic aspects of human nature, 研究一些精神病患者。 like the desire to help other people, 想要研究幫助他人的天性， is to study people in whom that desire is missing, 我們採用了一個普遍的研究方法， and psychopaths are exactly such a group. 即是去研究某些失去這些天性的人們， Psychopathy is a developmental disorder 像是一些精神病患者就很符合這項特徵。 with strongly genetic origins, 這些精神病患者由於基因上的缺陷， and it results in a personality that's cold and uncaring 導致發展過程中具有缺陷， and a tendency to engage in antisocial and sometimes very violent behavior. 最終造成他們的冷酷無情， Once my colleagues and I at the National Institute of Mental Health 這讓他們傾向利用一些 反社會甚至暴利行為解決事情。 conducted some of the first ever brain imaging research 在國家心理衛生研究院 of psychopathic adolescents, 我和同事拍攝了第一例 and our findings, and the findings of other researchers now, 我們及後續研究者的發現 have shown that people who are psychopathic 都顯示出患有精神疾病的人們 pretty reliably exhibit three characteristics. 擁有三個相關性極高的特徵。 First, although they're not generally insensitive to other people's emotions, 首先，他們對於感受別人的情緒 並沒有遲鈍的表現， they are insensitive to signs that other people are in distress. 但是對於他人的痛苦情緒卻難以感受。 And in particular, 特別是， they have difficulty recognizing fearful facial expressions like this one. 他們對於辨識恐懼的臉部表情有障礙，像這張圖。 And fearful expressions convey urgent need and emotional distress, 而恐懼的表情傳遞了 一個人的急迫及精神上的痛苦， and they usually elicit compassion and a desire to help 一般人見到恐懼的表情， in people who see them, 通常都會被激起同情心，並想要伸出援手， so it makes sense that people who tend to lack compassion 所以合理的推論是，缺乏同情心的人 also tend to be insensitive to these cues. 其實是難以感受這些暗示的。 The part of the brain 在大腦中， that's the most important for recognizing fearful expressions 分辨恐懼表情的重要部分 is called the amygdala. 叫做杏仁核。 There are very rare cases of people who lack amygdalas completely, 極少數的人有杏仁核發展不全的症狀， and they're profoundly impaired in recognizing fearful expressions. 而這些人對於恐懼表情的辨識 都有相當程度的障礙。 And whereas healthy adults and children 儘管他們是身體健康的成人或小孩， usually show big spikes in amygdala activity 他們在看到恐懼的表情時， when they look at fearful expressions, 腦中杏仁核的活性都有嚴重的阻礙， psychopaths' amygdalas are underreactive to these expressions. 精神病患者的杏仁核 對這些表情感受不活躍。 Sometimes they don't react at all, 有時候他們根本沒有反應， which may be why they have trouble detecting these cues. 或許這就是為何他們在 感受恐懼表情上會有障礙。 Finally, psychopaths' amygdalas are smaller than average 精神病患者的杏仁核 by about 18 or 20 percent. 比正常人還小18-20% So all of these findings are reliable and robust, 因此，這些發現的可信度相當高， and they're very interesting. 同時也是相當有趣的發現。 But remember that my main interest 但請記得我主要感興趣的 is not understanding why people don't care about others. 並非為何有些人不關心他人。 It's understanding why they do. 而是為何人會關心他人。 So the real question is, 所以真正的問題是， could extraordinary altruism, 精神病患者的相反面， which is the opposite of psychopathy 充滿同情心並可望幫助他人的人們， in terms of compassion and the desire to help other people, 那些非凡的利他行為， emerge from a brain that is also the opposite of psychopathy? 是否因為他們的大腦與 精神病患者也完全相反？ A sort of antipsychopathic brain, 非精神病患者的大腦， better able to recognize other people's fear, 是否就能辨識人們恐懼的臉孔？ an amygdala that's more reactive to this expression 是否他們的杏仁核對這個表情能活化？ and maybe larger than average as well? 或者他們的杏仁核比正常人的還要大？ As my research has now shown, 依據我的研究， all three things are true. 三者皆是。 And we discovered this 透過測試那些真的具有利他行為的人， by testing a population of truly extraordinary altruists. 我們發現了這些現象。 These are people who have given one of their own kidneys 那些受試者很樂意將自己的腎臟， to a complete stranger. 去提供給一位陌生人。 So these are people who have volunteered to undergo major surgery 這些人自願承受大型手術， so that one of their own healthy kidneys can be removed 將他們自己的健康腎臟轉移， and transplanted into a very ill stranger 到另一位虛弱的陌生人身上， that they've never met and may never meet. 他們甚至從未見過這些陌生人。 "Why would anybody do this?" is a very common question. 「為什麼會有人這樣做？」 這是一個大家都想知道的問題。 And the answer may be 而答案可能是因為 that the brains of these extraordinary altruists 這些具非凡利他行為的人， have certain special characteristics. 他們的大腦有一些特別之處。 They are better at recognizing other people's fear. 他們更善於感受他人的恐懼。 They're literally better at detecting when somebody else is in distress. 他們確實更能偵測到別人的痛苦情緒。 This may be in part because their amygdala is more reactive to these expressions. 可能有部分是因為他們的杏仁核 對這些表情的反應更加活耀。 And remember, this is the same part of the brain that we found 提醒一下，精神病患者腦中同一個部位 was underreactive in people who are psychopathic. 對此是不活耀的。 And finally, their amygdalas are larger than average as well, 最後一點，我們發現具利他行為的人， by about eight percent. 他們的杏仁核比常人大了8%。 So together, what these data suggest 綜上所述，這些資訊顯示了 is the existence of something like a caring continuum in the world 世界上的人們可能存在於這條愛心連續曲線上， that's anchored at the one end by people who are highly psychopathic, 有的人在精神疾病的極端，不具同情心， and at the other by people who are very compassionate 也有人非常地有同情心， and driven to acts of extreme altruism. 導致他們有極端的利他行為。 But I should add that what makes extraordinary altruists so different 但我要強調，這些非凡的利他行為 is not just that they're more compassionate than average. 並不僅是因為他們的同情心強於常人。 They are, 他們其實是 but what's even more unusual about them 更加地與眾不同， is that they're compassionate and altruistic 他們的同情心跟利他行為 not just towards people who are in their own innermost circle 不僅是對於最接近自己的人際關係， of friends and family. Right? 像是朋友跟家人，對吧？ Because to have compassion for people that you love and identify with 因為對你所愛的人有同情心， is not extraordinary. 並不能算是非凡的行為。 Truly extraordinary altruists' compassion extends way beyond that circle, 真正非凡的利他者的同情心，會延伸至圈外． even beyond their wider circle of acquaintances 甚至延伸到熟人圈之外， to people who are outside their social circle altogether, 延伸到自己社交圈以外的所有人， total strangers, 所有的陌生人， just like the man who rescued me. 就像是那位拯救我的男子那樣。 And I've had the opportunity now to ask a lot of altruistic kidney donors 我曾問願意捐贈腎臟的人們： how it is that they manage to generate such a wide circle of compassion 如何才能將自己的同情心的範圍擴大， that they were willing to give a complete stranger their kidney. 擴大到使他們願意將腎臟 捐給完全不認識的陌生人？ And I found it's a really difficult question for them to answer. 而我發現這對他們來說是非常困難的問題， I say, "How is it that you're willing to do this thing 我問：「是什麼讓你願意去做這件 when so many other people don't? 大多數人都不願意做的事？ You're one of fewer than 2,000 Americans 每2000位美國人中都不會有一位像你這樣 who has ever given a kidney to a stranger. 願意將腎臟捐給陌生人的人， What is it that makes you so special?" 是什麼讓你變得如此特別？」 And what do they say? 他們怎麼說？ They say, "Nothing. 他們說：「沒什麼， There's nothing special about me. 對我來說這沒什麼特別。 I'm just the same as everybody else." 我跟其他人都是一樣的。」 And I think that's actually a really telling answer, 而我想，這確實就是真正的答案了， because it suggests that the circles of these altruists don't look like this, 因為正顯示出了， 這些人的人際圈看起來不像這樣， they look more like this. 而是像這樣， They have no center. 他們沒有中心自我。 These altruists literally don't think of themselves 這些利他主義者不認為 as being at the center of anything, 自己是在任何事物的中心， as being better or more inherently important than anybody else. 他們並不覺得自己 比其他人更優秀或獨特。 When I asked one altruist why donating her kidney made sense to her, 當我問一位利他主義者， 為什麼捐贈腎臟對她來說是正常的， she said, "Because it's not about me." 她說：「因為這不只是關係到我自己。」 Another said, 另一位利他主義者說： "I'm not different. I'm not unique. 「我跟其他人沒什麼不同，我並不是獨一無二。 Your study here is going to find out that I'm just the same as you." 你的研究中應該也發現了，其實我與你沒什麼不同。」 I think the best description for this amazing lack of self-centeredness 我認為對於這樣缺乏自我中心的性格， 最好的敘述是 is humility, 謙卑， which is that quality that in the words of St. Augustine 而謙卑二字正是使聖奧古斯丁， makes men as angels. 最後成為天使的原因。 And why is that? 為什麼呢？ It's because if there's no center of your circle, 因為如果你的人際圈中沒有中心， there can be no inner rings or outer rings, 那就沒有內圈，也沒有外圈了， nobody who is more or less worthy of your care and compassion 沒有人更值得也沒有人不值得 than anybody else. 你去表現同情心。 And I think that this is what really distinguishes extraordinary altruists 我認為這是最非凡利他者與一般人 from the average person. 最大的差異。 But I also think that this is a view of the world that's attainable by many 但我認為對大多數的人來說， and maybe even most people. 這是一個崇高的願景。 And I think this because at the societal level, 我認為從社會層面上來看， expansions of altruism and compassion are already happening everywhere. 利他主義及同情心已經擴張到每個角落。 The psychologist Steven Pinker and others have shown 心理學家史迪芬．平克跟其他研究者表示， that all around the world people are becoming less and less accepting 世界上的人們越來越難 of suffering in ever-widening circles of others, 接受人際圈以外的人們受到折磨， which has led to declines of all kinds of cruelty and violence, 所以許多殘忍、暴力的事件才會越來越少 from animal abuse to domestic violence to capital punishment. 像是虐待動物、家庭暴力及死刑。 And it's led to increases in all kinds of altruism. 而各種利他行為越來越多。 A hundred years ago, people would have thought it was ludicrous 一百多年前，人們認為 how normal and ordinary it is 捐贈血液及骨髓， for people to donate their blood and bone marrow 是非常荒謬可笑的事， to complete strangers today. 但在今日，這項行為卻是相當普遍。 Is it possible that a hundred years from now 也許在百年之後， people will think that donating a kidney to a stranger 人們會認為捐讚腎臟給陌生人 is just as normal and ordinary 是一件再普通不過的事， as we think donating blood and bone marrow is today? 就像我們今日認為捐血跟骨髓很普通一樣。 Maybe. 或許， So what's at the root of all these amazing changes? 這些驚人變化的根源， In part it seems to be 某部分或許是 increases in wealth and standards of living. 源自於財富的增加或生活水平的進步。 As societies become wealthier and better off, 社會變得更富有、更好， people seem to turn their focus of attention outward, 人們會開始將注意力轉向其他方面。 and as a result, all kinds of altruism towards strangers increases, 因此，對陌生人的利他行為增加了， from volunteering to charitable donations and even altruistic kidney donations. 從志工服務、慷慨地捐錢甚至是捐出自己的腎臟。 But all of these changes also yield 但所有的改變都顯示 a strange and paradoxical result, 一個奇怪又矛盾的結果， which is that even as the world is becoming a better and more humane place, 世界正在變得更好更友善， which it is, 然而， there's a very common perception that it's becoming worse 大眾的理解是，世界變得更糟糕更暴力了， and more cruel, which it's not. 這跟前面敘述的牴觸。 And I don't know exactly why this is, 我並不清楚為何會如此， but I think it may be that we now just know so much more 但我認為可能是因為我們 about the suffering of strangers in distant places, 只能在能力範圍內，關心我們所知正在受苦的人們， and so we now care a lot more 而如今的我們能夠知道 about the suffering of those distant strangers.