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  • It's graduation day at a children's school in Tokyo.

    這是東京一所小學的畢業典禮

  • From the metro station it's just ten blocks to their school,

    這間學校離地鐵站只距十條街

  • but these children aren't totally safe. Old men from their community have to stand at

    然而學生們並不全然安全 必須有來自他們社區的老警衛

  • every corner to make sure that these kids aren't harassed or bullied.

    守在每個街口來確保他們不被騷擾或霸凌

  • It's happened before. In fact, there's been a lot of rallies in Tokyo lately:

    因為這樣的事件曾發生過 其實 最近在東京有許多示威

  • protesting these kids and their school.

    抗議這些學生和他們的學校

  • This is because, even though these kids

    因為這些孩子

  • and their parents were born in Japan, they're not Japanese.

    還有家長 雖然生在日本 卻不是日本人

  • This is North Korea's bubble in Japan.

    這是日本的北朝鮮同溫層

  • It's a community of about 150,000 Koreans,

    社群之中有約15萬朝鮮人

  • holdovers from the 1940's when Japan's military forcibly brought over

    他們是日本軍隊在1940年代

  • their relatives.

    強行挾著他們的親屬一起帶來的

  • They run a network of schools, where they teach their kids

    這個社群擁有學校體系

  • about Korean history, teach them Korean language. They teach them the ideology of

    教育他們的孩子朝鮮歷史和韓文 還有偉大領導金日成的思想意識

  • the great leader Kim Il-Sung.

    今天警衛出現在這裡是因為

  • The guards are here this morning because three days ago,

    三天前北朝鮮飛彈試射 就落在日本海岸外

  • North Korea tested a bunch of missiles that landed right off Japan's shores.

    學生放學前 他們必須換掉傳統朝鮮服裝

  • Before the students can leave, they have to change out of the traditional Korean clothing.

    (要是我還穿著傳統服裝)我會怕 路人會盯著我 我只是為了上學才穿

  • But this community isn't giving in to the pressure.

    但這群人沒有屈服於壓力

  • Their schools are the place where they can protect their identity

    學校是他們可以捍衛自己身分的地方

  • and quietly revere their great leader and the homeland that he founded.

    並在此安靜的讚嘆偉大的領導 和他所建立的祖國

  • A place none of them have ever lived.

    那是他們從未居住過的地方

  • This North Korean bubble is a nation within a nation,

    這個北朝鮮同溫層是一個國中之國

  • whose borders are made out of culture, language, history, and ideology.

    它的國界由文化、語言、歷史、意識形態所劃分

  • And it shows how borders exist as much in our minds as they do on maps.

    展現了思想的國界和地圖上的一樣真實

  • In 1910 the Korean Peninsula was annexed by Japan's expanding empire. During its rule

    1910年 朝鮮半島遭擴張中的日本帝國併吞

  • the empire brought tens of thousands of Koreans to Japan, mainly to work and to

    日本在統治期間運送了數萬的朝鮮人到日本

  • serve in their army. Or in the case of Korean women, to serve as sex slaves in

    主要是為了勞力和軍事需求 而朝鮮女性 則被當作性奴

  • brothels for Japanese soldiers.

    被安置在日本軍的妓院

  • Japan's empire grew until 1945 when World War II,

    日本帝國的成長持續至1945年

  • brought its sudden defeat and the loss of much of its empire, including Korea.

    直到二戰使之面臨挫敗 輸掉了多數的帝國領土 其中包含朝鮮

  • The Koreans who were in Japan were free, but they found themselves in a country that

    在日本的朝鮮人獲得自由 卻身在一個不被

  • didn't recognize them as citizens. The United States and the Soviet Union

    當作國民的國家

  • quickly filled the power vacuum of this newly liberated Korean Peninsula and two

    美國和蘇聯迅速的填補了權力的空缺

  • new countries were formed: the U.S. backing the new South Korea, and the

    剛被解放的朝鮮半島上就誕生了兩個國家 美國支持的南韓

  • Soviet Union backing the North, installing a rising leader, Kim Il-Sung

    以及蘇聯支持的北朝鮮 並扶持了領袖金日成

  • who a few years later invaded the U.S.-backed South, starting the Korean War.

    他在幾年後侵略了美國支撐的南韓 造成韓戰

  • Most of the Koreans in Japan went back to Korea, but about 600,000 decided to

    多數在日本的朝鮮人都回到了朝鮮半島 但有約60萬名決定留在日本

  • stay in Japan.

    韓戰改變了一切

  • The Korean War changed everything,

    它造成南北兩方的對立 所以在日朝鮮人

  • creating a bitter division between these two new Koreas. So the Koreans in Japan

    不能單純只是朝鮮人 他們突然就需要決定

  • could no longer just be Korean. They suddenly had to choose which Korea they

    自己隸屬於哪邊 他們多數都來自現在的南韓

  • affiliated with. Almost all of them had originally been from what was now South Korea,

    但北朝鮮開始關注這些位於日本的朝鮮族人

  • but this new North Korea began paying special attention to the Koreans

    給予他們金援、蓋學校、幫忙創業

  • in Japan, sending the money and helping them build schools and businesses.

    有效地建立了文化認同 並保護他們的身分和語言

  • Effectively, helping them build a cultural border, to help protect their identity and language

    免於日本社會意圖的改變及破壞

  • against the Japanese society that sought to change or destroy it.

    (千頁縣朝鮮學校校長) 在1950年代 是北朝鮮在最低迷的氛圍中

  • This school where the graduation is taking place, was built with funding from

    幫助我們在非常有限的資源裡蓋學校

  • Kim Il-Sung in those early days, after the war.

    這個畢業典禮的場所就是那個時候

  • For these stateless Koreans in

    用金日成在戰後提供的經費蓋的

  • Japan, this support from a faraway government built trust and loyalty to a

    對於這些在日本的朝鮮國際孤兒

  • regime that they had never actually lived under.

    來自遙遠政權的支持 建立了他們對

  • The North Korean backed organization in Japan called themselves the Chongryon and

    一個從未生活在其統治之下的政府 產生信任與忠誠

  • over the following decades they built a network of schools, banks, and gambling parlors.

    (位於東京的朝鮮大學學生) 我們之所以能在這 都要感謝金日成還有他的政策

  • They became rich, and started sending millions of dollars back to

    是他給予我作為朝鮮人的生活 這點我很確定

  • North Korea to support the regime. In their heyday the Chongryon was worth

    北朝鮮所支持的這個組織 稱自己為朝鮮總聯

  • around $25 billion dollars.

    在接下來的數十年他們建立了教育體系 銀行還有賭博店

  • But something happened that would mark the

    他們逐漸營利 送了數百萬美元回北朝鮮支持北朝鮮政權

  • beginning of the end for this North Korean business empire in Japan.

    在全盛時期 朝鮮總聯價值約250億美元

  • In the late 70's North Korea started sending spies disguised as fishermen to Japanese

    不過一個事件導致

  • beaches, to start kidnapping Japanese citizens. They brought them back to North Korea

    北朝鮮在日本的事業由全盛走向衰敗

  • so that they could use them for their language and cultural

    在1970年代晚期 北朝鮮開始把偽裝成漁民的間諜

  • understanding of Japan, so they could help train their spies. The victims, including

    送到日本去綁架日本人 帶回北朝鮮

  • a 13 year old girl who allegedly died in captivity, gripped the nation's attention for years,

    利用他們的語言、文化知識來訓練其間諜

  • their stories making their way into pop culture,

    具指控 包含一個13歲女童在內的受害者 都在囚禁期間死亡

  • their faces known to every citizen. Around the same time, North Korea

    這個事件引發全國關注 成為流行文化的主題

  • began developing its long-range missile program, a program that would eventually

    受害者的臉孔烙印在國民心中

  • lead North Korea to having nuclear weapon delivery capabilities. Both the

    同時 北朝鮮開始研發長程飛彈 這個計畫最終使得北朝鮮擁有發射核武的能力

  • nuclear and abduction issues came to a head in the early 2000's, when North Korea

    核武及綁架兩個問題在21世紀初來到重要關頭

  • withdrew from the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, a treaty that

    北朝鮮退出核武禁擴條約

  • prevents countries from building more nuclear weapons. The regime also

    此條約約束各國進一步建造核武

  • officially admitted that they were behind some of the kidnappings of

    另外 北朝鮮官方承認了

  • Japanese citizens. This set off a wave of violent attacks and hate speech

    部分日本國民的綁架是由其指使

  • against North Koreans living in Japan.

    這掀起了日本一連串對於 國內北朝鮮人的暴力衝突和仇恨言論

  • The Japanese government demanded that the Chongryon repay its outstanding debts.

    日本政府要求朝鮮總聯償還債務

  • When the organization couldn't do this, they were forced to declare bankruptcy.

    朝鮮總聯因無法償還而被迫宣布破產

  • Many of their buildings, including their headquarters, were seized.

    包含總部在內的多數不動產都被查封

  • The organization was left in financial ruin, with only its network of a few dozen

    組織陷入財政困難 僅剩數十間學校

  • schools standing. These schools became the next target for Japanese animosity

    這些學校成為日本對於北朝鮮仇恨的攻擊目標

  • towards North Korea.

    朝鮮學生猛然發現自己身處於棘手的國際矛盾之間

  • Korean students suddenly found themselves in the middle of this heated

    將兒童及教育跟政治掛勾是不對的

  • international conflict.

    這像是把兒童拿來當作外交談判的籌碼

  • This graph shows the amount of state funding for

    這個表顯示了每個時期 日本地方給予朝鮮學校的補助

  • Korean schools by Japanese prefectures over time.

    在2006年北朝鮮測試了核武

  • 2006 was the year that North Korea tested a nuclear weapon. And you can see the

    很明顯地在這之後每年的補助都在下降

  • immediate drop-off of funding every year thereafter. Prefectures providing

    地方提供的學費補助從06年的28間學校 掉到現在的12間

  • tuition subsidies for Korean schools went from 28 in 2006, down to 12 today.

    官方教育權責機關明確指出綁架議題

  • Education officials specifically cite the abduction issue as well as the

    還有其他北朝鮮的總體「情況」 做為取消教育補助的動機

  • general "situation" in North Korea, as their motive for defunding the schools.

    我們長期無法支付教師足夠的薪水

  • Japan's Ministry of Education declined my request for an interview

    要是我們能付出一半的薪水已經是很好了

  • on this, but I did talk to an anti-Korean activist who defended these

    日本文部科學省(教育部)對此拒絕接受採訪

  • actions by putting the issue into terms that I, as an American, could understand.

    但我有機會和一位支持這個做法的反朝人士談話

  • As I visited these schools and talked with these people who live in a country

    他用我這個美國人能理解的方式來解釋

  • that is openly hostile towards them, I found myself torn. This organization

    (在特會成員) 要是在美國蓋一間賓拉登紀念學校後果如何?

  • pledges allegiance to a regime that has committed some of the most horrific

    你作何感想?

  • atrocities that our modern world knows.

    當我在造訪這些學校 和這些居住在不被歡迎的環境底下的人交談

  • Each and every conceivable human right is violated.

    我的內心很掙扎

  • There are 80,000 to 100,000 people who are languishing in political prison camps.

    這個組織與當代犯下最殘暴行為的政權結盟

  • Yet at the same time, they are also victims of severe structural discrimination.

    (脫北者) 我看著我朋友的母親被公開處死

  • The U.N. and other international bodies have repeatedly condemned the Japanese

    罪名:觀看好萊塢電影

  • structural discrimination against Koreans. The North Korean community often

    (北朝鮮人權協會執行董事) 侵害了所有想像的到的人權

  • cites this as validation for their plight, but the U.N. has also called North Korea's

    有8到10萬條人命因政治正在獄中凋零

  • human rights violations so grave that they have "no parallel in the contemporary world".

    但同時 他們也是嚴重結構性歧視的受害者

  • When you ask them how they reconcile this contradiction, the

    聯合國及其他國際組織一再譴責

  • response is always some version of:

    日本對朝鮮人的歧視 而北朝鮮社群常將之

  • "any country has human rights issues."

    作為他們效忠的正當理由

  • At first I found this astounding, that

    不過聯合國也指出北朝鮮侵害人權 到了「現代社會沒有其他地方能比擬」的地步

  • there could be such a willful ignorance to the atrocities of the North Korean

    若是問他們如何調和這個矛盾

  • regime, but the more embedded I got into this North Korean community in Japan, the

    答案都是類似:

  • more I realized that, to this marginalized community, North Korea

    (人權倡議人士) 「每個國家都有自己的人權問題」

  • represents more of a refuge of safety for their identity - something they crave

    那美國和日本的人權問題呢? 它們有很多更嚴重的議題

  • while they're living in a country that is actively working to diminish their

    刮別人鬍子之前 先刮乾淨自己的

  • heritage and culture.

    一開始我很吃驚

  • While younger generations are more likely to assimilate into Japanese society,

    對於北朝鮮政權的暴行 竟然能有如此堅定的無視

  • the Chongryon have done an exceptional job

    但我越深入在日朝鮮人社群越能查覺

  • at cultivating the strong Korean identity despite all the pressure and

    對這個被邊緣化的社群來說 北韓象徵他們能找到認同感和安全感的避風港

  • hardship. In their last year of high school the students have an opportunity

    居住在一個努力剷平他們傳統和文化的國家 這是他們迫切渴望的

  • to go visit North Korea.

    我出生在日本

  • Seeing and hearing the accounts of this highly

    我只在電影或其他人的故事裡見過我的祖國

  • choreographed visit to Pyongyang, is all you need to understand the

    我第一次踏上祖國的土地時非常感動

  • relationship that this disenfranchised community has towards its adopted homeland.

    雖然年輕的一代很容易融入當地社會

  • I visited the North Korean university where they've curated a museum dedicated to

    朝鮮總聯即使面對壓力和逆境 還是成功培養出很強烈的朝鮮認同感

  • everything Korean. Every rock, tree, species of fish, plant, animal, root, that

    在高中最後一年 學生能有機會到北朝鮮一遊

  • has ever existed on the Korean Peninsula is found in this museum, which was built

    門一打開 他們發現溫暖的人 看見他們的「心」

  • with support from the North Korean government. I had never seen such a

    看著他們對這刻意安排的行程的心得

  • meticulously comprehensive collection to enshrine a place in a history.

    就足以理解這個被褫奪權利的社群 對於祖國的情感

  • This place does not exist for visitors. It's much more of a statement that, in spite of

    我沒辦法用言語說出我的感受

  • intense pressure and hostility, Korean culture endures in Japan.

    所有人在最後要離開的時候都哭了

  • North Korea isn't their home country in the way that you would think. They weren't born there,

    朝鮮大學 位於東京

  • they've never lived there, but they see it as their home country because the

    我來到朝鮮大學 他們設立了一間朝鮮博物館

  • country that they were born in actively works to make their lives harder.

    每個朝鮮半島有的石、樹、魚、草、獸、根 這裡都有

  • Like in many parts of the world, right-wing nationalism is surging in Japan.

    這全仰賴北朝鮮政府的支持

  • Anti-Korean rallies are on the rise, according to an investigation by

    我從未見過如此精細、全面的收藏 只為珍藏一個地方

  • Japanese law enforcement. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is a fierce nationalist and

    此處不為遊客而存在 它的意義是要宣稱 儘管受到打壓、敵視

  • he's caught up in a scandal right now for having given secret donations to an

    朝鮮文化在日本還是屹立不搖

  • ultra-nationalist kindergarten with anti-Korean views. Japanese nationalism leads

    這展現了他們對於在日朝鮮人的重視

  • to discrimination against Koreans. This causes the Koreans to resist Japan

    他們希望年輕人能對祖國感到更親近

  • as their home country, looking to a country they've never lived in for

    他們對北朝鮮作為祖國的感受不是一般人能理解

  • support and protection of their identity.

    他們生不在那 活也不在那 但他們都視北朝鮮為祖國

  • Affiliating with this universally

    因為他們所出生的地方持續主動的打壓他們

  • reviled regime, that routinely vows to destroy Japan creates more resentment

    如同其他很多國家 右翼民族主義正在日本高漲

  • from the Japanese population and politicians, leading to more

    根據日本執法單位調查 反朝遊行越來越多

  • discrimination which leads to again deeper commitment to North Korea as a protector.

    首相安倍晉三是強烈的民族主義者 他最近陷入醜聞

  • And in my mind there's no doubt that the cycle will continue.

    指向他暗中捐款給有反朝立場的極端民族主義的幼稚園

  • While I was in Japan making this video, I also spent a lot of time with these

    日本民族主義導致對朝鮮的歧視

  • ultra right-wing groups who are anti-Korean and I didn't go into that much in

    這造成朝鮮族不願認同日本為祖國

  • this video, but I made an entire separate video about the rise of right-wing

    尋求一個沒居住過的國家來取得支持和認同感

  • politics in Japan and kind of the anti-Korean sentiment and where that comes

    和這個一致被世界譴責 並誓言摧毀日本的政權扯上關係

  • from, from like a historical perspective.

    導致更多來自日本民眾與政治家的仇恨

  • And of course: big THANK YOU to lululemon

    進而造成更多歧視 然後又更加深化北朝鮮作為保護者的觀念

  • who is a sponsor of Borders, they sent me these ABC pants a while back that I've

    我認為這個循環無疑會繼續下去

  • been wearing. They are sturdy, and flexible and you can wear them when

    不是因為出生在朝鮮才身為朝鮮人

  • you're hiking or when you're at home. So thank you lululemon, but more importantly

    只因這個環境才養育出朝鮮人

  • thank you for supporting Borders and making this project possible. I'm gonna

    不管多艱難 我們都要守護這個地方 這是我一生的使命

  • leave a link here for the lululemon shop for men online, and you can check out

    我在日本做這支影片的時候 我也跟些反朝的極右翼團體做了很多交流

  • your own pair of ABC pants.

    在這裡我沒有太多著墨

  • Alright, we're three episodes into

    但我做了另一部關於日本右翼政治崛起的影片

  • Borders, we have three to go. Get ready for next Tuesday when I publish the fourth.

    中間涉及到了一些反朝情緒 還有其中的來由 用歷史的角度去看

  • And wish </