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  • How would you like to be better than you are?

    譯者: Jefferson Wang 審譯者: Ana Choi

  • Suppose I said

    你想要自己比現在的你更好嗎?

  • that, with just a few changes in your genes,

    如果我說,

  • you could get a better memory --

    只需要在你的基因中做幾個改變,

  • more precise,

    你就可以擁有更好的記憶力 --

  • more accurate and quicker.

    更精準、

  • Or maybe you'd like to be more fit, stronger,

    更精確、更迅速。

  • with more stamina.

    或者你想要更苗條、更強壯、

  • Would you like to be more attractive and self-confident?

    更有耐力。

  • How about living longer with good health?

    你想變的更具吸引力、更有自信嗎?

  • Or perhaps you're one of those

    活的更久、更健康呢?

  • who's always yearned for more creativity.

    又或者你是屬於那些

  • Which one would you like the most?

    一直嚮往自己能更有創造力的人。

  • Which would you like, if you could have just one?

    你最想要哪一種呢?

  • (Audience Member: Creativity.)

    如果你只能選一種,你會想要哪一種?

  • Creativity.

    (聽眾: 創造力。)

  • How many people would choose creativity?

    創造力。

  • Raise your hands. Let me see.

    多少人會選擇創造力呢?

  • A few. Probably about as many as there are creative people here.

    舉起你的手讓我看看。

  • (Laughter) That's very good.

    有一些人。 大概就跟在坐有創造力的人一樣多吧。

  • How many would opt for memory?

    很好。

  • Quite a few more.

    有多少人會選擇記憶力呢?

  • How about fitness?

    比剛才多了一些人。

  • A few less.

    那健康呢?

  • What about longevity?

    人少了一些。

  • Ah, the majority. That makes me feel very good as a doctor.

    那更長壽呢?

  • If you could have any one of these,

    喔,大多數的人。 這讓身為醫師的我覺得很好。

  • it would be a very different world.

    如果你能擁有任何一種,

  • Is it just imaginary?

    這個世界都會非常不一樣。

  • Or, is it, perhaps, possible?

    這只是幻想嗎?

  • Evolution has been a perennial topic

    還是,這確實有可能呢?

  • here at the TED Conference,

    進化論在TED研討會上

  • but I want to give you today

    一直是個常被討論的主題,

  • one doctor's take on the subject.

    但是我今天是要以一個醫師的觀點

  • The great 20th-century geneticist,

    來討論這個主題。

  • T.G. Dobzhansky,

    20世紀一名偉大的遺傳學家

  • who was also a communicant

    费奥多西·多布然斯基,

  • in the Russian Orthodox Church,

    他同時是俄國東正教

  • once wrote an essay that he titled

    的一名傳信者,

  • "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense

    他曾寫了一篇文章,

  • Except in the Light of Evolution."

    標題是〈生物學中沒有什麼是有道理的 --

  • Now if you are one of those

    除了按照進化論的那些〉。

  • who does not accept the evidence for biological evolution,

    現在,如果你是那些

  • this would be a very good time to turn off your hearing aid,

    不接受生物進化論的證據的人,

  • take out your personal communications device --

    現在是關掉你的助聽器的好時機,

  • I give you permission --

    拿出你的個人通訊設備 --

  • and perhaps take another look at Kathryn Schultz's book on being wrong,

    我准許你們這樣做 --

  • because nothing in the rest of this talk

    或許你該再看一下凱瑟琳• 舒爾茨寫有關犯錯的那本書,

  • is going to make any sense whatsoever to you.

    因為接下來要講的東西

  • (Laughter)

    對你來說都是沒有任何意義的。

  • But if you do accept

    (笑聲)

  • biological evolution,

    但是如果你是

  • consider this:

    接受生物進化論的,

  • is it just about the past,

    仔細想想:

  • or is it about the future?

    它只跟過去有關嗎,

  • Does it apply to others,

    還是它也跟未來有關?

  • or does it apply to us?

    它是適用於他人嗎,

  • This is another look at the tree of life.

    還是也適用於我們?

  • In this picture,

    這是生命之樹,生物的樹狀圖。

  • I've put a bush with a center branching out in all directions,

    在這分支圖當中可以看到,

  • because if you look at the edges

    我把它由一個中心點往各個方向分支出去,

  • of the tree of life,

    因為如果你看到這個生命之樹

  • every existing species

    各個分支的末端,

  • at the tips of those branches

    以進化論的角度來說

  • has succeeded in evolutionary terms:

    每個分支末端的物種

  • it has survived;

    都是成功的案例,因為:

  • it has demonstrated a fitness

    它生存了下來、

  • to its environment.

    它展現了其適合在它生長環境中

  • The human part of this branch,

    生存的條件。

  • way out on one end,

    在這個分支的末端

  • is, of course, the one that we are most interested in.

    有關人類的部份,

  • We branch off of a common ancestor

    理所當然是我們最關心的部份。

  • to modern chimpanzees

    在6至8百萬年前,

  • about six or eight million years ago.

    我們從一個較低層級的祖先

  • In the interval,

    分支出來成了現代的黑猩猩。

  • there have been perhaps 20 or 25

    在這期間,

  • different species of hominids.

    大概出現過20至25種

  • Some have come and gone.

    不同形式的人類祖先。

  • We have been here for about 130,000 years.

    其中有一些已經不存在。

  • It may seem like we're quite remote

    而我們已經生存了130,000年。

  • from other parts of this tree of life,

    我們或許看似跟生命之樹中

  • but actually, for the most part,

    其他的分支隔了很遠,

  • the basic machinery of our cells

    但實際情形是,大致上來說,

  • is pretty much the same.

    我們的細胞機構

  • Do you realize that we can take advantage

    幾乎是一模一樣的。

  • and commandeer the machinery of a common bacterium

    你知不知道我們可以藉由

  • to produce the protein of human insulin

    一種低等細菌體的細胞機構

  • used to treat diabetics?

    來製造人類胰島素的一種蛋白質

  • This is not like human insulin;

    來治療糖尿病嗎?

  • this is the same protein

    它不是跟人類的胰島素類似而已,

  • that is chemically indistinguishable

    它是跟你胰臟分泌出來的

  • from what comes out of your pancreas.

    胰島素裡面的一種蛋白質

  • And speaking of bacteria,

    完全一樣。

  • do you realize that each of us carries in our gut

    講到細菌,

  • more bacteria

    你知道我們腸子裡的細菌數量

  • than there are cells in the rest of our body?

    比我們身體所有細胞的數量

  • Maybe 10 times more.

    還要多嗎?

  • I mean think of it,

    大概有10倍之多。

  • when Antonio Damasio asks about your self-image,

    我說,想想看,

  • do you think about the bacteria?

    當安東尼奧• 達馬斯奧在問你對於自我的形象的時候,

  • Our gut is a wonderfully hospitable environment

    你有想到這些細菌嗎?

  • for those bacteria.

    我們的腸子是一個非常適合

  • It's warm, it's dark, it's moist,

    這些細菌生長的環境。

  • it's very cozy.

    它很溫暖、很陰暗、很潮濕,

  • And you're going to provide all the nutrition that they could possibly want

    非常的舒適。

  • with no effort on their part.

    而且那些細菌完全不需要任何工夫,

  • It's really like an Easy Street for bacteria,

    你就會為它們提供任何需要的營養。

  • with the occasional interruption

    這簡直是細菌的天堂,

  • of the unintended forced rush to the exit.

    除了偶爾會被

  • But otherwise,

    強迫性的推向出口。

  • you are a wonderful environment for those bacteria,

    除此之外,

  • just as they are essential to your life.

    你就是這些細菌最完美的生長環境,

  • They help in the digestion of essential nutrients,

    而這些細菌對你也一樣重要。

  • and they protect you against certain diseases.

    它們幫助消化分解一些必要的營養素。

  • But what will come in the future?

    它們也保護你不受某些疾病的侵襲。

  • Are we at some kind of evolutionary equipoise

    但是未來會是怎麼樣呢?

  • as a species?

    身為一個物種,我們的演進

  • Or, are we destined

    已經達到一種平衡了嗎?

  • to become something different --

    又或者,我們就是註定

  • something, perhaps, even better adapted

    要變得不一樣 --

  • to the environment?

    要變得更加能夠適應

  • Now let's take a step back in time

    外在的環境?

  • to the Big Bang, 14 billion years ago --

    現在我們回朔到140億年前,

  • the Earth, the solar system,

    宇宙大爆炸 --

  • about four and a half billion years --

    45億年前,

  • the first signs of proto-life,

    地球與太陽系的形成 --

  • maybe three to four billion years ago on Earth --

    30~40億年前,

  • the first multi-celled organisms,

    第一次出現原始生命的跡象 --

  • perhaps as much

    大概8~10億年前,

  • as 800 or a billion years ago --

    第一個多細胞生物

  • and then the human species,

    誕生了 --

  • finally emerging

    最後,在這130,000年來

  • in the last 130,000 years.

    人類這個物種

  • In this vast unfinished symphony of the universe,

    終於出現了。

  • life on Earth is like a brief measure;

    宇宙就像首未完成的交響樂,

  • the animal kingdom,

    地球上的生命就像其中幾個小節;

  • like a single measure;

    動物王國,

  • and human life,

    就像其中一個小節;

  • a small grace note.

    而人類,

  • That was us.

    就像其中一個音符而已。

  • That also constitutes the entertainment portion of this talk,

    這就是我們。

  • so I hope you enjoyed it.

    這也是這個研討會中較有娛樂性的部分,

  • (Laughter)

    希望你們有感受到。

  • Now when I was a freshman in college,

    (笑聲)

  • I took my first biology class.

    我在大學一年級的時候

  • I was fascinated

    上了我人生中第一堂生物課。

  • by the elegance and beauty of biology.

    生物學的高雅及美麗

  • I became enamored of the power of evolution,

    深深的吸引了我。

  • and I realized something very fundamental:

    我變得非常地著迷於進化的力量,

  • in most of the existence of life

    並且我了解到了一些很基本的事情:

  • in single-celled organisms,

    在大部分現行存在的單細胞有機體

  • each cell simply divides,

    的生命當中,

  • and all of the genetic energy of that cell

    每個細胞就這樣簡單的分裂,

  • is carried on in both daughter cells.

    然後該細胞中所有的基因能量

  • But at the time multi-celled organisms come online,

    就被帶到了它的子細胞。

  • things start to change.

    但是到了多細胞有機體的出現之後

  • Sexual reproduction enters the picture.

    就變的不一樣了。

  • And very importantly,

    有性生殖開始出現。

  • with the introduction of sexual reproduction

    而且非常重要的是,

  • that passes on the genome,

    透過可以將基因傳遞給後代的

  • the rest of the body

    有性生殖,

  • becomes expendable.

    身體的其他部位

  • In fact, you could say

    變得可以被消耗的。

  • that the inevitability of the death of our bodies

    事實上,你可以說

  • enters in evolutionary time

    在進化的時間線上,

  • at the same moment

    我們身體最終會凋零死亡的必然性

  • as sexual reproduction.

    跟有性生殖的開始

  • Now I have to confess,

    是同時出現的。

  • when I was a college undergraduate,

    現在我必須說,

  • I thought, okay, sex/death, sex/death, death for sex --

    當我還是大學生的時候,

  • it seemed pretty reasonable at the time,

    我想,好吧,性/死亡,性/死亡,為了性而死亡--

  • but with each passing year,

    在當時似乎是非常有道理的,

  • I've come to have increasing doubts.

    但一年一年過去,

  • I've come to understand the sentiments of George Burns,

    我開始有愈來愈多的懷疑。

  • who was performing still in Las Vegas

    我開始理解喬治• 伯恩斯的思想,

  • well into his 90s.

    他當時還在拉斯維加斯表演,

  • And one night, there's a knock at his hotel room door.

    直到他90多歲。

  • He answers the door.

    一天晚上,有人敲他下榻旅館的門。

  • Standing before him is a gorgeous, scantily clad showgirl.

    他應了門。

  • She looks at him and says,

    站在門口的是個非常美麗又穿的很少的舞女。

  • "I'm here for super sex."

    他看著他說:

  • "That's fine," says George, "I'll take the soup."

    「我是來跟你消魂的做愛的。 」

  • (Laughter)

    「好吧」,喬治說,「我就喝湯吧」" ("super sex超級性交" 發音似 "soup or sex湯或是性交")

  • I came to realize,

    (笑聲)

  • as a physician,

    我開始意識到

  • that I was working toward a goal

    作為一個醫師,

  • which was different from the goal of evolution --

    一直以來我努力的目標與

  • not necessarily contradictory, just different.

    進化論的目標是不一樣的--

  • I was trying to preserve the body.

    不見得互相違背,但就是不同。

  • I wanted to keep us healthy.

    我一直嘗試去保存身體。

  • I wanted to restore health from disease.

    我想要我們保持健康。

  • I wanted us to live long and healthy lives.

    我想要使我們從疾病中恢復健康。

  • Evolution is all about passing on the genome

    我想要我們活的又長久又健康。

  • to the next generation,

    而進化全是為了把基因

  • adapting and surviving

    傳遞給下一代,

  • through generation after generation.

    一代接著一代

  • From an evolutionary point of view,

    適應並存活下去。

  • you and I are like the booster rockets

    從進化的觀點來看,

  • designed to send the genetic payload

    我們就像是帶有推進器的火箭,

  • into the next level of orbit

    被設計來把"基因"載送到

  • and then drop off into the sea.

    下一層的軌道

  • I think we would all understand the sentiment that Woody Allen expressed

    然後落下掉進海裡。

  • when he said, "I don't want to achieve immortality through my work.

    我想我們都應該可以了解伍迪•艾倫所說的,

  • I want to achieve it through not dying."

    他說:「 我不想透過我的成就而不朽。」

  • (Laughter)

    「 我想透過不死而不朽。」

  • Evolution does not necessarily

    (笑聲)

  • favor the longest-lived.

    進化,不一定

  • It doesn't necessarily favor the biggest

    是偏向活得最久的。

  • or the strongest or the fastest,

    他不一定偏向最大的、

  • and not even the smartest.

    最強壯的或是最快速的,

  • Evolution favors

    甚至也不偏向最聰明的。

  • those creatures best adapted

    進化,偏向

  • to their environment.

    那些最能夠適應

  • That is the sole test

    其環境的生物。

  • of survival and success.

    它完全是考驗著

  • At the bottom of the ocean,

    成功存活下去的能力。

  • bacteria that are thermophilic

    在海底,

  • and can survive at the steam vent heat

    耐高溫的細菌

  • that would otherwise produce, if fish were there,

    可以存活在熱蒸汽的環境;

  • sous-vide cooked fish,

    如果魚在那種環境,

  • nevertheless, have managed

    就會慢慢的被煮熟 (sous-vide法式真空低溫(約60度C)煮法);

  • to make that a hospitable environment for them.

    然而,它們卻可以

  • So what does this mean,

    適應並接受那樣的環境。

  • as we look back at what has happened in evolution,

    這說明了什麼呢?

  • and as we think about the place again

    當我們回頭看看進化的過程發生了什麼事情,

  • of humans in evolution,

    當我們再次想想人類在進化中

  • and particularly as we look ahead

    扮演的角色,

  • to the next phase,

    尤其是向前看到

  • I would say

    下一個階段,

  • that there are a number of possibilities.

    我會跟你說

  • The first is that we will not evolve.

    有許多的可能性。

  • We have reached

    第一種是我們停止進化。

  • a kind of equipoise.

    我們已經達到

  • And the reasoning behind that would be,

    一種平衡。

  • first, we have, through medicine,

    這背後的原因是,

  • managed to preserve a lot of genes

    首先,我們透過醫學

  • that would otherwise be selected out

    保存下來很多本來

  • and be removed from the population.

    會被淘汰、從人口中消失

  • And secondly, we as a species

    的那些基因。

  • have so configured our environment

    再者,我們是一個能夠

  • that we have managed to make it adapt to us

    配置環境的物種,

  • as well as we adapt to it.

    就跟我們適應環境一樣,

  • And by the way, we immigrate and circulate

    我們讓環境來適應我們。

  • and intermix so much

    另外,我們因為大量的

  • that you can't any longer

    移民、流通以及混合,

  • have the isolation that is necessary

    我們已經不是相互隔離的,

  • for evolution to take place.

    而這又正是進化發生

  • A second possibility

    的必要條件。

  • is that there will be evolution of the traditional kind,

    第二種可能

  • natural, imposed by the forces of nature.

    就是傳統的進化方式,

  • And the argument here would be

    自然的、由自然的力量推進的。

  • that the wheels of evolution grind slowly,

    這個可能性的論點在於

  • but they are inexorable.

    進化雖然很緩慢,

  • And as far as isolation goes,

    但是是無法被阻擋或改變的。

  • when we as a species

    就隔離性來說,

  • do colonize distant planets,

    身為一個物種,當我們殖民到

  • there will be the isolation and the environmental changes

    其他遙遠的星球時,