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  • This year, Germany is celebrating

    譯者: Jiayi Lu 審譯者: Adrienne Lin

  • the 25th anniversary of the peaceful revolution

    這一年,德國正在慶祝

  • in East Germany.

    前東德二十五週年

  • In 1989, the Communist regime was moved away,

    和平革命紀念日。

  • the Berlin Wall came down, and one year later,

    1989 年,共產主義政權垮台、

  • the German Democratic Republic, the GDR,

    柏林圍牆倒塌,並且在一年後,

  • in the East was unified

    東邊的德意志民主共和國

  • with the Federal Republic of Germany in the West

    簡稱GDR

  • to found today's Germany.

    和西邊的德意志聯邦共和國統一

  • Among many other things, Germany inherited

    成為今日的德國。

  • the archives of the East German secret police,

    最重要的是,

  • known as the Stasi.

    德國承接前東德秘密警察的檔案,

  • Only two years after its dissolution,

    稱為史塔西(即國家安全部)。

  • its documents were opened to the public,

    僅僅在前東德政權崩解二年後,

  • and historians such as me started

    它的文件檔案就被公諸於世,

  • to study these documents

    而跟我一樣的歷史學家們

  • to learn more about how the GDR surveillance state

    就開始研究這些文件,

  • functioned.

    想了解前東德的監控機制

  • Perhaps you have watched the movie

    如何運作。

  • "The Lives of Others."

    也許你已經看過那部電影

  • This movie made the Stasi known worldwide,

    《竊聽風暴》。

  • and as we live in an age where words

    這部電影讓史塔西名揚全球。

  • such as "surveillance" or "wiretapping"

    生長在一個

  • are on the front pages of newspapers,

    「監視」或「竊聽」等字眼

  • I would like to speak about how the Stasi

    常出現在報紙頭條的年代,

  • really worked.

    我很樂意分享史塔西

  • At the beginning, let's have a short look

    實際上是如何運作的。

  • at the history of the Stasi,

    首先,我們先簡單地回顧

  • because it's really important for understanding

    史塔西的歷史,

  • its self-conception.

    因為這很重要,有助於我們了解

  • Its origins are located in Russia.

    它所代表的意義。

  • In 1917, the Russian Communists founded

    史塔西首先發源於俄羅斯。

  • the Emergency Commission for Combating

    1917 年,俄羅斯的共產主義者成立了

  • Counter-Revolution and Sabotage,

    全俄肅清反革命

  • shortly Cheka.

    及怠工非常委員會,

  • It was led by Felix Dzerzhinsky.

    簡稱為契卡。

  • The Cheka was an instrument of the Communists

    由費利克斯·捷爾任斯基領導。

  • to establish their regime by terrorizing the population

    作為共產黨建立暴權的手段,

  • and executing their enemies.

    在人們身上施與恐怖統治,

  • It evolved later into the well-known KGB.

    對敵人處以死刑,

  • The Cheka was the idol of the Stasi officers.

    後來演變為眾所皆知的 KGB (蘇聯國家安全委員會)。

  • They called themselves Chekists,

    契卡是史塔西特工崇拜的委員會,

  • and even the emblem was very similar,

    他們稱呼自己是契卡人,

  • as you can see here.

    甚至你可以看到

  • In fact, the secret police of Russia

    他們的標織非常相似。

  • was the creator and instructor of the Stasi.

    事實上,這些俄羅斯秘密警察

  • When the Red Army occupied East Germany in 1945,

    就是主導創立史塔西的關鍵。

  • it immediately expanded there,

    1945 年,當蘇聯紅軍佔領東德時

  • and soon it started to train the German Communists

    紅軍勢力立即擴展到那裡,

  • to build up their own secret police.

    很快地對德國共產黨展開訓練

  • By the way, in this hall where we are now,

    建立他們專屬的秘密警察。

  • the ruling party of the GDR was founded in 1946.

    順道一提,我們現在所在的這棟大廳,

  • Five years later, the Stasi was established,

    前東德執政黨成立於 1946 年。

  • and step by step, the dirty job of oppression

    五年後正式成立史塔西,

  • was handed over to it.

    漸漸地,這種卑鄙壓迫的工作

  • For instance, the central jail

    已轉交給史塔西。

  • for political prisoners,

    舉一個例子,

  • which was established by the Russians,

    政治犯的中央監獄,

  • was taken over by the Stasi

    是由俄羅斯成立,

  • and used until the end of Communism.

    由史塔西接管和利用

  • You see it here.

    直到共產主義末期。

  • At the beginning, every important step

    你看這裡。

  • took place under the attendance of the Russians.

    最初,每個重要的步驟

  • But the Germans are known to be very effective,

    都在蘇聯的參與下進行。

  • so the Stasi grew very quickly,

    但是德國人非常有效率,

  • and already in 1953, it had more employees

    因此史塔西成長得非常快速,

  • than the Gestapo had,

    早在 1953 年,比蓋世太保

  • the secret police of Nazi Germany.

    更多的職員,

  • The number doubled in each decade.

    即納粹德國密秘警察。

  • In 1989, more than 90,000 employees

    每十年人數增加一倍。

  • worked for the Stasi.

    1989 年,超過九萬名職員

  • This meant that one employee

    為史塔西工作。

  • was responsible for 180 inhabitants,

    意指一名職員

  • which was really unique in the world.

    負責 180 位居民,

  • At the top of this tremendous apparatus,

    在這世界上非常獨特。

  • there was one man, Erich Mielke.

    在這個巨大機制的頂端,

  • He ruled the Ministry of State Security

    有一個男人名叫埃里希·梅爾克。

  • for more than 30 years.

    他掌控了國家安全局

  • He was a scrupulous functionary

    超過 30 年的時間。

  • in his past, he killed two policemen

    他是一位一絲不苟,小心謹慎的黨員,

  • not far away from here

    他過去曾殺過兩名警察,

  • who in fact personalized the Stasi.

    就在距離這裡不遠的地方,

  • But what was so exceptional about the Stasi?

    也是他把史塔西擬人化。

  • Foremost, it was its enormous power,

    但是史塔西特殊的地方在哪裡?

  • because it united different functions

    首先,是它本身巨大的權力,

  • in one organization.

    因為它以一個組織

  • First of all, the Stasi

    結合不同的功能。

  • was an intelligence service.

    第一,

  • It used all the imaginable instruments

    史塔西是個情報機構。

  • for getting information secretly,

    它利用所有可想像的工具

  • such as informers, or tapping phones,

    秘密地收集資訊,

  • as you can see it on the picture here.

    例如告密者,或竊聽電話者,

  • And it was not only active in East Germany,

    你可以在這張照片上看到。

  • but all over the world.

    這不止活躍於東德,

  • Secondly, the Stasi was a secret police.

    而是全世界。

  • It could stop people on the street

    第二,史塔西是種秘密警察。

  • and arrest them in its own prisons.

    它可以阻止在街上的人民

  • Thirdly, the Stasi worked

    將他們逮捕到自建的監獄。

  • as a kind of public prosecutor.

    第三,史塔西的工作

  • It had the right to open preliminary investigations

    是扮演一種檢察官角色。

  • and to interrogate people officially.

    它有權利展開初步調查

  • Last but not least,

    並正式質問人民。

  • the Stasi had its own armed forces.

    最後一點,

  • More than 11,000 soldiers were serving

    史塔西有自己的軍事力量。

  • in its so-called Guards Regiment.

    超過一萬一千名軍人

  • It was founded to crash down protests and uprisings.

    服務著這個所謂的警察團,

  • Due to this concentration of power,

    旨在打擊示威遊行和暴動。

  • the Stasi was called a state in the state.

    由於權力集中,

  • But let's look in more and more detail

    史塔西稱為國家中的國家。

  • at the tools of the Stasi.

    但是讓我們來看看更多

  • Please keep in mind that at that time

    史塔西運用工具的細節。

  • the web and smartphones were not yet invented.

    請記得在那個年代

  • Of course, the Stasi used all kinds

    網路和智慧型手機都還未出現。

  • of technical instruments to survey people.

    當然,史塔西利用

  • Telephones were wiretapped,

    各種電子工具調查人們。

  • including the phone of the German chancellor in the West,

    電話遭裝設竊聽器,

  • and often also the apartments.

    包括西德總理的電話,

  • Every day, 90,000 letters were being opened

    經常都是公寓遭到竊聽。

  • by these machines.

    每天有九萬封信

  • The Stasi also shadowed tens of thousands of people

    被這些機器拆開。

  • using specially trained agents and secret cameras

    史塔西還跟蹤窺伺成千上萬的人,

  • to document every step one took.

    利用受過特訓的間諜和秘密相機

  • In this picture, you can see me

    以記錄人們所做的每一步。

  • as a young man just in front of this building

    這張照片裡,你可以看到

  • where we are now, photographed by a Stasi agent.

    當時年輕的我就站在這座建築前面,

  • The Stasi even collected the smell of people.

    我們現在所處的位置 是史塔西特務拍攝我的地方。

  • It stored samples of it in closed jars

    史塔西甚至搜集人體氣味。

  • which were found after the peaceful revolution.

    密封罐收藏了人體氣味的樣本,

  • For all these tasks, highly specialized departments

    在和平革命後被找到。

  • were responsible.

    這些所有形式的任務,

  • The one which was tapping phone calls

    由高度專業化的部門負責。

  • was completely separated

    竊聽電話

  • from the one which controlled the letters,

    和掌控書信

  • for good reasons,

    由完全不一樣的特務負責,

  • because if one agent quit the Stasi,

    原因很明顯,

  • his knowledge was very small.

    因為如果有位特務退出史塔西,

  • Contrast that with Snowden, for example.

    他所知道的知識就非常狹小。

  • But the vertical specialization was also important

    舉個例子,跟史諾登事件的情況相反。

  • to prevent all kinds of empathy

    但是垂直化的專業分工合作

  • with the object of observation.

    對防止各種觀察對象的同理移情

  • The agent who shadowed me

    也很重要。

  • didn't know who I was

    監視我的特務

  • or why I was surveyed.

    並不知道我是誰

  • In fact, I smuggled forbidden books

    或為什麼我被調查。

  • from West to East Germany.

    事實上,我走私禁書

  • But what was even more typical for the Stasi

    從西方國家到前東德。

  • was the use of human intelligence,

    但是更典型的史塔西

  • people who reported secretly to the Stasi.

    是利用人類的聰明才智,

  • For the Minister of State Security,

    人們可以秘密通報史塔西。

  • these so-called unofficial employees

    對於國家安全局,

  • were the most important tools.

    這些所謂非正式職員

  • From 1975 on, nearly 200,000 people

    是最重要的工具。

  • collaborated constantly with the Stasi,

    從 1975 年開始,近二十萬人民

  • more than one percent of the population.

    一直不斷地和史塔西合作,

  • And in a way, the minister was right,

    超過人口的 1%。

  • because technical instruments

    也可以這麼說,部長是對的,

  • can only register what people are doing,

    因為科技儀器

  • but agents and spies can also report

    只能記載人們做了什麼事情,

  • what people are planning to do

    但是特務和間謀可以回報

  • and what they are thinking.

    人們在計劃什麼事情

  • Therefore, the Stasi recruited so many informants.

    及他們在想什麼。

  • The system of how to get them

    因此,史塔西招募很多線民。

  • and how to educate them, as it was called,

    招募他們

  • was very sophisticated.

    和「教育」他們的系統, 他們是這樣宣稱的,

  • The Stasi had its own university,

    非常複雜精細。

  • not far away from here,

    史塔西有自己的大學,

  • where the methods were explored

    離這裡不遠,

  • and taught to the officers.

    探討方法

  • This guideline gave a detailed description

    和教導職員。

  • of every step you have to take

    這本指南提供了詳細的

  • if you want to convince human beings

    所有你必須執行的步驟說明,