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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Barcly Shih 審譯者: Geoff Chen

  • I grew up in Bihar, India's poorest state,

    我在印度最貧窮的比哈省長大

  • and I remember when I was six years old,

    還記得六歲的時候

  • I remember coming home one day to find a cart

    放學回到家門口,看到一台推車

  • full of the most delicious sweets at our doorstep.

    裡頭裝滿各式各樣的糖果餅乾

  • My brothers and I dug in,

    我們兄弟興奮地塞了滿嘴的甜食

  • and that's when my father came home.

    這時,爸爸回到家 看到我們做的好事

  • He was livid, and I still remember how we cried

    氣得不得了 我們大哭特哭

  • when that cart with our half-eaten sweets

    看他把我們吃一半的零食放回推車

  • was pulled away from us.

    再把推車遠遠地推走了

  • Later, I understood why my father got so upset.

    後來,我才知道爸爸有他的苦衷

  • Those sweets were a bribe

    原來,糖果餅乾是行賄禮

  • from a contractor who was trying to get my father

    來自一位承包商

  • to award him a government contract.

    他希望爸爸把政府的合約給他

  • My father was responsible for building roads in Bihar,

    父親負責比哈省的道路建置工程

  • and he had developed a firm stance against corruption,

    把貪汙視為大忌

  • even though he was harassed and threatened.

    即便受到脅迫也不為所動

  • His was a lonely struggle, because Bihar

    但他孤立無援,畢竟比哈省

  • was also India's most corrupt state,

    是印度貪污最嚴重的省分

  • where public officials were enriching themselves,

    官員都忙著顧自己的荷包

  • [rather] than serving the poor who had no means

    不管窮人死活

  • to express their anguish if their children

    窮人缺乏管道向政府訴苦

  • had no food or no schooling.

    根本無從解決孩子餓肚子、 沒有書可以念的窘境

  • And I experienced this most viscerally

    我深刻體悟到這點

  • when I traveled to remote villages to study poverty.

    是當我到偏遠村莊 研究貧窮問題的時候

  • And as I went village to village,

    我到每個村莊一一探訪

  • I remember one day, when I was famished and exhausted,

    有一天,我又餓又累

  • and I was almost collapsing

    眼看體力就要不支

  • in a scorching heat under a tree,

    天氣熱到差點在樹蔭底下昏過去

  • and just at that time, one of the poorest men in that village

    這時,村裡一位非常窮的人

  • invited me into his hut and graciously fed me.

    請我到他住的茅屋休息 還很殷勤地請我吃東西

  • Only I later realized that what he fed me

    後來我才知道,他請我吃的食物

  • was food for his entire family for two days.

    是全家兩天的食糧

  • This profound gift of generosity

    他慷慨大方的致贈

  • challenged and changed the very purpose of my life.

    迫使我重新思考人生的目標

  • I resolved to give back.

    我決心回應他的好意

  • Later, I joined the World Bank, which sought to fight

    我加入世界銀行的行列

  • such poverty by transferring aid from rich to poor countries.

    世銀打擊貧窮的作法 是讓富有國家援助貧窮國家

  • My initial work focused on Uganda, where I focused

    一開始,我把焦點放在烏干達

  • on negotiating reforms with the Finance Ministry of Uganda

    與該國財政部協商 採取一連串改革措施

  • so they could access our loans.

    讓他們能夠向世界銀行借貸

  • But after we disbursed the loans, I remember

    但在我們借貸出去後

  • a trip in Uganda where I found newly built schools

    有一次我去烏干達 訪查新落成的學校

  • without textbooks or teachers,

    發現竟然沒有教科書和老師

  • new health clinics without drugs,

    新醫院也缺乏救治的醫藥

  • and the poor once again without any voice or recourse.

    窮人依舊孤立無援

  • It was Bihar all over again.

    這簡直是比哈省的翻版

  • Bihar represents the challenge of development:

    比哈省代表了 發展面臨的重大挑戰

  • abject poverty surrounded by corruption.

    那就是貧窮人民遇上貪官汙吏

  • Globally, 1.3 billion people live on less than

    全世界十三億人口的生活費

  • $1.25 a day, and the work I did in Uganda

    是每天1.25美元

  • represents the traditional approach to these problems

    我在烏干達做的努力 代表傳統上解決貧窮問題的途徑

  • that has been practiced since 1944,

    這套作法始於1944年

  • when winners of World War II, 500 founding fathers,

    當時的二戰戰勝國,派出500位男性代表

  • and one lonely founding mother,

    和獨獨一位女性代表

  • gathered in New Hampshire, USA,

    在美國新罕布什爾州召開會議

  • to establish the Bretton Woods institutions,

    建構布列敦森林體系

  • including the World Bank.

    世界銀行因而誕生

  • And that traditional approach to development

    這套傳統上因應發展的作法

  • had three key elements. First, transfer of resources

    有三個特點 第一是資源的轉移

  • from rich countries in the North

    從富有的北方國家

  • to poorer countries in the South,

    轉移資源到貧窮的南方國家

  • accompanied by reform prescriptions.

    同時輔以改革的配套措施

  • Second, the development institutions that channeled

    第二,負責轉移資源的機構

  • these transfers were opaque, with little transparency

    組織架構不甚明朗

  • of what they financed or what results they achieved.

    未清楚列出援助項目 以及所達成的效益

  • And third, the engagement in developing countries

    第三,這些組織與開發中國家的互動對象

  • was with a narrow set of government elites

    只限於少數政府菁英

  • with little interaction with the citizens, who are

    缺乏和人民溝通

  • the ultimate beneficiaries of development assistance.

    然而人民才是最終的受惠人

  • Today, each of these elements is opening up

    時至今日,上述三個特點

  • due to dramatic changes in the global environment.

    因應國際局勢大幅變遷 漸漸變得透明開放

  • Open knowledge, open aid, open governance,

    這包括知識、援助、政府三個面向

  • and together, they represent three key shifts

    這三項重大轉變

  • that are transforming development

    徹底改變發展的模式

  • and that also hold greater hope for the problems

    世銀變得更有潛力

  • I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.

    解決我在烏干達 和比哈省看到的問題

  • The first key shift is open knowledge.

    開放知識是第一個關鍵

  • You know, developing countries today will not simply

    現在的開發中國家

  • accept solutions that are handed down to them

    不會輕易領受他人給予的解決辦法

  • by the U.S., Europe or the World Bank.

    不管是來自美國、歐洲 還是世界銀行

  • They get their inspiration, their hope,

    他們學習的對象、對未來的展望

  • their practical know-how,

    以及對一些專門技能的掌握

  • from successful emerging economies in the South.

    都取經於南方國家的新興經濟體

  • They want to know how China lifted 500 million people

    譬如說,他們想知道 中國如何讓5億人口

  • out of poverty in 30 years,

    在30年內脫離貧窮

  • how Mexico's Oportunidades program

    或是墨西哥的Oportunidades計畫

  • improved schooling and nutrition for millions of children.

    如何改善數百萬 兒童的教育和營養問題

  • This is the new ecosystem of open-knowledge flows,

    這是嶄新的開放知識生態系統

  • not just traveling North to South, but South to South,

    知識不只從北到南流動 也在南方國家間互相交流

  • and even South to North,

    甚或從南到北流動,都有可能

  • with Mexico's Oportunidades today inspiring New York City.

    例如,紐約市就從墨西哥的 Oportunidades計畫獲益良多

  • And just as these North-to-South transfers are opening up,

    隨著由北到南的知識流動日益蓬勃

  • so too are the development institutions

    負責轉移資源的發展機構

  • that channeled these transfers.

    也變得愈加開放

  • This is the second shift: open aid.

    這就是第二個關鍵:開放援助

  • Recently, the World Bank opened its vault of data

    最近,世界銀行開放資料庫

  • for public use, releasing 8,000 economic and social indicators

    公開8千個社經指標

  • for 200 countries over 50 years,

    資料內容涵蓋 200個國家過去50年的發展

  • and it launched a global competition to crowdsource

    世銀還組織國際競賽

  • innovative apps using this data.

    期望透過群眾外包的方式 激發群眾創意設計開發app

  • Development institutions today are also opening

    時下的發展機構變得越來越透明

  • for public scrutiny the projects they finance.

    供大眾審視其補助的計畫案

  • Take GeoMapping. In this map from Kenya,

    以地理對應技術為例 這是肯亞的數據

  • the red dots show where all the schools financed by donors

    紅點表示得到補助的學校

  • are located, and the darker the shade of green,

    而顏色愈深的綠色

  • the more the number of out-of-school children.

    代表未就學孩童的數量就愈多

  • So this simple mashup reveals that donors

    這個簡單的圖表展示出

  • have not financed any schools in the areas

    未就學孩童最多的區域中

  • with the most out-of-school children,

    沒有一所學校得到援助

  • provoking new questions. Is development assistance

    我們不禁要問: 為了發展做出的努力

  • targeting those who most need our help?

    是否確實用在刀口上?

  • In this manner, the World Bank has now GeoMapped

    世界銀行使用地理對應技術

  • 30,000 project activities in 143 countries,

    彙整143個國家中 3萬個計劃的執行狀況

  • and donors are using a common platform

    贊助人也使用類似平台

  • to map all their projects.

    檢視資助的計畫

  • This is a tremendous leap forward in transparency

    這是一項空前的進步

  • and accountability of aid.

    資訊變得更透明 我們更能確保援助的去向

  • And this leads me to the third, and in my view,

    接著談第三個關鍵

  • the most significant shift in development:

    在我看來 也是最值得注意的發展變遷

  • open governance. Governments today are opening up

    便是開放政府 現在的政府越來越開放

  • just as citizens are demanding voice and accountability.

    市民對民主自由、 政府負責的要求也越高

  • From the Arab Spring to the Anna Hazare movement in India,

    該現象可從阿拉伯之春 到印度的海札瑞反貪腐運動略知一二

  • using mobile phones and social media

    民眾使用手機和社群媒體

  • not just for political accountability

    不只是監督政府負責

  • but also for development accountability.

    也是為了達到永續發展的目標

  • Are governments delivering services to the citizens?

    民眾想知道,政府是否對民眾盡責?

  • So for instance, several governments in Africa

    譬如,一些非洲政府和東歐國家

  • and Eastern Europe are opening their budgets to the public.

    把預算公開給民眾檢視

  • But, you know, there is a big difference between a budget

    但你我都心知肚明

  • that's public and a budget that's accessible.

    公開預算不代表誰都看得懂

  • This is a public budget. (Laughter)

    這是公開預算 (笑聲)

  • And as you can see, it's not really accessible

    如你所見,對於一般民眾

  • or understandable to an ordinary citizen

    這真的不太好懂

  • that is trying to understand how the government is spending its resources.

    民眾很難理解政府如何運用資源

  • To tackle this problem, governments are using new tools

    為了解決這個問題 政府使用新的工具

  • to visualize the budget so it's more understandable

    把預算表畫成圖表

  • to the public.

    幫助大眾理解

  • In this map from Moldova, the green color shows

    這張摩爾多瓦的地圖 綠色部分顯示出

  • those districts that have low spending on schools

    教育花費低的行政區

  • but good educational outcomes,

    卻有較好的教育效益

  • and the red color shows the opposite.

    紅色部分則相反

  • Tools like this help turn a shelf full of inscrutable documents

    類似的工具能把深奧難懂的文件

  • into a publicly understandable visual,

    轉變成平易近人的圖示

  • and what's exciting is that with this openness,

    更棒的是,透過這樣的開放作法

  • there are today new opportunities for citizens

    市民有了嶄新的機會

  • to give feedback and engage with government.

    給予政府意見,與政府展開互動

  • So in the Philippines today, parents and students

    現在,菲律賓的家長和學生

  • can give real-time feedback on a website,

    可以透過網站即時給予回應

  • Checkmyschool.org, or using SMS, whether teachers

    如Checkmyschool.org 或使用簡訊

  • and textbooks are showing up in school,

    監督老師出席授課 確保學生有教科書可以用

  • the same problems I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.

    解決以前我在烏干達 和比哈省看到的問題

  • And the government is responsive. So for instance,

    政府方面也做出回應

  • when it was reported on this website that 800 students

    例如,過去在該網站 傳出有800位學生

  • were at risk because school repairs had stalled

    其上課環境有安全之虞 因學校設備維修延宕

  • due to corruption, the Department of Education

    背後的核心問題則是貪汙

  • in the Philippines took swift action.

    聞訊,菲律賓教育部立刻有所行動

  • And you know what's exciting is that this innovation

    這項振奮人心的革新

  • is now spreading South to South, from the Philippines

    從南方國家之間流傳

  • to Indonesia, Kenya, Moldova and beyond.

    從菲律賓到印尼、肯亞、 摩爾多瓦,甚至更遠的國家

  • In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, even an impoverished

    在坦尚尼亞的達累斯薩拉姆區

  • community was able to use these tools

    即便是貧窮社區 都能使用這些工具

  • to voice its aspirations.

    傳達自己的需求

  • This is what the map of Tandale looked like

    這是坦尚尼亞Tandale鎮的圖表呈現

  • in August, 2011. But within a few weeks,

    測繪時間是2011年8月

  • university students were able to use mobile phones

    才過幾個禮拜 大學生透過手機

  • and an open-source platform to dramatically map

    運用開放原始碼的平台

  • the entire community infrastructure.

    全面繪製出整個社群的基礎建設

  • And what is very exciting is that citizens were then

    更棒的是,市民可以透過這個平台

  • able to give feedback as to which health or water points

    標出需要維修的醫院或引水點

  • were not working, aggregated

    這些紅點

  • in the red bubbles that you see,

    就代表需要維修的地點

  • which together provides a graphic visual

    這樣的視覺呈現

  • of the collective voices of the poor.

    得以匯聚窮人的心聲

  • Today, even Bihar is turning around and opening up

    現在,比哈省也不斷改善 變得越來越開放

  • under a committed leadership that is making government

    有賴於領導者投注心力

  • transparent, accessible and responsive to the poor.

    使得政府益發透明 對人民的訴求回應更為迅速

  • But, you know, in many parts of the world,

    然而世界上許多地方的政府

  • governments are not interested in opening up

    不願與人民互動 不顧窮人的生計

  • or in serving the poor, and it is a real challenge

    對於想要改變現狀的人來說

  • for those who want to change the system.

    是莫大的挑戰

  • These are the lonely warriors

    這些事孤獨奮鬥的勇士

  • like my father and many, many others,

    像我爸爸,還有數不盡的人

  • and a key frontier of development work

    發展工作其中的一個目標

  • is to help these lonely warriors join hands

    就是協助這些人聯手互助

  • so they can together overcome the odds.

    同心協力,克服困境

  • So for instance, today, in Ghana, courageous reformers

    比如,今天,我在迦納看到 勇氣可嘉的改革人士

  • from civil society, Parliament and government,

    他們來自公民社會、議會、政府

  • have forged a coalition for transparent contracts

    站在同一陣線 維護油價契約透明化

  • in the oil sector, and, galvanized by this,

    有志於改革的議員受到啟發

  • reformers in Parliament are now investigating dubious contracts.

    開始著手調查可疑的契約

  • These examples give new hope, new possibility

    這些人的努力 創造新的希望和可能性

  • to the problems I witnessed in Uganda

    提供可行方案解決 我在烏干達看到的問題

  • or that my father confronted in Bihar.

    或是爸爸在比哈省面臨的困境

  • Two years ago, on April 8th, 2010, I called my father.

    兩年前,2010年4月8日 我打電話給爸爸

  • It was very late at night, and at age 80,

    深夜,80歲的他

  • he was typing a 70-page public interest litigation

    為了保護公共利益 正執筆寫一份70多頁的報告

  • against corruption in a road project.

    揭露一項貪汙不法的公路工程

  • Though he was no lawyer, he argued the case in court

    他本身不是律師,卻在隔天

  • himself the next day. He won the ruling,

    親自出庭辯護,也贏得了判決

  • but later that very evening,

    當天晚上

  • he fell, and he died.

    卻摔了一跤而死

  • He fought till the end, increasingly passionate

    他奉獻了一生 到死前還在奮鬥

  • that to combat corruption and poverty,

    打擊貪汙和貧窮

  • not only did government officials need to be honest,

    他知道只靠誠實的政府官員還不夠

  • but citizens needed to join together

    更需要市民共同努力

  • to make their voices heard.

    為自己的訴求發聲

  • These became the two bookends of his life,

    他身為制定政策的上位者 不忘同時設身處地為人民著想

  • and the journey he traveled in between

    他在這兩個極端來回奮鬥的旅程

  • mirrored the changing development landscape.

    反映在持續發展 且不斷改變的環境上

  • Today, I'm inspired by these changes, and I'm excited

    這些改變激勵了我

  • that at the World Bank, we are embracing

    世界銀行的同仁也受到啟發

  • these new directions, a significant departure

    我們採用的新思維

  • from my work in Uganda 20 years ago.

    迥異於20年前 世銀在烏干達的作法

  • We need to radically open up development

    發展需要全面開放

  • so knowledge flows in multiple directions,

    一來,知識的流動 才不會侷限於單一方向

  • inspiring practitioners, so aid becomes transparent,

    達到激勵各界人士的目的 二來,援助計畫也會變得透明

  • accountable and effective, so governments open up

    變得可信、有效 三來,政府也跟著變得開放

  • and citizens are engaged and empowered

    鼓舞市民參與討論

  • with reformers in government.

    與政府的改革志士聯手合作

  • We need to accelerate these shifts.

    我們要讓這三個開放趨勢加快腳步

  • If we do, we will find that the collective voices

    成功的話,我們就能確實聽見

  • of the poor will be heard in Bihar,

    全體窮人的心聲,無論來自比哈省

  • in Uganda, and beyond.

    烏干達,還是其他國家

  • We will find that textbooks and teachers

    我們就能確保學校裡的 教科書和老師不虞匱乏

  • will show up in schools for their children.

    保障孩子的教育

  • We will find that these children, too,

    我們就能確保這些孩子

  • have a real chance of breaking their way out of poverty.

    擁有機會一舉脫離貧窮

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝大家

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

譯者: Barcly Shih 審譯者: Geoff Chen

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 政府 開放 烏干達 貧窮 援助

【TED】Sanjay Pradhan:開放數據如何改變國際援助(Sanjay Pradhan:開放數據如何改變國際援助)。 (【TED】Sanjay Pradhan: How open data is changing international aid (Sanjay Pradhan: How open data is changing international aid))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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