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  • Have you ever wondered

    譯者: Joyce Chou 審譯者: Ching Sze

  • what is inside your dental plaque?

    各位是否想過,

  • Probably not, but people like me do.

    在各位的牙菌斑裡藏著什麼?

  • I'm an archeological geneticist

    可能沒有,但像我一樣的人會想這個問題。

  • at the Center for Evolutionary Medicine

    我是一位考古學遺傳學家。

  • at the University of Zurich,

    我任職於蘇黎世大學的

  • and I study the origins and evolution of human health and disease

    醫藥發展中心

  • by conducting genetic research

    我針對古人類骨骼和木乃伊遺骸

  • on the skeletal and mummified remains of ancient humans.

    進行基因研究

  • And through this work, I hope to better understand

    了解人類健康和疾病的起源和演化

  • the evolutionary vulnerabilities of our bodies,

    透過此研究,我希望能更加了解

  • so that we can improve

    我們的身體在進化上缺陷

  • and better manage our health in the future.

    我們也得以改善

  • There are different ways to approach evolutionary medicine,

    並在未來管理我們的健康狀況。

  • and one way is to extract human DNA

    要改進研發醫藥有各種不同的方法

  • from ancient bones.

    其中一種就是從骨骼化石中

  • And from these extracts,

    提取人類的DNA

  • we can reconstruct the human genome at different points in time

    從這些提取出的DNA

  • and look for changes that might be related to adaptations,

    我們可以重建不同時期的人類的基因組

  • risk factors and inherited diseases.

    並尋找可能因適應而產生的變化

  • But this is only one half of the story.

    風險因素和遺傳疾病。

  • The most important health challenges today

    但這只是故事的其中一部份。

  • are not caused by simple mutations in our genome,

    今天對於健康最大的挑戰

  • but rather result from a complex and dynamic interplay

    並非我們基因組裡產生的簡單基因突變,

  • between genetic variation,

    而是遺傳變異,飲食,

  • diet, microbes and parasites

    微生物,寄生蟲

  • and our immune response.

    和我們的免疫系統之間

  • All of these diseases

    所造成複雜的和動態的相互作用。

  • have a strong evolutionary component

    這所有的疾病

  • that directly relates to the fact

    有很強的進化因子。

  • that we live today in a very different environment

    這直接和一個事實有關,

  • than the ones in which our bodies evolved.

    就是我們生活在一個和我們身體相比,

  • And in order to understand these diseases,

    是一個更加不同的環境中。

  • we need to move past studies of the human genome alone

    為了要了解這些疾病,

  • and towards a more holistic approach

    我們需要將過去研究人類基因組,

  • to human health in the past.

    改為更加全方位的去研究

  • But there are a lot of challenges for this.

    過去的人類健康情況。

  • And first of all, what do we even study?

    但這是相當大的挑戰

  • Skeletons are ubiquitous; they're found all over the place.

    首先,我們要研究什麼?

  • But of course, all of the soft tissue has decomposed,

    骨頭無所不在,到處都能發現。

  • and the skeleton itself

    當然,所有的軟組織都被分解掉了;

  • has limited health information.

    而骨頭本身,

  • Mummies are a great source of information,

    健康的資訊有限。

  • except that they're really geographically limited

    木乃伊是很好的資料來源,

  • and limited in time as well.

    但他們有地域限制,

  • Coprolites are fossilized human feces,

    和時間上的限制。

  • and they're actually extremely interesting.

    糞化石是人類糞便化石,

  • You can learn a lot about ancient diet and intestinal disease,

    它們實際上是非常有趣。

  • but they are very rare.

    你可以從中學到很多關於古代飲食和腸道疾病,

  • (Laughter)

    但他們非常罕見。

  • So to address this problem,

    (笑聲)

  • I put together a team of international researchers

    為了解決此問題,

  • in Switzerland, Denmark and the U.K.

    我組了一個國際團隊。

  • to study a very poorly studied, little known material

    有來自瑞士、丹麥和英國的研究員,

  • that's found on people everywhere.

    研究幾乎沒人研究,也鮮為人知的物質。

  • It's a type of fossilized dental plaque

    此物質能在任何人身上找到

  • that is called officially dental calculus.

    那是牙菌斑化石,

  • Many of you may know it by the term tartar.

    正常也被稱為牙結石。

  • It's what the dentist cleans off your teeth

    很多人可能都知道那是長期牙垢。

  • every time that you go in for a visit.

    那也是各位每次去看牙醫,

  • And in a typical dentistry visit,

    牙醫會幫各位清洗掉的東西。

  • you may have about 15 to 30 milligrams removed.

    在典型的牙醫診斷中,

  • But in ancient times before tooth brushing,

    你可能有大約15至30毫克的牙結石會被清理掉。

  • up to 600 milligrams might have built up on the teeth

    但在古代有刷牙習慣之前,

  • over a lifetime.

    一個人一輩子,大約有高達600毫克的牙結石

  • And what's really important about dental calculus

    可能會附著在牙齒上。

  • is that it fossilizes just like the rest of the skeleton,

    而牙結石的重要性

  • it's abundant in quantity before the present day

    在於它就像留下來的骨架化石的其餘部分。

  • and it's ubiquitous worldwide.

    它是目前數量上最豐富的,

  • We find it in every population around the world at all time periods

    而且無所不在。

  • going back tens of thousands of years.

    我們能在數萬年前的每一個時期

  • And we even find it in neanderthals and animals.

    世界各地各種族群的人身上找到。

  • And so previous studies

    我們甚至也在尼安德特人與動物身上找到。

  • had only focused on microscopy.

    先前的研究,

  • They'd looked at dental calculus under a microscope,

    只聚焦顯微鏡下的事物。

  • and what they had found was things like pollen

    研究員透過顯微鏡觀看牙結石,

  • and plant starches,

    他們發現了類似花粉的東西

  • and they'd found muscle cells from animal meats

    和植物澱粉;

  • and bacteria.

    他們也發現動物肉類中的肌肉細胞,

  • And so what my team of researchers, what we wanted to do,

    還有細菌。

  • is say, can we apply

    所以我的研究團隊想做的事,

  • genetic and proteomic technology

    是我們能否運用

  • to go after DNA and proteins,

    基因和蛋白質技術

  • and from this can we get better taxonomic resolution

    追蹤DNA和蛋白質,

  • to really understand what's going on?

    從結果中得出更好的分類方法,

  • And what we found

    進而了解其中奧妙。

  • is that we can find many commensal and pathogenic bacteria

    我們得到的結果是

  • that inhabited the nasal passages and mouth.

    找到許多共生和致病的細菌

  • We also have found immune proteins

    生活在鼻腔和口腔裡。

  • related to infection and inflammation

    我們還發現

  • and proteins and DNA related to diet.

    和感染及發炎症狀有關的免疫蛋白,

  • But what was surprising to us, and also quite exciting,

    還有與飲食有關的蛋白質和DNA。

  • is we also found bacteria

    但令我們驚訝還有相當興奮的是

  • that normally inhabit upper respiratory systems.

    我們發現了

  • So it gives us virtual access to the lungs,

    細菌通常生活在上呼吸道系統。

  • which is where many important diseases reside.

    因此,這給了我們到肺部的模擬路徑,

  • And we also found bacteria

    這是許多重要疾病的病源。

  • that normally inhabit the gut.

    我們也發現了

  • And so we can also now virtually gain access

    細菌通常生活在腸道。

  • to this even more distant organ system

    所以我們幾乎也可以了解

  • that, from the skeleton alone,

    這更遙遠的器官系統。

  • has long decomposed.

    這和骨骼相比,

  • And so by applying ancient DNA sequencing

    是早已分解的部分。

  • and protein mass spectrometry technologies

    利用古代DNA測序

  • to ancient dental calculus,

    和蛋白質質譜技術,

  • we can generate immense quantities of data

    應用在研究古老的牙結石,

  • that then we can use to begin to reconstruct a detailed picture

    我們可以得到大量的數據。

  • of the dynamic interplay

    然後我們就可以開始重建出

  • between diet, infection and immunity

    數千年前

  • thousands of years ago.

    飲食,感染和免疫

  • So what started out as an idea,

    動態相互作用的詳細的圖片。

  • is now being implemented

    而我們最初由概念,

  • to churn out millions of sequences

    到現在可以實行這概念,

  • that we can use to investigate

    得到很多的結論,

  • the long-term evolutionary history of human health and disease,

    我們可以用來探討

  • right down to the genetic code of individual pathogens.

    在長期的進化的過程中人類的健康和疾病,

  • And from this information

    數百萬的個別病原體的遺傳序列代碼。

  • we can learn about how pathogens evolve

    從此份資料中,

  • and also why they continue to make us sick.

    我們可以了解致病菌的進化方式,

  • And I hope I have convinced you

    還有了解為何致病菌能持續讓我們生病。

  • of the value of dental calculus.

    另外我也希望可以說服各位

  • And as a final parting thought,

    關於牙結石的重要性。

  • on behalf of future archeologists,

    最後在此

  • I would like to ask you to please think twice

    我代表對未來的考古學家,

  • before you go home and brush your teeth.

    和各位說在各位回家刷牙前

  • (Applause)

    請先三思。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    謝謝各位。

Have you ever wondered

譯者: Joyce Chou 審譯者: Ching Sze

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TED】Christina Warinner:用......牌匾追蹤古代疾病(Christina Warinner:用......牌匾追蹤古代疾病)。 (【TED】Christina Warinner: Tracking ancient diseases using ... plaque (Christina Warinner: Tracking ancient diseases using ... plaque))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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