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  • Thank you.

    譯者: Juyao Dong 審譯者: Chang Xu

  • It's a real pleasure to be here.

    謝謝

  • I last did a TED Talk

    能來到這裡真是我的一大榮幸

  • I think about seven years ago or so.

    上一次我在TED做演講

  • I talked about spaghetti sauce.

    我想大概是七年前

  • And so many people, I guess, watch those videos.

    我講了意大利麵條的醬.

  • People have been coming up to me ever since

    有很多人,看這了個視頻.

  • to ask me questions about spaghetti sauce,

    從那之後就經常有人來找我

  • which is a wonderful thing in the short term --

    問我關於意大利麵條的醬的事

  • (Laughter)

    在短期內這是件很高興的事

  • but it's proven to be less than ideal

    (笑聲)

  • over seven years.

    但持續了七年,

  • And so I though I would come

    就不是那麼理想了.

  • and try and put spaghetti sauce behind me.

    所以我想我要再來一次

  • (Laughter)

    試著把麵條這事翻過去.

  • The theme of this morning's session is Things We Make.

    (笑聲)

  • And so I thought I would tell a story

    今天早上這部分的主題是我們創造的東西.

  • about someone

    所以我想我來講個故事

  • who made one of the most precious objects

    是關於一個人

  • of his era.

    創造了他那個時代

  • And the man's name is Carl Norden.

    最珍貴的東西.

  • Carl Norden was born in 1880.

    這人的名字叫Carl Norden.

  • And he was Swiss.

    Carl Norden出生於1880年

  • And of course, the Swiss can be divided

    他是瑞士人.

  • into two general categories:

    當然,瑞士人可以被

  • those who make small, exquisite,

    分為兩大類:

  • expensive objects

    那些創造細小的,精緻的

  • and those who handle the money

    昂貴的東西的人

  • of those who buy small, exquisite,

    和那些管理這些做細小精緻

  • expensive objects.

    昂貴東西的人的

  • And Carl Norden is very firmly in the former camp.

    錢財的人.

  • He's an engineer.

    Carl Norden是堅定地屬於第一個陣營.

  • He goes to the Federal Polytech in Zurich.

    他是個工程師.

  • In fact, one of his classmates is a young man named Lenin

    他就讀於苏黎士联邦理工学院.

  • who would go on

    事實上,他有一個同學名字 Lenin

  • to break small, expensive, exquisite objects.

    這個同學經常把那些

  • And he's a Swiss engineer, Carl.

    細小精緻昂貴的東西搞壞.

  • And I mean that in its fullest sense of the word.

    Carl,是一個瑞士的工程師.

  • He wears three-piece suits;

    他是最當得起這稱號的.

  • and he has a very, very small, important mustache;

    他穿三件套的西裝;

  • and he is domineering

    他有一個特別特別小但很重要的小鬍子;

  • and narcissistic

    他盛氣凌人

  • and driven

    他自戀

  • and has an extraordinary ego;

    他有動力

  • and he works 16-hour days;

    還特別自負;

  • and he has very strong feelings about alternating current;

    而且他每天工作16個小時;

  • and he feels like a suntan is a sign of moral weakness;

    他對交流電路很在行;

  • and he drinks lots of coffee;

    他覺得被太陽晒黑是一種道德上軟弱的表現;

  • and he does his best work

    他喝特別多的咖啡;

  • sitting in his mother's kitchen in Zurich for hours

    他最好的工作都是在

  • in complete silence

    他母親在蘇黎士的廚房裡完成的,

  • with nothing but a slide rule.

    他能安安靜靜地工作幾個小時

  • In any case,

    而手頭只有一把滑尺.

  • Carl Norden emigrates to the United States

    不管怎樣,

  • just before the First World War

    Carl Norden在第一次世界大戰前

  • and sets up shop on Lafayette Street

    移民到了美國

  • in downtown Manhattan.

    在曼哈頓市中心的

  • And he becomes obsessed with the question

    拉法葉街上開了一間作坊.

  • of how to drop bombs from an airplane.

    然後他迷戀上了如何從

  • Now if you think about it,

    飛機上扔炸彈下來這個問題.

  • in the age before GPS and radar,

    如果你來想這個問題,

  • that was obviously a really difficult problem.

    在GPS和雷達發明之前,

  • It's a complicated physics problem.

    這顯然是一個很困難的問題.

  • You've got a plane that's thousands of feet up in the air,

    這個一個複雜的物理問題.

  • going at hundreds of miles an hour,

    你有一架飛在幾千英尺高空的飛機,

  • and you're trying to drop an object, a bomb,

    以每小時幾百英里的速度飛行

  • towards some stationary target

    你試圖想扔下一個東西,一個炮彈,

  • in the face of all kinds of winds and cloud cover

    想讓它擊中一個靜止不動的物體

  • and all kinds of other impediments.

    在有各種風向和雲朵

  • And all sorts of people,

    以及各種其它障礙存在的時候.

  • moving up to the First World War and between the wars,

    而且有許多各種各樣的人,

  • tried to solve this problem,

    在第一次世界大戰以及在兩次戰爭中間,

  • and nearly everybody came up short.

    想解決這個問題,

  • The bombsights that were available

    但都沒能如愿.

  • were incredibly crude.

    當時可用的投彈瞄準器

  • But Carl Norden is really the one who cracks the code.

    是相當的粗略的.

  • And he comes up with this incredibly complicated device.

    但Carl Norden幾乎就成了那個攻克難題的人.

  • It weighs about 50 lbs.

    他創造了這個特別複雜的設備.

  • It's called the Norden Mark 15 bombsight.

    設備大約有50磅重.

  • And it has all kinds of levers and ball-bearings

    名字叫作Norden 牌15 型投彈瞄準器.

  • and gadgets and gauges.

    這上面有各種各樣的杠桿,球軸承

  • And he makes this complicated thing.

    小工具以及計量器.

  • And what he allows people to do

    他創造了這個複雜的東西.

  • is he makes the bombardier take this particular object,

    這工具能實現的就是

  • visually sight the target,

    投彈手可以拿著這個工具,

  • because they're in the Plexiglas cone of the bomber,

    看准目標,

  • and then they plug in the altitude of the plane,

    把它放在炸彈的有機玻璃椎的范圍內,

  • the speed of the plane, the speed of the wind

    然後他們輸入飛機的高度

  • and the coordinates

    速度,以及風速

  • of the target.

    和目標物體的

  • And the bombsight will tell him when to drop the bomb.

    坐標.

  • And as Norden famously says,

    然後投彈瞄準器就會告訴投彈手什麼時候放炸彈.

  • "Before that bombsight came along,

    Norden的一句名言是這樣說的,

  • bombs would routinely miss their target

    "在這個投彈瞄準儀發明前,

  • by a mile or more."

    炸彈會常規性地偏離

  • But he said, with the Mark 15 Norden bombsight,

    目標一英里或者更多."

  • he could drop a bomb into a pickle barrel

    他說, 如果用他的這種投彈瞄準儀,

  • at 20,000 ft.

    他可以把炸彈從兩萬英尺高的高空

  • Now I cannot tell you

    仍到一個咸菜桶裡.

  • how incredibly excited

    我無法向你們形容

  • the U.S. military was

    當美國部隊得知

  • by the news of the Norden bombsight.

    Norden的投彈瞄準儀時

  • It was like manna from heaven.

    他們是多麼的激動.

  • Here was an army

    感覺像是從天堂來的甘露.

  • that had just had experience in the First World War,

    一邊是一支剛剛

  • where millions of men

    經歷過一戰的部隊,

  • fought each other in the trenches,

    有幾百萬的士兵

  • getting nowhere, making no progress,

    在戰壕中打仗,

  • and here someone had come up with a device

    沒有出路,沒有進展

  • that allowed them to fly up in the skies

    而另一邊是一個人發明了一個設備,

  • high above enemy territory

    可以讓他們從敵方的領土

  • and destroy whatever they wanted

    上空飛過,

  • with pinpoint accuracy.

    以極準確的精確度

  • And the U.S. military

    摧毀所有他們想摧毀的.

  • spends 1.5 billion dollars --

    美國的軍隊

  • billion dollars in 1940 dollars --

    花了十五億美元

  • developing the Norden bombsight.

    十五億1940年的美元

  • And to put that in perspective,

    來推廣Norden的投彈瞄準儀.

  • the total cost of the Manhattan project

    這是一個什麼概念呢?

  • was three billion dollars.

    曼哈頓項目的總體開銷是

  • Half as much money was spent on this Norden bombsight

    三十億美元.

  • as was spent on the most famous military-industrial project

    相當於曼哈頓項目一半的錢花在了Norden的儀器上,

  • of the modern era.

    而曼哈頓項目是近代歷史上

  • And there were people, strategists, within the U.S. military

    最有名的軍工合作項目.

  • who genuinely thought that this single device

    而軍隊裡的策略家們

  • was going to spell the difference

    他們真心認為這樣一個儀器

  • between defeat and victory

    將會在與納粹

  • when it came to the battle against the Nazis

    和日本人的戰鬥中

  • and against the Japanese.

    決定出

  • And for Norden as well,

    勝負.

  • this device had incredible moral importance,

    而Norden也認為

  • because Norden was a committed Christian.

    這個設備很有道德意義,

  • In fact, he would always get upset

    因為他是個虔誠的基督徒

  • when people referred to the bombsight as his invention,

    事實上, 當他聽到人們

  • because in his eyes,

    稱他為投彈瞄準儀的發明人的時候,

  • only God could invent things.

    他總是很沮喪,

  • He was simply the instrument of God's will.

    因為在他眼裡,只有上帝能發明東西.

  • And what was God's will?

    他只是照著上帝的想法在做事而已.

  • Well God's will was that the amount of suffering in any kind of war

    什麼是上帝的意愿呢?

  • be reduced to as small an amount as possible.

    上帝的意愿是,在任何一場戰爭中

  • And what did the Norden bombsight do?

    人家承受的痛苦應該越小越好.

  • Well it allowed you to do that.

    Norden的設備是做什麼的呢?

  • It allowed you to bomb only those things

    它的作用就是

  • that you absolutely needed and wanted to bomb.

    讓你只炸那些你必須要炸

  • So in the years leading up to the Second World War,

    和想炸的東西.

  • the U.S. military buys 90,000

    所以在二戰來臨前的那些年,

  • of these Norden bombsights

    美國軍隊買了九萬個

  • at a cost of $14,000 each --

    這樣的投彈瞄準儀

  • again, in 1940 dollars, that's a lot of money.

    每一個價值一萬四千美元

  • And they trained 50,000 bombardiers on how to use them --

    在1940年,這是很大一筆錢呀.

  • long extensive, months-long training sessions --

    他們訓練了五萬個投彈手來使用這個儀器

  • because these things are essentially analog computers;

    幾個月長的高強度的訓練--

  • they're not easy to use.

    因為這東西實際上類似於計算機;

  • And they make every one of those bombardiers take an oath,

    不很容易用.

  • to swear that if they're ever captured,

    而且他們讓每一個使用這儀器的投彈手發誓,

  • they will not divulge a single detail

    讓他們發誓如果他們被敵人抓了,

  • of this particular device to the enemy,

    他們不能洩露一點關於

  • because it's imperative the enemy not get their hands

    這個設備的細節,

  • on this absolutely essential piece of technology.

    因為不讓敵方知道哪怕一丁點關於這個特別

  • And whenever the Norden bombsight is taken onto a plane,

    重要的儀器的信息是相當必要的.

  • it's escorted there by a series of armed guards.

    每次當把Norden的投彈瞄準儀放到一個飛機上去時,

  • And it's carried in a box with a canvas shroud over it.

    都有一隊荷槍實彈的保衛護送.

  • And the box is handcuffed to one of the guards.

    它被放在一個盒子裡,盒子上蓋的是帆布的壽衣.

  • It's never allowed to be photographed.

    而且這個盒子是和一個士兵﨧在一起的.

  • And there's a little incendiary device inside of it,

    從來不允許拍照.

  • so that, if the plane ever crashes, it will be destroyed

    還有一個燃燒彈的裝置在里面

  • and there's no way the enemy can ever get their hands on it.

    所以如果飛機被撞了,這設備也會被毀,

  • The Norden bombsight

    這樣敵軍就無論如何也無法得到它.

  • is the Holy Grail.

    Norden的投彈瞄準儀

  • So what happens during the Second World War?

    被當作了聖杯