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  • It's a bit funny to be

    譯者: Dxm Online大小媒體 審譯者: Geoff Chen

  • at a conference dedicated to things not seen,

    這似乎有些好笑

  • and present my proposal to build

    在會議上談論肉眼看不到的東西

  • a 6,000-kilometer-long wall

    並提出我的建議

  • across the entire African continent.

    建立一條6000公里長的牆

  • About the size of the Great Wall of China,

    橫跨全非洲大陸

  • this would hardly be an invisible structure.

    大約像中國長城的規模

  • And yet it's made from parts that are invisible, or near-invisible, to the naked eye:

    這會是個你很難不看到的結構

  • bacteria and grains of sand.

    雖然它的組成來自於幾乎看不見,或接近肉眼看不見的程度

  • Now, as architects we're trained to solve problems.

    也就是細菌和沙粒

  • But I don't really believe in architectural problems;

    身為建築師我們 被訓練來解決問題

  • I only believe in opportunities.

    但我並不相信建築上的問題

  • Which is why I'll show you a threat,

    我只相信機會

  • and an architectural response.

    這就是為什麼我將向你們說明這個威脅

  • The threat is desertification.

    以及一個建築上的因應措施

  • My response is a sandstone wall

    所謂的威脅是沙漠化

  • made from bacteria and solidified sand,

    我的因應措施是建一座砂岩牆

  • stretching across the desert.

    由細菌和固化沙組成

  • Now, sand is a magical material

    延伸橫跨沙漠

  • of beautiful contradictions.

    沙是一種神奇的物質

  • It is simple and complex.

    美麗又矛盾

  • It is peaceful and violent.

    簡單又複雜

  • It is always the same, never the same,

    和平又狂暴

  • endlessly fascinating.

    它看來永遠一個樣,卻又那麼不同

  • One billion grains of sand

    無窮的迷人特質

  • come into existence in the world each second.

    這世界每秒鐘

  • That's a cyclical process.

    有10億粒沙形成

  • As rocks and mountains die,

    這是一個循環過程

  • grains of sand are born.

    當岩石和山脈消逝

  • Some of those grains may then cement naturally into sandstone.

    沙粒則形成

  • And as the sandstone weathers, new grains break free.

    有些沙粒之後可能自然地凝固為砂岩

  • Some of those grains may then accumulate

    當砂岩受到風化,新的沙就會脫離

  • on a massive scale,

    有些沙粒

  • into a sand dune.

    則大規模累積

  • In a way, the static, stone mountain

    形成沙丘

  • becomes a moving mountain of sand.

    在某種情況下,靜止的岩山

  • But, moving mountains can be dangerous. Let me try and explain why.

    會變成一座移動的沙山

  • Dry areas cover more than one third of the Earth's land surfaces.

    但移動的山很危險,讓我試著解釋原因

  • Some are already deserts;

    超過1/3的地球表面覆蓋著乾燥的區域

  • others are being seriously degraded by the sand.

    有一些已成為沙漠

  • Just south of the Sahara we find the Sahel.

    其他的則是正嚴重地受到沙的侵蝕

  • The name means "edge of the desert."

    我們發現撒哈拉沙漠南方的薩赫耳

  • And this is the region most closely associated with desertification.

    薩赫耳意謂「沙漠的邊緣」。

  • It was here in the late '60s and early '70s

    這區域是最近乎於沙漠化的地方

  • that major droughts brought three million people

    在60年代末期及70年代初期,嚴重的乾旱

  • to become dependent upon emergency food aid,

    造成三百萬人急需

  • with about up to 250,000 dying.

    仰賴緊急食物救援

  • This is a catastrophe waiting to happen again.

    而將近有25萬人死亡

  • And it's one that gets very little attention.

    這是一場即將再次發生的災難

  • In our accelerated media culture,

    而這個災難卻沒獲得多少注意

  • desertification is simply too slow

    在我們的快速媒體文化當中

  • to reach the headlines.

    由於沙漠化的緩慢

  • It's nothing like a tsunami or a Katrina:

    使它從未登上頭版,不受媒體重視

  • too few crying children and smashed up houses.

    它不像海嘯或是卡崔那颶風

  • And yet desertification

    看不到什麼哭泣的兒童及毀壞的房屋

  • is a major threat on all continents,

    然而,沙漠化

  • affecting some 110 countries

    在所有陸地上都是重大威脅

  • and about 70 percent of the world's agricultural drylands.

    它影響110個國家

  • It seriously threatens the livelihoods

    以及世界上約 70%的農作陸地

  • of millions of people,

    它嚴重威脅

  • and especially in Africa and China.

    數千萬人的生活

  • And it is largely an issue that we've created for ourselves

    特別是非洲及中國

  • through unsustainable use of scarce resources.

    這主要也是由於我們

  • So, we get climate change.

    濫用珍貴資源所導致的問題

  • We get droughts,

    所以我們面臨著氣候異常

  • increased desertification,

    乾旱

  • crashing food systems, water scarcity,

    沙漠化擴大

  • famine, forced migration,

    崩潰的食物系統、水荒

  • political instability, warfare, crisis.

    飢荒、被迫遷徙

  • That's a potential scenario

    政治不穩定、戰爭、危機

  • if we fail to take this seriously.

    這些將是潛在的情況

  • But, how far away is it?

    如果我們不認真看待這個問題的話

  • I went to Sokoto in northern Nigeria

    但是,這個威脅離我們有多遠呢?

  • to try and find out how far away it is.

    我去了奈吉利亞北部的索科托(Sokoto)

  • The dunes here move southward at a pace of around 600 meters a year.

    試圖瞭解它離我們有多遠

  • That's the Sahara eating up almost [two meters] a day of the arable land,

    這裏的沙丘南移速度約是一年600公尺

  • physically pushing people away from their homes.

    這等於是撒哈拉每天侵吞下一公尺的耕作用地

  • Here I am -- I'm the second person on the left --

    完全將人們趕離他們的家園

  • (Laughter)

    我在這裡—我是左邊數過來第二個

  • with the elders in Gidan-Kara,

    (笑聲)

  • a tiny village outside of Sokoto.

    與一些長者

  • They had to move this village in 1987

    在索科托近郊的小村落Gidan-Kara

  • as a huge dune threatened to swallow it.

    他們必須於1997年遷移這個村莊

  • So, they moved the entire village, hut by hut.

    因當時遭受一個巨大沙丘吞沒的威脅

  • This is where the village used to be.

    於是將整個村莊的一間間小屋陸續遷移

  • It took us about 10 minutes to climb up to the top of that dune,

    這是村莊之前所在處

  • which goes to show why they had to move to a safer location.

    我們花了約 10 分鐘爬上沙丘頂端

  • That's the kind of forced migration

    可以看出他們為什麼必須遷移到安全地點

  • that desertification can lead to.

    這是一種強迫性的遷徙

  • If you happen to live close to the desert border,

    沙漠化會導致這種後果

  • you can pretty much calculate how long it will be

    如果你碰巧住在靠近沙漠邊緣

  • before you have to carry your kids away,

    你幾乎可以計算出在這之前還剩多少時間

  • and abandon your home and your life as you know it.

    你得帶著你的孩子離開

  • Now, sand dunes cover only about one fifth of our deserts.

    放棄你的家庭和生活,當你知道會發生這種狀況時

  • And still, those extreme environments are very good places

    目前沙丘只覆蓋我們的沙漠約1/5

  • if we want to stop the shifting sands.

    儘管如此,這些極端環境依然是很好的地方

  • Four years ago, 23 African countries

    如果我們阻止沙的移動

  • came together to create the Great Green Wall Sahara.

    四年前,23個非洲國家

  • A fantastic project, the initial plan

    聚首提議建立「撒哈拉綠色長城」

  • called for a shelter belt of trees to be planted

    這是一個了不起的計畫,初步的規劃

  • right across the African continent,

    是種植防護林帶

  • from Mauritania in the west, all the way to Djibouti in the east.

    橫越整個非洲大陸

  • If you want to stop a sand dune from moving,

    從西部的茅利塔尼亞一直到東部的吉布地

  • what you need to make sure to do is to stop the grains

    如果想阻止沙丘移動

  • from avalanching over its crest.

    你必須確保能阻止沙粒

  • And a good way of doing that, the most efficient way,

    從沙丘頂端崩塌

  • is to use some kind of sand catcher.

    有個好方法,也是最有效的方法

  • Trees or cacti are good for this.

    是使用某種能捕捉沙粒的東西

  • But, one of the problems with planting trees is that

    樹木或仙人掌很有用

  • the people in these regions are so poor

    但是,種樹木的問題之一是

  • that they chop them down for firewood.

    這裡的居民很貧窮

  • Now there is an alternative to just planting trees

    他們把樹木砍來當柴燒

  • and hoping that they won't get chopped down.

    現在有個替代方案 能取代只是種植樹木

  • This sandstone wall that I'm proposing essentially does three things.

    並希望它們不會被砍伐

  • It adds roughness to the dune's surface,

    我建議的這個砂岩牆主要可達成三項任務

  • to the texture of the dune's surface, binding the grains.

    添加粗糙物到沙丘表面

  • It provides a physical support structure for the trees,

    為沙丘表面紋理增添粗糙面,黏住沙粒

  • and it creates physical spaces,

    它為樹木提供自然的支撐結構

  • habitable spaces inside of the sand dunes.

    並建立了實際空間

  • If people live inside of the green barrier

    就是沙丘中的可居住空間

  • they can help support the trees, protect them from humans,

    如果人們生活在綠色壁壘中

  • and from some of the forces of nature.

    他們可以協助支撐樹木,保護樹木

  • Inside of the dunes we find shade.

    不受人類及其他自然破壞力的侵害

  • We can start harvesting condensation,

    沙丘中我們有蔭涼處

  • and start greening the desert from within.

    我們可以取得冷凝水

  • Sand dunes are almost like ready-made buildings in a way.

    而開始從內部綠化沙漠

  • All we need to do is solidify the parts that we need to be solid,

    沙丘有點像是現成的建築物

  • and then excavate the sand,

    我們所要做的是固化我們所需的部份

  • and we have our architecture.

    然後將沙挖掘出來

  • We can either excavate it by hand

    這就是我們的建築物

  • or we can have the wind excavate it for us.

    我們可以徒手挖掘

  • So, the wind carries the sand onto the site

    讓風來幫我們代勞

  • and then it carries the redundant sand away from the structure for us.

    所以風將沙吹到當地

  • But, by now, you're probably asking,

    又幫我們將多餘的沙從結構中吹走

  • how am I planning to solidify a sand dune?

    現在你們可能要問我

  • How do we glue those grains of sand together?

    如何固化沙丘?

  • And the answer is, perhaps, that you use these guys,

    我們要如何將沙粒黏合在一起

  • Bacillus pasteurii,

    或許答案就是,你該用這東西

  • a micro-organism that is readily available in wetlands

    巴氏芽孢桿菌

  • and marshes, and does precisely that.

    一種在濕地和沼澤中

  • It takes a pile of loose sand

    都可以找到的微生物

  • and it creates sandstone out of it.

    它需要一堆鬆散的沙子

  • These images from the American Society for Microbiology show us the process.

    並由此創造出砂岩

  • What happens is, you pour Bacillus pasteurii onto a pile of sand,

    這些美國微生物學會的影像,展示出固化的過程

  • and it starts filling up the voids in between the grains.

    所發生的就是,你將巴氏芽孢桿菌倒入一堆沙中

  • A chemical process produces calcite,

    這些菌開始填滿沙粒間的空隙

  • which is a kind of natural cement

    經過化學過程,產生方解石

  • that binds the grains together.

    這是一種天然的水泥

  • The whole cementation process takes about 24 hours.

    可使沙粒結合在一起

  • I learned about this from a professor at U.C. Davis called Jason DeJong.

    整個膠結過程約需24小時

  • He managed to do it in a mere 1,400 minutes.

    我跟加州大學戴維斯分校Jason DeJong副教授學到這個方法

  • Here I am, playing the part of the mad scientist,

    他僅在1400分鐘內就能成功做到這一點

  • working with the bugs at UCL in London,

    這是我,就像一位瘋狂的科學家

  • trying to solidify them.

    在倫敦 UCL 裏操作這些桿菌

  • So, how much would this cost?

    試圖使它們固化

  • I'm not an economist, very much not,

    這需要多少費用?

  • but I did, quite literally, a back of the envelope calculation --

    我不是經濟學家,差遠了

  • (Laughter)

    但我毫不誇張地 粗步估算一下

  • -- and it seems that for a cubic meter of concrete

    (笑聲)

  • we would have to pay in the region of 90 dollars.

    1立方公尺的水泥

  • And, after an initial cost of 60 bucks to buy the bacteria,

    我們大約要支付90美元

  • which you'll never have to pay again,

    第一次購買這些細菌的60美元後

  • one cubic meter of bacterial sand

    你就不需要再買細菌

  • would be about 11 dollars.

    1立方公尺的細菌沙

  • How do we construct something like this?

    約11美元

  • Well, I'll quickly show you two options.

    究竟我們要如何建造這樣的建築?

  • The first is to create a kind of balloon structure,

    我很快的提供你兩個選項

  • fill it with bacteria, then allow the sand to wash over the balloon,

    第一個是建造一種似氣球的結構

  • pop the balloon, as it were, disseminating the bacteria into the sand and solidifying it.

    用細菌填滿它,然後讓沙浸過氣球

  • Then, a few years afterwards,

    打破氣球,可以這麼說,將細菌散入沙中使它固化

  • using permacultural strategies,

    然後,數年後

  • we green that part of the desert.

    使用永續策略

  • The second alternative would be to use injection piles.

    我們綠化了那部分的沙漠

  • So, we pushed the piles down through the dune,

    第二種選項是使用灌樁

  • and we create an initial bacterial surface.

    我們將樁打入沙丘

  • We then pull the piles up through the dune

    創造出一個初始化的細菌表面

  • and we're able to create almost any conceivable shape inside of the sand

    然後將樁抽離沙丘

  • with the sand acting as a mold as we go up.

    如此我們能夠在沙丘內創造出任何想要的形狀

  • So, we have a way of turning sand into sandstone,

    在搭建起來時把沙當成模

  • and then creating these habitable spaces inside of the desert dunes.

    我們就有將沙轉換為沙岩的方式

  • But, what should they look like?

    而且在沙丘裡創造出可居住的空間

  • Well, I was inspired, for my architectural form, by tafoni,

    但是,這些建築會長成什麼樣子呢?

  • which look a little bit like this, this is a model representation of it.

    對於建築外型的靈感源於風化穴

  • These are cavernous rock structures that I found on the site in Sokoto.

    長得有點像這個,這是模型的示意

  • And I realized that if I scaled them up, they would provide me

    這些是有我在Sokoto找到的洞穴狀岩石結構

  • with good spatial qualities,

    然後我發覺,若我將規模拉大

  • for ventilation, for thermal comfort, and for other things.

    它們可以提供我

  • Now, part of the formal control over this structure

    通風、保溫及其他方面良好且特別的品質

  • would be lost to nature, obviously,

    這架構的形式控制一部份

  • as the bacteria do their work.

    將隨大自然消逝,想當然爾地

  • And I think this creates a kind of boundless beauty actually.

    因為細菌有所作用

  • I think there is really something in that articulation

    我覺得 這實際上創造出一種無限的美感

  • that is quite nice.

    認為由這個所表現出的

  • We see the result, the traces, if you like,

    確實有某些相當不錯的理念

  • of the Bacillus pasteurii being harnessed to sculpt the desert

    我們看到其結果和進程,若你願意,

  • into these habitable environments.

    就是利用巴氏芽孢桿菌

  • Some people believe that

    將沙漠雕塑成這些居住環境

  • this would spread uncontrollably,

    有些人相信

  • and that the bacteria would kill everything in its way.

    這方式會一發不可收拾

  • That's not true at all.

    細菌會在運作的過程中侵蝕每一件事物

  • It's a natural process. It goes on in nature today,

    這完全不正確

  • and the bacteria die as soon as we stop feeding them.

    這是個自然的過程,到今日都在自然界發生

  • So, there it is --

    只要我們停止餵食細菌,細菌就會死亡

  • architectural anti-desertification structures

    這就是

  • made from the desert itself.

    由沙漠所製成的

  • Sand-stopping devices, made from sand.

    反沙漠化建築結構

  • The world is likely to lose one third of its arable land

    擋沙裝置是由沙所製成

  • by the end of the century.

    在本世紀末 地球很可能

  • In a period of unprecedented population growth

    減少三分之一的耕地

  • and increased food demands, this could prove disastrous.

    在這史無前例的人口爆炸年代

  • And quite frankly, we're putting our heads in the sand.

    食物需求激增 這些都代表著災難

  • If nothing else, I would like for this scheme to initiate a discussion.

    老實說我們仍是鴕鳥心態

  • But, if I had something like a TED wish,

    若沒有其他資源,我希望這個計畫可以引發討論

  • it would be to actually get it built,

    但是若我有像TED的願景

  • to start building this habitable wall,

    那將是能夠真正將它實現

  • this very, very long, but very narrow city in the desert,

    開始建造這種可居住的牆

  • built into the dunescape itself.

    這將是沙漠中非常長 且狹窄的城市

  • It's not only something that supports trees,

    內建在沙丘結構本身

  • but something that connects people and countries together.

    它不只可以支撐樹木

  • I would like to conclude by showing you an animation of the structure,

    也可以將人們及國家串連在一起

  • and leave you with a sentence by Jorge Luis Borges.

    我想以一段結構的動畫影片作為總結

  • Borges said that "nothing is built on stone,

    並附上波赫士所說的一句話

  • everything is built on sand,

    波赫士說:「沒有建物是建築在岩石上的

  • but we must build as if the sand were stone."

    所有的建物都是建在沙上

  • Now, there are many details left to explore in this scheme --

    但我們必須視沙猶如岩石般來建立一切

  • political, practical, ethical, financial.

    現在這個計畫仍有許多細節有待探索

  • My design, as it takes you down the rabbit hole,

    如政治、實際操作、道德、財務等面向

  • is fraught with many challenges

    如同帶你仙境一遊般

  • and difficulties in the real world.

    我的設計在現實生活中

  • But, it's a beginning, it's a vision.

    是充滿許多挑戰及困難

  • As Borges would have it, it's the sand.

    不過這是個開端,是個願景

  • And I think now is really the time

    如同波赫士所言 它是沙

  • to turn it into stone. Thank you.

    我認為現在

  • (Applause)

    是將它們變成石頭的時候了 謝謝

It's a bit funny to be

譯者: Dxm Online大小媒體 審譯者: Geoff Chen

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 沙丘 細菌 沙漠 樹木 結構

【TED】馬格納斯-拉森:把沙丘變成建築(馬格納斯-拉森:把沙丘變成建築)。 (【TED】Magnus Larsson: Turning dunes into architecture (Magnus Larsson: Turning dunes into architecture))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字