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  • Roger Ebert: These are my words, but this is not my voice.

    譯者: Cindy Yang 審譯者: Jenny Yang

  • This is Alex, the best computer voice

    下面的話是我說的,但卻不是我的聲音

  • I've been able to find,

    聲音的名字叫 Alex,是我能找到的

  • which comes as standard equipment on every Macintosh.

    最好的電腦發音,

  • For most of my life,

    每台蘋果電腦上都有的基本功能

  • I never gave a second thought to my ability to speak.

    我的前半生,

  • It was like breathing.

    從未擔心過自己說話的能力,

  • In those days, I was living in a fool's paradise.

    說話就像呼吸一樣自然。

  • After surgeries for cancer

    那些日子裡,我無憂無慮。

  • took away my ability to speak, eat or drink,

    抗癌治療後,

  • I was forced to enter this virtual world

    我失去了講話、咀嚼和喝水的能力。

  • in which a computer does some of my living for me.

    我被迫進入了

  • For several days now,

    電腦發音的虛擬世界。

  • we have enjoyed brilliant and articulate speakers here at TED.

    幾天來﹐ 在TED,

  • I used to be able to talk like that.

    我們聆聽那些精彩的、抑揚頓挫的演講。

  • Maybe I wasn't as smart,

    曾經,我也可以那樣演講。

  • but I was at least as talkative.

    就算我沒那麼聰敏,

  • I want to devote my talk today

    但也算侃侃而談。

  • to the act of speaking itself,

    我多麼想用自己的聲音

  • and how the act of speaking or not speaking

    來做今天的演講,

  • is tied so indelibly to one's identity

    然而,講與不能講,

  • as to force the birth of a new person

    是兩種極不同的身份,

  • when it is taken away.

    當你不能發出聲音,

  • However, I've found that listening to a computer voice

    你被強迫變成另一個人。

  • for any great length of time

    而我覺得聆聽電腦發音,

  • can be monotonous.

    不論長短,

  • So I've decided to recruit some of my TED friends

    都很單調。

  • to read my words aloud for me.

    所以我邀請一些我在TED的朋友,

  • I will start with my wife, Chaz.

    來口述我所想說的話。

  • Chaz Ebert: It was Chaz who stood by my side

    先由我太太Chaz開始。

  • through three attempts to reconstruct my jaw

    Chaz Ebert:“在我三次重建下巴,

  • and restore my ability to speak.

    和重建談話能力的期間,

  • Going into the first surgery

    都是 Chaz 陪在我身旁。

  • for a recurrence of salivary cancer

    我的第一次手術,

  • in 2006,

    是唾液腺癌復發時,

  • I expected to be out of the hospital

    當時是2006,

  • in time to return to my movie review show,

    當時電視台在等我出院

  • 'Ebert and Roeper at the Movies.'

    回去主持我的影評節目

  • I had pre-taped enough shows

    ‘艾伯特和羅特論電影’

  • to get me through six weeks of surgery

    為了應付我為期六週的手術,

  • and recuperation.

    和之後的恢復期,

  • The doctors took a fibula bone from my leg

    已經預先錄了六週的節目。

  • and some tissue from my shoulder

    醫生從我腿上取走了一塊腓骨,

  • to fashion into a new jaw.

    從我肩膀裡取走了一些組織,

  • My tongue, larynx and vocal cords

    來重建我的下巴。

  • were still healthy and unaffected.

    我的舌頭,喉嚨和聲帶,

  • (Laughter)

    不受影響,仍然健康。

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑)

  • CE: I was optimistic,

    (觀眾笑)

  • and all was right with the world.

    當時我很樂觀,

  • The first surgery was a great success.

    覺得一切都好。

  • I saw myself in the mirror

    第一次手術很成功。

  • and I looked pretty good.

    我看看鏡子裡的自己,

  • Two weeks later, I was ready to return home.

    看上去還不錯。

  • I was using my iPod

    兩周後,我準備回家時,

  • to play the Leonard Cohen song

    我用我的iPod,

  • 'I'm Your Man'

    播放了Leonard Cohen的一首歌,

  • for my doctors and nurses.

    叫“我是你的男人”,

  • Suddenly, I had an episode of catastrophic bleeding.

    放給我的醫生和護士聽。

  • My carotid artery had ruptured.

    突然我開始大出血

  • Thank God I was still in my hospital room

    我的頸動脈爆裂了。

  • and my doctors were right there.

    謝天謝地,當時我還在醫院房間,

  • Chaz told me

    我的醫生都還在,

  • that if that song hadn't played for so long,

    太太Chaz告訴我,

  • I might have already been in the car, on the way home,

    要不是那首歌播的時間夠久,

  • and would have died right there and then.

    我可能已經在回家的車上,

  • So thank you, Leonard Cohen,

    當場就把命丟了。

  • for saving my life.

    唉,謝謝 Leonard Cohen,

  • (Applause)

    謝謝你救了我的命啊。

  • There was a second surgery --

    (觀眾鼓掌)

  • which held up for five or six days

    再來是第二次手術,

  • and then it also fell apart.

    持續了五六天

  • And then a third attempt,

    但後來還是失敗了。

  • which also patched me back together pretty well,

    第三次手術,

  • until it failed.

    嘗試將我下巴修復,

  • A doctor from Brazil said

    但仍以失敗告終。

  • he had never seen anyone survive

    一個來自巴西的醫生說

  • a carotid artery rupture.

    他從沒見過我這種

  • And before I left the hospital,

    頸動脈爆裂還活下來的人。

  • after a year of being hospitalized,

    我在醫院整整待了一年

  • I had seven ruptures

    才出院

  • of my carotid artery.

    總共經歷過7次

  • There was no particular day

    頸動脈爆裂。

  • when anyone told me

    再也沒有

  • I would never speak again;

    任何人告訴我

  • it just sort of became obvious.

    我能重新講話;

  • Human speech

    因為大家都看得出是怎麼回事。

  • is an ingenious manipulation of our breath

    人類的聲音

  • within the sound chamber of our mouth

    是由精密控制口腔

  • and respiratory system.

    和呼吸系統裡的呼吸

  • We need to be able to hold and manipulate that breath

    而發出的。

  • in order to form sounds.

    講話時,我們需要控制呼吸

  • Therefore, the system

    從而發聲。

  • must be essentially airtight

    因而,發聲系統

  • in order to capture air.

    必須緊密

  • Because I had lost my jaw,

    才能控制空氣。

  • I could no longer form a seal,

    而我失去了下顎,

  • and therefore my tongue

    我的口腔漏氣,

  • and all of my other vocal equipment

    因此我的舌頭

  • was rendered powerless.

    以及其他的發聲器官

  • Dean Ornish: At first for a long time,

    都無力回天。

  • I wrote messages in notebooks.

    Dean Ornish: "有挺長的一段時間,

  • Then I tried typing words on my laptop

    我只能在本子上寫話。

  • and using its built in voice.

    後來我試著在手提電腦上打字

  • This was faster,

    讓電腦裡的發音軟體來念。

  • and nobody had to try to read my handwriting.

    這快多了,

  • I tried out various computer voices that were available online,

    別人也不用再嘗試閱讀我的筆跡了。

  • and for several months I had a British accent,

    我試遍了所有網上的電腦發音軟體,

  • which Chaz called Sir Lawrence."

    有段時間用的是英式發音的,

  • (Laughter)

    Chaz尊稱它Lawrence先生。

  • "It was the clearest I could find.

    (觀眾笑)

  • Then Apple released the Alex voice,

    那是當時最清楚的一款發音了。

  • which was the best I'd heard.

    隨後,蘋果發佈了Alex版發音軟體,

  • It knew things like the difference

    是我認為效果最好的一款

  • between an exclamation point and a question mark.

    Alex知道

  • When it saw a period, it knew how to make a sentence

    驚歎號和問號的句子讀出來不一樣。

  • sound like it was ending instead of staying up in the air.

    看到句號時,它知道怎麼斷句

  • There are all sorts of html codes you can use

    讀出來的聲音就是降調的而不是繼續懸在空中。

  • to control the timing and inflection of computer voices,

    有各種HTML編碼

  • and I've experimented with them.

    用來管理電腦發聲的時間和音調,

  • For me, they share a fundamental problem: they're too slow.

    那些我都試過。

  • When I find myself in a conversational situation,

    但是對我來說,他們的共同問題是太慢了。

  • I need to type fast and to jump right in.

    比如我在跟人交流時,

  • People don't have the time or the patience

    我就得打字飛快反應迅速。

  • to wait for me to fool around with the codes

    但是別人沒時間或者耐心

  • for every word or phrase.

    等著我和那些代碼玩

  • But what value do we place on the sound of our own voice?

    每個字每句話都得那樣

  • How does that affect who you are as a person?

    但是我們自己的聲音價值何在呢?

  • When people hear Alex speaking my words,

    它對我們的形象有什麽影響?

  • do they experience a disconnect?

    每次人們聽到電腦Alex替我說話時,

  • Does that create a separation or a distance

    他們會不會覺得很遙遠生硬?

  • from one person to the next?

    會不會因此讓我

  • How did I feel not being able to speak?

    和人們產生距離或隔閡?

  • I felt, and I still feel,

    不能講話的感受是怎樣的?

  • a lot of distance from the human mainstream.

    我能一直感覺到,

  • I've become uncomfortable when I'm separated from my laptop.

    跟人群、社會脫節。

  • Even then, I'm aware that most people have little patience

    一離開我的手提電腦我就不自在。

  • for my speaking difficulties.

    即使那樣,我也能感覺到人們對我講話障礙

  • So Chaz suggested finding a company that could make a customized voice

    沒啥耐心

  • using my TV show voice

    之後我的太太Chaz建議最好能找一家公司給我量身打造我的聲音

  • from a period of 30 years.

    從30年來

  • At first I was against it.

    我做的節目裡選我的聲音。

  • I thought it would be creepy

    最開始我反對。

  • to hear my own voice coming from a computer.

    我覺得會害怕

  • There was something comforting about a voice that was not my own.

    聽到自己的聲音從電腦裡出來。

  • But I decided then to just give it a try.

    我還是習慣電腦發出的聲音不是我自己的。

  • So we contacted a company in Scotland

    但最後我還是決定試試。

  • that created personalized computer voices.

    於是我們聯絡了一家在蘇格蘭的公司

  • They'd never made one from previously-recorded materials.

    他們的專業是個人化電腦發音。

  • All of their voices had been made by a speaker

    他們從來沒有從錄製資料裡提取過語音。

  • recording original words in a control booth.

    他們所用的一般都是

  • But they were willing to give it a try.

    直接在他們的錄音室錄製的談話。

  • So I sent them many hours of recordings of my voice,

    但他們決定一試。

  • including several audio commentary tracks

    於是我把以前我節目裡的的聲音發給他們,

  • that I'd made for movies on DVDs.

    包括一些電影DVD

  • And it sounded like me, it really did.

    裏面的一些我的評論。

  • There was a reason for that; it was me.

    確實聽著像我自己的聲音。

  • But it wasn't that simple.

    因為那就是我啊。

  • The tapes from my TV show weren't very useful

    那是製作也沒那麼簡單。

  • because there were too many other kinds of audio involved --

    那些來自我電視節目的資料並不好用

  • movie soundtracks, for example, or Gene Siskel arguing with me --

    因為裏面夾雜太多別的聲音--

  • (Laughter)

    比如電影背景音或者Gene Siskel和我爭吵的聲音。

  • and my words often had a particular emphasis

    (觀眾笑)

  • that didn't fit into a sentence well enough.

    因為有時我說一些字句時特別用力

  • I'll let you hear a sample of that voice.

    不太適合重新組合成新句子。

  • These are a few of the comments I recorded for use

    我讓大家先聽聽當時製作的聲音。

  • when Chaz and I appeared on the Oprah Winfrey program.

    來自我和太太

  • And here's the voice we call Roger Jr.

    有次參加Oprah Winfrey的節目。

  • or Roger 2.0.

    下面這段聲音我叫他 羅傑初級版,

  • Roger 2.0: Oprah, I can't tell you how great it is

    或者羅傑2.0版。

  • to be back on your show.

    羅傑2.0版:Oprah,我無法形容

  • We have been talking for a long time,

    回到你節目有多麼棒。

  • and now here we are again.

    我們以前聊過很多,

  • This is the first version of my computer voice.

    現在又開聊啦。

  • It still needs improvement,

    這是我電腦發音的初級版。

  • but at least it sounds like me

    還需改進,

  • and not like HAL 9000.

    但是至少聽著像我了

  • When I heard it the first time,

    而不是什麽HAL 9000。

  • it sent chills down my spine.

    我第一次聽的時候,

  • When I type anything,

    一身雞皮疙瘩。

  • this voice will speak whatever I type.

    我打字輸入,

  • When I read something, it will read in my voice.

    它就按我打的開始念。

  • I have typed these words in advance,

    我讀什麽,它就用我的聲音讀什麽。

  • as I didn't think it would be thrilling

    我把要說的提前打出來,

  • to sit here watching me typing.

    因為我覺得看一個人坐在那裡打字

  • The voice was created by a company in Scotland

    不是什麼令人興奮的畫面。

  • named CereProc.

    這個聲音是蘇格蘭一家公司為我定制,

  • It makes me feel good

    公司叫CereProc.

  • that many of the words you are hearing were first spoken

    我感覺還不錯

  • while I was commenting on "Casablanca"

    而且很多你們現在聽到的發音都是合成的

  • and "Citizen Kane."

    用的是我在《卡撒布蘭卡》

  • This is the first voice they've created for an individual.

    和《大國民》的錄音。

  • There are several very good voices available for computers,

    這也是他們公司第一次為專人製作聲音。

  • but they all sound like somebody else,

    雖然電腦發音好幾個版本都很好聽,

  • while this voice sounds like me.

    但是都是別人的聲音啊。

  • I plan to use it on television, radio

    只有這個是我自己的。

  • and the Internet.

    於是我打算在電視、廣播

  • People who need a voice should know

    還有網上用。

  • that most computers already come with built-in speaking systems.

    大家應該知道,

  • Many blind people use them

    很多電腦都自帶發音系統。

  • to read pages on the Web to themselves.

    很多盲人也用

  • But I've got to say, in first grade,

    有助於他們瀏覽網頁。

  • they said I talked too much,

    但我得說,一年级的时候

  • and now I still can.

    他們抱怨我話多,

  • (Laughter)

    我現在還是這樣。

  • Roger Ebert: As you can hear, it sounds like me,

    (觀眾笑)

  • but the words jump up and down.

    你聽,確實聽著像我,

  • The flow isn't natural.

    但是發音忽高忽低,

  • The good people in Scotland are still improving my voice,

    語調不自然。

  • and I'm optimistic about it.

    蘇格蘭公司的人還在改進我的聲音,

  • But so far, the Apple Alex voice

    我也很樂觀。

  • is the best one I've heard.

    但目前,蘋果的Alex發音

  • I wrote a blog about it

    是我聽到的最好的了。

  • and actually got a comment from the actor who played Alex.

    我發表過一篇部落格

  • He said he recorded many long hours in various intonations

    給Alex語音錄製聲音的人留言給我。

  • to be used in the voice.

    他說他錄製了很久,各種語調都錄

  • A very large sample is needed.

    以備各種情況。

  • John Hunter: All my life I was a motormouth.

    需要大量發音樣本。

  • Now I have spoken my last words,

    John Hunter: "曾經的我多麼健談,

  • and I don't even remember for sure

    而我也不記得何時,

  • what they were.

    我說出了最後一句話

  • I feel like the hero of that Harlan Ellison story

    也不記得說了什麽。

  • titled "I Have No Mouth and I Must Scream."

    我感覺像Harlan Ellison故事里的主人公

  • On Wednesday, David Christian explained to us

    “我沒有嘴,卻必須喊”

  • what a tiny instant the human race represents

    週三的時候,David Christian還給我們講過

  • in the time-span of the universe.

    和浩翰的宇宙相比

  • For almost all of its millions and billions of years,

    人類文明史多麼短暫

  • there was no life on Earth at all.

    在它數百萬年﹐ 數十億年的歷史中

  • For almost all the years of life on Earth,

    地球上沒有生命。

  • there was no intelligent life.

    而在地球有生命的時間裡,

  • Only after we learned to pass knowledge

    也沒有高等生物。

  • from one generation to the next,

    而當人類開始傳承知識後

  • did civilization become possible.

    一代又一代,

  • In cosmological terms,

    人類文明才得以發展。

  • that was about 10 minutes ago.

    要是跟浩翰的宇宙比,

  • Finally came mankind's most advanced and mysterious tool,

    那也不過是10分鐘之前的事。

  • the computer.

    而現在居然誕生了人類最進步和神秘的工具,

  • That has mostly happened in my lifetime.

    就是電腦。

  • Some of the famous early computers

    基本上是我長大後才有。

  • were being built in my hometown of Urbana,

    著名的早期電腦

  • the birthplace of HAL 9000.

    在我故鄉厄巴纳製造,

  • When I heard the amazing talk

    也是HAL 9000誕生之地。

  • by Salman Khan on Wednesday,

    週三時,

  • about the Khan Academy website

    聽到Salman Khan的演講,

  • that teaches hundreds of subjects to students all over the world,

    關於Khan學院網站

  • I had a flashback.

    給世界各地的學生傳授各種知識

  • It was about 1960.

    是我回憶起

  • As a local newspaper reporter still in high school,

    在1960年的時候

  • I was sent over to the computer lab of the University of Illinois

    當時我是一名新聞記者,仍在上高中

  • to interview the creators

    我去了伊利諾伊大學的電腦室

  • of something called PLATO.

    進行採訪

  • The initials stood for Programmed Logic

    PLATO的開發者

  • for Automated Teaching Operations.

    PLATO是自動教學程式的編寫邏輯