Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I'm going to talk about consciousness.

    譯者: Marssi Draw 審譯者: William Choi

  • Why consciousness?

    我要和各位談談意識,

  • Well, it's a curiously neglected subject,

    為什麼是意識呢?

  • both in our scientific and our philosophical culture.

    嗯,說也奇怪,這是一個被忽略的學科,

  • Now why is that curious?

    不管是在科學還是在哲學領域中,

  • Well, it is the most important aspect of our lives

    為什麼這麼奇怪?

  • for a very simple, logical reason,

    嗯,意識對生命有重要的意義,

  • namely, it's a necessary condition on anything

    原因簡單又合理,

  • being important in our lives that we're conscious.

    也就是說,在生命中的所有重要事情上,

  • You care about science, philosophy, music, art, whatever --

    擁有意識是必要的狀態。

  • it's no good if you're a zombie or in a coma, right?

    你關心科學、哲學、音樂、美術等,

  • So consciousness is number one.

    但是如果你是殭屍或植物人, 就不太好了吧?

  • The second reason is that when people do

    因此意識是最重要的。

  • get interested in it, as I think they should,

    第二個原因是,

  • they tend to say the most appalling things.

    當人們對它感興趣時, 如同我說的,他們應該要有興趣,

  • And then, even when they're not saying appalling things

    他們傾向說最可怕的事。

  • and they're really trying to do serious research,

    然後,即使他們不說可怕的事,

  • well, it's been slow. Progress has been slow.

    他們還真的會試著認真做研究,

  • When I first got interested in this, I thought, well,

    嗯,有點慢,進展得有點慢。

  • it's a straightforward problem in biology.

    我剛開始對這個議題感興趣時,

  • Let's get these brain stabbers to get busy and figure out

    我想,嗯,這是一條關於生物學的簡單問題。

  • how it works in the brain.

    我們可以拿些開腦的椎子,來看看

  • So I went over to UCSF and I talked to all

    意識怎麼在腦袋裡運作。

  • the heavy-duty neurobiologists there,

    因此,我去了加州大學舊金山分校 (UCSF),

  • and they showed some impatience,

    和那裡所有重量級的神經生物學家討論,

  • as scientists often do when you ask them embarrassing questions.

    他們顯得有點不耐煩,

  • But the thing that struck me is, one guy said in exasperation,

    就像當你問科學家 讓他難堪的問題時的模樣。

  • a very famous neurobiologist, he said, "Look,

    但是讓我驚訝的是, 有一位老兄腦羞成怒地說,

  • in my discipline it's okay to be interested in consciousness,

    他是很有名的神經生物學家,他說:

  • but get tenure first. Get tenure first."

    「你聽好,在我這一行你可以對意識有興趣,

  • Now I've been working on this for a long time.

    但你要先取得終身教授職位才行。 先取得終身教授職!」

  • I think now you might actually get tenure

    我做這個研究很久了,

  • by working on consciousness.

    我想藉由做點意識研究,

  • If so, that's a real step forward.

    也許你也可以成為終身教授了,

  • Okay, now why then is this curious reluctance

    如果這樣的話,那還真是前進了一大步。

  • and curious hostility to consciousness?

    好吧,那為什麼意識總會奇怪地

  • Well, I think it's a combination of two features

    不被重視或反對?

  • of our intellectual culture

    嗯,我認為這是

  • that like to think they're opposing each other

    人類智力文化的兩大特點,

  • but in fact they share a common set of assumptions.

    那就是愛說自己和對方持相反看法,

  • One feature is the tradition of religious dualism:

    但是事實上,他們有同樣的假設。

  • Consciousness is not a part of the physical world.

    第一個特點是宗教二元論的傳統思維:

  • It's a part of the spiritual world.

    意識不屬於物質世界,

  • It belongs to the soul,

    意識是精神世界的一部分。

  • and the soul is not a part of the physical world.

    它屬於靈魂,

  • That's the tradition of God, the soul and immortality.

    而靈魂不是物質世界的一部分。

  • There's another tradition that thinks it's opposed to this

    這是上帝、靈魂和不滅的傳統思維。

  • but accepts the worst assumption.

    另外有一項傳統思維和這個觀點完全相反,

  • That tradition thinks that we are heavy-duty scientific materialists:

    而且選擇了最差的假設。

  • Consciousness is not a part of the physical world.

    那個傳統思維認為我們都是 背負著重大責任的科學唯物主義者:

  • Either it doesn't exist at all, or it's something else,

    意識並不是物質世界的一部分。

  • a computer program or some damn fool thing,

    它要嘛根本就不存在, 不然就是別種東西,

  • but in any case it's not part of science.

    一個電腦程式或是某種該死的蠢東西,

  • And I used to get in an argument that really gave me a stomachache.

    但絕不會是科學的一部分。

  • Here's how it went.

    我常會爭論到胃很痛。

  • Science is objective, consciousness is subjective,

    結果是這樣。

  • therefore there cannot be a science of consciousness.

    科學是客觀的,而意識是主觀的。

  • Okay, so these twin traditions are paralyzing us.

    因此不可能有一種叫意識的科學。

  • It's very hard to get out of these twin traditions.

    好吧,這兩個雙胞傳統思維讓我們動彈不得。

  • And I have only one real message in this lecture,

    很難跳脫這兩個傳統雙胞胎。

  • and that is, consciousness is a biological phenomenon

    這堂課我只有一句真正的訊息要傳達,

  • like photosynthesis, digestion, mitosis --

    那就是,意識是一種生命現象,

  • you know all the biological phenomena -- and once you accept that,

    就像光合作用、消化作用、細胞有絲分裂,

  • most, though not all, of the hard problems

    你知道所有的生命現象,一旦你接受了,

  • about consciousness simply evaporate.

    大部分,雖然不是全部,

  • And I'm going to go through some of them.

    關於意識的難題就會消失無蹤了。

  • Okay, now I promised you to tell you some

    接下來我會再多做解釋。

  • of the outrageous things said about consciousness.

    我之前承諾要告訴你一些

  • One: Consciousness does not exist.

    跟意識有關的荒謬論點。

  • It's an illusion, like sunsets.

    第一:意識是不存在的。

  • Science has shown sunsets and rainbows are illusions.

    那是錯覺,就像夕陽,

  • So consciousness is an illusion.

    科學證明夕陽和彩虹都是錯覺,

  • Two: Well, maybe it exists, but it's really something else.

    如此看來意識也是一種錯覺。

  • It's a computer program running in the brain.

    第二:好吧,也許它存在, 但那真的是別的東西,

  • Three: No, the only thing that exists is really behavior.

    那是在腦袋裡運轉的電腦程式。

  • It's embarrassing how influential behaviorism was,

    第三:不對,行為動作才是真正唯一存在的東西。

  • but I'll get back to that.

    行為主義的影響力如此深遠,真讓人尷尬,

  • And four: Maybe consciousness exists,

    我們稍後再討論。

  • but it can't make any difference to the world.

    第四:也許意識存在,

  • How could spirituality move anything?

    但是它不能為世界帶來任何改變。

  • Now, whenever somebody tells me that, I think,

    精神怎麼可能移動得了東西?

  • you want to see spirituality move something?

    現在只要有人這樣問我,我會想,

  • Watch. I decide consciously to raise my arm,

    你想看我用精神移動東西嗎?

  • and the damn thing goes up. (Laughter)

    你看好。我決定有意識地要舉起我的手臂,

  • Furthermore, notice this:

    然後這該死的東西就舉起來了。 (笑聲)

  • We do not say, "Well, it's a bit like the weather in Geneva.

    還有,給我仔細聽好,

  • Some days it goes up and some days it doesn't go up."

    我們不會說:「嗯,這有點像日內瓦的天氣,

  • No. It goes up whenever I damn well want it to.

    有時候它會舉起來,有時候不會。」

  • Okay. I'm going to tell you how that's possible.

    不會!只要我想讓它舉起來, 它就會舉起來!

  • Now, I haven't yet given you a definition.

    那麼,讓我來跟你說這是怎麼辦到的。

  • You can't do this if you don't give a definition.

    我還沒給你一個定義,

  • People always say consciousness is very hard to define.

    如果沒有下定義的話,無法跟你解釋。

  • I think it's rather easy to define

    人們總是說意識很難定義,

  • if you're not trying to give a scientific definition.

    我倒覺得容易,

  • We're not ready for a scientific definition,

    只要你不去試著用科學的角度來定義它。

  • but here's a common-sense definition.

    我們還沒準備好要用科學來定義,

  • Consciousness consists of all those states of feeling

    但是我們可以用常識來定義。

  • or sentience or awareness.

    意識包含了所有感覺、

  • It begins in the morning when you wake up from a dreamless sleep,

    知覺或覺察的狀態。

  • and it goes on all day until you fall asleep

    當你一夜好眠後醒來,

  • or die or otherwise become unconscious.

    它一早就會開始出現,直到你再度熟睡,

  • Dreams are a form of consciousness on this definition.

    或是死亡,或是失去知覺。

  • Now, that's the common-sense definition. That's our target.

    在這個定義中,夢是意識的一種形式。

  • If you're not talking about that, you're not talking about consciousness.

    這就是常識性的定義,這是我們的目標。

  • But they think, "Well, if that's it, that's an awful problem.

    如果你不談論那件事,你就不能談論意識。

  • How can such a thing exist as part of the real world?"

    但是他們會想:「好啊, 如果是這樣,那還真是個大麻煩,

  • And this, if you've ever had a philosophy course,

    怎麼可能存在著這種事, 成為真實世界中的一部份?」

  • this is known as the famous mind-body problem.

    如果你曾上過哲學課,

  • I think that has a simple solution too. I'm going to give it to you.

    這就是有名的心物問題 (mind-body problem)。

  • And here it is: All of our conscious states, without exception,

    我認為這也有一個簡單的解決辦法, 我馬上告訴你。

  • are caused by lower-level neurobiological processes in the brain,

    那就是我們所有的意識狀態,沒有例外,

  • and they are realized in the brain

    都是由腦中較低層次的神經生物的過程所引起的,

  • as higher-level or system features.

    意識以較高層次或是系統特徵

  • It's about as mysterious as the liquidity of water.

    在大腦中被理解。

  • Right? The liquidity is not an extra juice squirted out

    這就像是水的流動性那樣神奇,

  • by the H2O molecules.

    對吧?流動不是由水分子噴出

  • It's a condition that the system is in.

    多餘的果汁,

  • And just as the jar full of water can go from liquid to solid

    那是一種系統在其中的狀態。

  • depending on the behavior of the molecules,

    就像是滿罐子的水,可以從液體變成固體,

  • so your brain can go from a state of being conscious

    視水分子的行為而變化,

  • to a state of being unconscious,

    所以你的大腦也可以從有意識的狀態,

  • depending on the behavior of the molecules.

    轉變為無意識的狀態,

  • The famous mind-body problem is that simple.

    全看分子的行為來變化。

  • All right? But now we get into some harder questions.

    有名的心物問題就是那麼簡單。

  • Let's specify the exact features of consciousness,

    那麼,我們要探討更困難的問題了,

  • so that we can then answer those four objections

    我們來詳細說明意識的特徵,

  • that I made to it.

    這樣一來,我們就可以回答我剛才提出的

  • Well, the first feature is, it's real and irreducible.

    那四個反對的聲音。

  • You can't get rid of it.

    嗯,第一個特徵是,它是真實且不能減少的。

  • You see, the distinction between reality and illusion

    你不能丟掉它。

  • is the distinction between how things

    你看,現實和錯覺之間的差別,

  • consciously seem to us and how they really are.

    就如同在意識上,事情對我們來說是什麼樣子,

  • It consciously seems like there's --

    和它實際的樣子之間的差別。

  • I like the French "arc-en-ciel" —

    意識上,就像是有

  • it seems like there's an arch in the sky,

    ──我喜歡法文中的「arc-en-ciel」──

  • or it seems like the sun is setting over the mountains.

    就像是有一道彩虹在天空中,

  • It consciously seems to us, but that's not really happening.

    或是太陽掛在山頂上。

  • But for that distinction between

    在意識中是如此,但是在現實中卻不然。

  • how things consciously seem and how they really are,

    但是在意識上看起來的樣子,

  • you can't make that distinction for the very existence of consciousness,

    與事實上的樣子之間的差別,

  • because where the very existence of consciousness is concerned,

    你無法那樣區別意識的存在,

  • if it consciously seems to you that you are conscious,

    因為意識的存在在於關注,

  • you are conscious.

    如果在意識上對你來說,你是有意識的,

  • I mean, if a bunch of experts come to me and say,

    那你就是有意識。

  • "We are heavy-duty neurobiologists and we've done a study

    我的意思是,如果一大票專家來跟我說:

  • of you, Searle, and we're convinced you are not conscious,

    「我們是重量級的神經生物學家,

  • you are a very cleverly constructed robot,"

    我們對你,希爾勒,做了研究, 我們相信你沒有意識,

  • I don't think, "Well, maybe these guys are right, you know?"

    你是一個被設計得很聰明的機器人。」

  • I don't think that for a moment, because, I mean,

    我不會想:「嗯,也許這些人是對的,是吧?」

  • Descartes may have made a lot of mistakes, but he was right about this.

    我一刻也不會懷疑,

  • You cannot doubt the existence of your own consciousness.

    因為笛卡兒也許犯了很多錯, 但是有件事他說對了,

  • Okay, that's the first feature of consciousness.

    你不能懷疑自己的意識存在。

  • It's real and irreducible.

    這是意識的第一項特徵。

  • You cannot get rid of it by showing that it's an illusion

    它是真實且不能減少的。

  • in a way that you can with other standard illusions.

    你不能用其它標準的錯覺來比照,

  • Okay, the second feature is this one

    說它是錯覺而就此認定它不存在。

  • that has been such a source of trouble to us,

    第二個特徵

  • and that is, all of our conscious states

    是我們困擾已久的根源,

  • have this qualitative character to them.

    那就是我們所有的意識狀態

  • There's something that it feels like to drink beer

    對它們來說都有這個實質的樣貌。

  • which is not what it feels like to do your income tax

    那就像是喝啤酒,

  • or listen to music, and this qualitative feel

    跟你在算所得稅或聽音樂的感覺不同,

  • automatically generates a third feature,

    這個實質的感覺

  • namely, conscious states are by definition subjective

    自然而然地產生了第三項特徵,

  • in the sense that they only exist as experienced

    也就是意識狀態

  • by some human