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  • I'd like to talk today

    譯者: Marssi Draw 審譯者: Adrienne Lin

  • about how we can change our brains

    我今天想談談

  • and our society.

    人類能如何改變我們的頭腦

  • Meet Joe.

    與我們的社會。

  • Joe's 32 years old and a murderer.

    這位是喬。

  • I met Joe 13 years ago on the lifer wing

    喬 32 歲,是殺人兇手。

  • at Wormwood Scrubs high-security prison in London.

    13 年前,我在無期徒刑的牢房認識他,

  • I'd like you to imagine this place.

    位於倫敦高戒備的苦艾監獄裡。

  • It looks and feels like it sounds:

    請你們想像這個地方。

  • Wormwood Scrubs.

    看起來和感覺起來就像它的名字:

  • Built at the end of the Victorian Era

    苦艾監獄 (Wormwood Scrubs 有洗刷悔恨之意)。

  • by the inmates themselves,

    在維多利亞時代末期時

  • it is where England's most dangerous prisoners are kept.

    完全由囚犯建造而成,

  • These individuals have committed acts

    那裡監禁著英國最危險的犯人。

  • of unspeakable evil.

    這些人都犯了

  • And I was there to study their brains.

    難以言喻的滔天大罪。

  • I was part of a team of researchers

    我在那裡研究他們的腦。

  • from University College London,

    我是倫敦大學學院研究團隊的成員之一,

  • on a grant from the U.K. department of health.

    這計畫由英國健康衛生署補助。

  • My task was to study a group of inmates

    我的任務是研究一群受刑人,

  • who had been clinically diagnosed as psychopaths.

    他們被臨床診斷為精神病患者。

  • That meant they were the most

    意即他們是所有受刑人中 最為冷酷無情,且最具攻擊性的罪犯。

  • callous and the most aggressive

    他們行為的根源是什麼?

  • of the entire prison population.

    是否有神經因素引發他們的疾病?

  • What lay at the root of their behavior?

    如果有神經因素的話,

  • Was there a neurological cause for their condition?

    我們能不能找到治療方式?

  • And if there was a neurological cause,

    我想談變化,尤其是情緒變化。

  • could we find a cure?

    成長期間,我總是對

  • So I'd like to speak about change, and especially about emotional change.

    人們改變的方式感興趣。

  • Growing up, I was always intrigued

    我的母親是臨床心理學家,

  • by how people change.

    晚上她偶爾會在家看診。

  • My mother, a clinical psychotherapist,

    她會關上通往客廳的門,

  • would occasionally see patients at home

    我就會開始想像

  • in the evening.

    房裡發生了神奇的事情。

  • She would shut the door to the living room,

    在五歲或六歲時,

  • and I imagined

    我會穿著睡衣偷跑到客廳,

  • magical things happened in that room.

    將耳朵貼在門上,坐在外頭。

  • At the age of five or six

    我睡著了不止一次,

  • I would creep up in my pajamas

    在療程結束後, 他們得把我向外推才能出來。

  • and sit outside with my ear glued to the door.

    我想那大概就是

  • On more than one occasion, I fell asleep

    我首次踏入苦艾監獄

  • and they had to push me out of the way

    安全面談室的原因。

  • at the end of the session.

    喬坐在鐵桌的對面,

  • And I suppose that's how I found myself

    不發一語地看著我到來。

  • walking into the secure interview room

    典獄長看來也一樣冷淡,

  • on my first day at Wormwood Scrubs.

    他說:「有任何問題就按紅色警鈴,

  • Joe sat across a steel table

    我們會儘快趕到。」

  • and greeted me with this blank expression.

    (笑聲)

  • The prison warden, looking equally indifferent,

    我坐下。

  • said, "Any trouble, just press the red buzzer,

    沉重的金屬門在我身後關上。

  • and we'll be around as soon as we can."

    我擡頭看著紅色警鈴,

  • (Laughter)

    遠在另一頭,喬身後的牆上。

  • I sat down.

    (笑聲)

  • The heavy metal door slammed shut behind me.

    我看著喬。

  • I looked up at the red buzzer

    也許他察覺了我的擔心,

  • far behind Joe on the opposite wall.

    便靠向前,

  • (Laughter)

    儘可能地安慰我說:

  • I looked at Joe.

    「噢,別在意警鈴了,

  • Perhaps detecting my concern,

    那根本就壞啦。」

  • he leaned forward, and said,

    (笑聲)

  • as reassuringly as he could,

    隨後幾個月,

  • "Ah, don't worry about the buzzer,

    我們檢測喬和他的獄友,

  • it doesn't work anyway."

    主要針對他們

  • (Laughter)

    分類各種情緒圖片的能力。

  • Over the subsequent months,

    接著觀察他們對那些情緒的身體反應。

  • we tested Joe and his fellow inmates,

    舉例來說,我們大部分

  • looking specifically at their ability

    見到像這樣有人看似傷心的圖片,

  • to categorize different images of emotion.

    都會立即有輕微、

  • And we looked at their physical response

    明顯的身體反應:

  • to those emotions.

    心跳加快、開始流汗。

  • So, for example, when most of us look

    我們研究中的精神病患能

  • at a picture like this of somebody looking sad,

    正確地敘述這些圖片,

  • we instantly have a slight,

    但是他們卻無法表現出應有的情緒。

  • measurable physical response:

    他們沒有身體反應。

  • increased heart rate, sweating of the skin.

    彷彿他們認得文字,

  • Whilst the psychopaths in our study were able

    卻無法同理其中蘊含的意義。

  • to describe the pictures accurately,

    因此我們想進一步探討這點,

  • they failed to show the emotions required.

    運用核磁共振造影 (MRI) 取得他們腦部的圖像。

  • They failed to show a physical response.

    結果發現這不是項簡單的任務。

  • It was as though they knew the words

    想像你得運送一批

  • but not the music of empathy.

    戴著手銬、腳鐐的精神病患

  • So we wanted to look closer at this

    穿越倫敦中心,

  • to use MRI to image their brains.

    而且還在尖鋒時間,

  • That turned out to be not such an easy task.

    且為了將他們每個人 放進核磁共振造影機,

  • Imagine transporting a collection

    你得移除所有金屬物品,

  • of clinical psychopaths across central London

    包括手銬和腳鐐,

  • in shackles and handcuffs

    還有所有的打洞、體環。

  • in rush hour,

    一段時間後,我們有了個試驗的答案。

  • and in order to place each of them in an MRI scanner,

    這些人不只是悲慘童年的受害者,

  • you have to remove all metal objects,

    他們還有別的問題。

  • including shackles and handcuffs,

    像喬這種人腦部的某個區域有缺陷,

  • and, as I learned, all body piercings.

    這個部位稱為杏仁核。

  • After some time, however, we had a tentative answer.

    杏仁核是一種杏仁形的器官,

  • These individuals were not just the victims

    深藏在大腦的每個半球中,

  • of a troubled childhood.

    被視為感受同理心的關鍵。

  • There was something else.

    一般來說,某人越有同情心,

  • People like Joe have a deficit in a brain area

    他的杏仁核就越大且越活躍。

  • called the amygdala.

    囚犯的杏仁核有缺陷,

  • The amygdala is an almond-shaped organ

    可能會導致他們缺乏同理心,

  • deep within each of the hemispheres of the brain.

    並做出不道德的行為。

  • It is thought to be key to the experience of empathy.

    那麼,讓我們退後一步來看。

  • Normally, the more empathic a person is,

    一般來說,養成道德行為

  • the larger and more active their amygdala is.

    只是成長的一部分,

  • Our population of inmates

    就像學習說話一樣。

  • had a deficient amygdala,

    在六個月大時,幾乎每個人

  • which likely led to their lack of empathy

    都能辨別東西是否有生命。

  • and to their immoral behavior.

    在一歲大時,

  • So let's take a step back.

    大部分孩童都能模仿

  • Normally, acquiring moral behavior

    其他人有意義的行為。

  • is simply part of growing up,

    例如,你的母親舉起雙手做伸展,

  • like learning to speak.

    你就會模仿她的動作。

  • At the age of six months, virtually every one of us

    一開始不會太完美。

  • is able to differentiate between animate and inanimate objects.

    我記得堂妹莎夏

  • At the age of 12 months,

    在兩歲時

  • most children are able to imitate

    就能快速翻閱繪本,

  • the purposeful actions of others.

    舔一根手指,然後用另一隻手換頁,

  • So for example, your mother raises her hands

    舔一根手指,然後用另一隻手換頁。

  • to stretch, and you imitate her behavior.

    (笑聲)

  • At first, this isn't perfect.

    漸漸地,我們建立起社會腦的基礎,

  • I remember my cousin Sasha,

    因此我們到三、四歲的時候,

  • two years old at the time,

    大部分的孩童,並非全部,

  • looking through a picture book

    都已經能理解別人的意圖,

  • and licking one finger and flicking the page with the other hand,

    這是另一種同理的前提。

  • licking one finger and flicking the page with the other hand.

    這種發展過程舉世皆然,

  • (Laughter)

    不論你住在世界何處,

  • Bit by bit, we build the foundations of the social brain

    或是身在哪一種文化,

  • so that by the time we're three, four years old,

    都強烈表示

  • most children, not all,

    道德行為的基礎是與生俱來的。

  • have acquired the ability to understand

    如果你懷疑這件事,

  • the intentions of others,

    只要試一件事,我試過了,

  • another prerequisite for empathy.

    不要遵守你對四歲孩童許下的承諾。

  • The fact that this developmental progression

    你會發現四歲孩童的心智

  • is universal,

    一點也不天真。

  • irrespective of where you live in the world

    他們就像是把瑞士刀,

  • or which culture you inhabit,

    在成長過程中

  • strongly suggests that the foundations

    用固定的心理模組精細打造,

  • of moral behavior are inborn.

    而且對公平的感受十分敏銳。

  • If you doubt this,

    年幼時期至關重要。

  • try, as I've done, to renege on a promise you've made

    童年期似乎是千載難逢的良機,

  • to a four-year-old.

    在那之後

  • You will find that the mind of a four-year old

    要掌握道德問題變得更加困難,

  • is not naïve in the slightest.

    就像成人學習外語一樣。

  • It is more akin to a Swiss army knife

    但那並非不可能。

  • with fixed mental modules

    最近史丹佛大學有一項很棒的研究

  • finely honed during development

    指出那些曾參與 虛擬實境遊戲的玩家,

  • and a sharp sense of fairness.

    選擇扮演善良、熱心英雄的人

  • The early years are crucial.

    確實在之後會變得

  • There seems to be a window of opportunity,

    比較樂於照顧與幫助他人。

  • after which mastering moral questions

    我的意思並不是

  • becomes more difficult,

    要賦予罪犯超能力,

  • like adults learning a foreign language.

    而是提議我們應該找出一些方法

  • That's not to say it's impossible.

    讓喬和像他這樣的人

  • A recent, wonderful study from Stanford University

    能夠改變他們的大腦和行為,

  • showed that people who have played

    這將有利於他們,

  • a virtual reality game in which they took on

    也有利於我們所有的人。

  • the role of a good and helpful superhero

    那麼大腦能改變嗎?

  • actually became more caring and helpful

    超過一百年來,

  • towards others afterwards.

    神經解剖學家和後來的神經科學家

  • Now I'm not suggesting

    都一致認為在過了 童年初期發展階段之後,

  • we endow criminals with superpowers,

    成人腦無法生長出新的腦細胞。

  • but I am suggesting that we need to find ways

    腦只能在特定條件中才能改變。

  • to get Joe and people like him

    這是在過去所被深信的。

  • to change their brains and their behavior,

    但是到了 1990 年代,

  • for their benefit

    開始有研究顯示,

  • and for the benefit of the rest of us.

    從普林斯頓的 伊莉莎白.古爾德等人開始,

  • So can brains change?

    研究開始顯示神經生成的證據,

  • For over 100 years,

    新的腦細胞生成

  • neuroanatomists and later neuroscientists

    會出現在成年哺乳動物的腦中,

  • held the view that after initial development in childhood,

    一開始會在嗅球,

  • no new brain cells could grow

    主責我們嗅覺的部位;

  • in the adult human brain.

    接下來是在海馬迴,

  • The brain could only change

    這是和短期記憶有關的地方,

  • within certain set limits.

    最後是在杏仁核。

  • That was the dogma.

    為了理解整個流程如何運作,

  • But then, in the 1990s,

    我離開精神病患的研究, 加入哈佛的研究室,

  • studies starting showing,

    專攻學習與發展。

  • following the lead of Elizabeth Gould at Princeton and others,

    我研究老鼠,而非精神病患,

  • studies started showing the evidence of neurogenesis,

    因為同樣的腦反應

  • the birth of new brain cells

    顯現在許多不同的社會型動物上。

  • in the adult mammalian brain,

    因此如果你將一隻老鼠 養在普通的籠子裡,

  • first in the olfactory bulb,

    基本上就是鞋盒,並放入棉花球,

  • which is responsible for our sense of smell,

    單獨飼養,沒有太多刺激,

  • then in the hippocampus

    牠不僅會了無生氣,

  • involving short-term memory,

    而且還常會發展出奇怪、重複的行為。

  • and finally in the amygdala itself.

    這種天生好交際的動物

  • In order to understand

    會失去和其他老鼠連結的能力,

  • how this process works,

    甚至在接觸其他老鼠時, 會變得有攻擊性。

  • I left the psychopaths and joined a lab in Oxford

    然而,把老鼠養在所謂的

  • specializing in learning and development.

    豐富環境之中,

  • Instead of psychopaths, I studied mice,

    和其他老鼠住在較大的地方,

  • because the same pattern of brain responses

    附有輪子、階梯和探索區域,

  • appears across many different species of social animals.

    顯示了神經生成,

  • So if you rear a mouse in a standard cage,

    即新的腦細胞生長,

  • a shoebox, essentially, with cotton wool,

    如我們所見,牠們也會有較佳的表現

  • alone and without much stimulation,

    在學習與記憶的任務上。

  • not only does it not thrive,

    牠們不會建立道德觀,

  • but it will often develop strange,

    不會幫"老"老鼠提購物袋過馬路,

  • repetitive behaviors.

    但是改良的環境會帶來

  • This naturally sociable animal

    健康與友善的行為。

  • will lose its ability to bond with other mice,

    兩相比較,養在普通籠子裡的老鼠,

  • even becoming aggressive when introduced to them.

    你可能會說,和在牢房裡也差不多,

  • However, mice reared in what we called

    已大幅降低腦中新神經元的數量。

  • an enriched environment,

    現在我們已清楚知道 哺乳動物的杏仁核,

  • a large habitation with other mice

    包含像我們的靈長類動物,

  • with wheels and ladders and areas to explore,

    也能顯示神經生成。

  • demonstrate neurogenesis,

    在腦部的某些區塊中,

  • the birth of new brain cells,

    超過 20% 的細胞都是在近期形成。

  • and as we showed, they also perform better

    我們才剛開始理解

  • on a range of learning and memory tasks.

    這些細胞真正的功能是什麼,

  • Now, they don't develop morality to the point of

    但是它意謂著腦也能夠

  • carrying the shopping bags of little old mice

    大幅改變,一直到成年時期。

  • across the street,

    然而,我們的腦也對

  • but their improved environment results in healthy,

    環境中的壓力非常敏感。

  • sociable behavior.

    壓力激素和糖皮質素

  • Mice reared in a standard cage, by contrast,

    都由腦部釋出,

  • not dissimilar, you might say, from a prison cell,

    抑制這些新細胞的成長。

  • have dramatically lower levels of new neurons

    壓力越大,腦部的發展就會越少,

  • in the brain.

    因而導致適應力較差,

  • It is now clear that the amygdala of mammals,

    並且讓壓力更大。

  • including primates like us,

    這是先天與後天之間的相互影響,

  • can show neurogenesis.

    千真萬確發生在我們眼前。

  • In some areas of the brain,

    當你思考這件事時,

  • more than 20 percent of cells are newly formed.

    諷刺的是,我們目前提供

  • We're just beginning to understand

    給有壓力杏仁核人們的解方,

  • what exact function these cells have,

    就是把他們放在

  • but what it implies is that the brain is capable

    其實會抑制任何發育機會的環境。

  • of extraordinary change way into adulthood.

    當然,監禁是必要的處置,

  • However, our brains are also

    對刑事司法系統

  • exquisitely sensitive to stress in our environment.

    以及保護社會的立場都是如此。

  • Stress hormones, glucocorticoids,

    我們的研究並不是說

  • released by the brain,

    罪犯應該將核磁共振攝影

  • suppress the growth of these new cells.

    當做法庭上的證據,

  • The more stress, the less brain development,

    讓罪犯因為有缺陷的杏仁核而免於受罰。

  • which in turn causes less adaptability

    證據其實與此背道而馳。

  • and causes higher stress levels.

    因為我們的腦有改變的能力,

  • This is the interplay between nature and nurture

    我們需要對自己的行為負責,

  • in real time in front of our eyes.

    他們需要負起

  • When you think about it,

    改過遷善的責任。

  • it is ironic that our current solution

    有一種矯正的方式可能有效,

  • for people with stressed amygdalae

    那就是透過修復式司法計畫。

  • is to place them in an environment

    選擇參與計畫的被害者

  • that actually inhibits any chance of further growth.

    會和罪犯面對面,

  • Of course, imprisonment is a necessary part

    在安全的環境下,安排好的會面場景,

  • of the criminal justice system

    罪犯會被鼓勵

  • and of protecting society.

    為自己的行為負責,

  • Our research does not suggest

    被害者在過程中擔任積極的角色。

  • that criminals should submit their MRI scans

    在這種安排中,罪犯可以觀察,

  • as evidence in court

    也許是第一次,

  • and get off the hook because they've got a faulty amygdala.

    被害者以真實人物現身,

  • The evidence is actually the other way.

    有思想、感覺

  • Because our brains are capable of change,

    和真誠的情感反應。

  • we need to take responsibility for our actions,

    這種方式會刺激杏仁核,

  • and they need to take responsibility

    也許會成為一種更有效的矯正練習,