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  • I became an inventor by accident.

    譯者: kane tan 審譯者: Shelley Krishna Tsang

  • I was out of the air force in 1956. No, no, that's not true:

    我在偶然的情況下變成了發明家。

  • I went in in 1956, came out in 1959,

    1956年我從空軍退伍。不對,我記錯了:

  • was working at the University of Washington,

    我在1956年進去,1959年離開的,

  • and I came up with an idea, from reading a magazine article,

    之後在華盛頓大學工作,

  • for a new kind of a phonograph tone arm.

    當我看雜誌文章時,想到了一個點子,

  • Now, that was before cassette tapes, C.D.s, DVDs --

    用於留聲機的新型唱臂上。

  • any of the cool stuff we've got now.

    那是在卡式錄音帶,CD,DVD --

  • And it was an arm that,

    任何現在很酷的新玩意出來之前的事。

  • instead of hinging and pivoting as it went across the record,

    那是一種當它在唱片上移動時

  • went straight: a radial, linear tracking tone arm.

    不靠鏈條移動, 不繞著中樞軸旋轉的唱臂,

  • And it was the hardest invention I ever made, but it got me started,

    講明白一點,就是一種在半徑上作線性循跡的唱臂。

  • and I got really lucky after that.

    這是我做過最困難的發明,但也是它讓我走上了這條路,

  • And without giving you too much of a tirade,

    這之後我就一直滿順利的。

  • I want to talk to you about an invention I brought with me today:

    長篇大論就不多說了,

  • my 44th invention. No, that's not true either.

    我們直接來談我今天帶來的發明:

  • Golly, I'm just totally losing it.

    這是我第44項發明。不對,又錯了。

  • My 44th patent; about the 15th invention.

    天啊,我已經搞混了。

  • I call this hypersonic sound.

    這是我第44項專利,大概是第15項發明吧。

  • I'm going to play it for you in a couple minutes,

    我稱它為超級超音波。(超越超音波)

  • but I want to make an analogy before I do

    我會用它來播放幾分鐘給各位聽,

  • to this.

    不過在這之前要先跟各位

  • I usually show this hypersonic sound and people will say,

    說聲抱歉。

  • That's really cool, but what's it good for?

    我常常秀這個超級超音波,可是大家都會問,

  • And I say, What is the light bulb good for?

    那東西真酷,不過有什麼用啊?

  • Sound, light: I'm going to draw the analogy.

    我說,燈泡有什麼用處呢?

  • When Edison invented the light bulb, pretty much looked like this.

    我們來比較一下聲音和光線。

  • Hasn't changed that much.

    當愛迪生發明燈泡,看起來大概就像這樣。

  • Light came out of it in every direction.

    這並沒有改變太多。

  • Before the light bulb was invented,

    光線從各個角度散放出來。

  • people had figured out how to put a reflector behind it,

    在燈泡發明之前,

  • focus it a little bit;

    人們就知道它後面放個反射鏡,

  • put lenses in front of it,

    讓光線更集中;

  • focus it a little bit better.

    在前面放個透鏡,

  • Ultimately we figured out how to make things like lasers

    讓它更加集中。

  • that were totally focused.

    最終我們發現怎麼去做出雷射

  • Now, think about where the world would be today

    這種完全聚集的光線。

  • if we had the light bulb,

    現在想想,如果我們有燈泡,

  • but you couldn't focus light;

    但是無法集中光線時,

  • if when you turned one on it just went wherever it wanted to.

    世界會變成怎麼樣;

  • That's the way loudspeakers pretty much are.

    當你點亮燈泡,光線四散的時候。

  • You turn on the loudspeaker,

    那和喇叭差不多。

  • and after almost 80 years of having those gadgets,

    當你打開喇叭時,

  • the sound just kind of goes where it wants.

    即使在它們已經發明了將近80年之後,

  • Even when you're standing in front of a megaphone,

    聲音仍然會隨便亂跑。

  • it's pretty much every direction.

    即使你在站擴音器前面,

  • A little bit of differential, but not much.

    它還是幾乎往各個方向跑。

  • If the light bulb was the way the speaker is,

    會有些許不同,但差不多。

  • and you couldn't focus or sharpen the edges or define it,

    如果燈泡和喇叭一樣,

  • we wouldn't have that, or movies in general,

    你沒辦法把光線聚集,讓邊界變小或是限制它,

  • or computers, or T.V. sets,

    我們就不可能擁有,比如說電影,

  • or C.D.s, or DVDs -- and just go down the list

    或是電腦,或是電視機,

  • of what the importance is

    或是 CD, DVD -- 想想看

  • of being able to focus light.

    把光線聚集起來

  • Now, after almost 80 years of having sound,

    有多麼重要。

  • I thought it was about time that we figure out

    在擁有聲音將近80年後的今日,

  • a way to put sound where you want to.

    我想差不多是時候去發覺

  • I have a couple of units.

    如何將聲音導向你希望的位置。

  • That guy there was made for a demo I did yesterday early in the day

    我這兒有一些設備。

  • for a big car maker in Detroit who wants to put them in a car --

    那是我昨天在底特律的一家汽車工廠做示範用的,

  • small version, over your head --

    他們想把這個裝在車子裡 --

  • so that you can actually get binaural sound in a car.

    用小的型號,裝在你的頭頂上方 --

  • What if I could aim sound the way I aim light?

    這樣你就可以在車上聽見雙聲道。

  • I got this waterfall I recorded in my back yard.

    如果我能夠將聲音像是光線一樣的去瞄準呢?

  • Now, you're not going to hear a thing unless it hits you.

    我在我的後院錄了這段瀑布的聲音。

  • Maybe if I hit the side wall it will bounce around the room.

    除非它朝向你,否則你不會聽見這個聲音。

  • (Applause)

    如果我讓它傳到邊牆上,也許它會產生一點回音。

  • The sound is being made right next to your ears. Is that cool?

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    聲音就在你的耳朵旁邊。很酷吧?

  • Because I have some limited time, I'll cut it off for a second,

    (掌聲)

  • and tell you about how it works and what it's good for.

    因為我的時間有限,所以暫時先展示到這裡,

  • Course, like light, it's great to be able to put sound

    接下來要跟大家說明它的原理和用途。

  • to highlight a clothing rack, or the cornflakes, or the toothpaste,

    當然, 如果可以把聲音像光一樣

  • or a talking plaque in a movie theater lobby.

    用來突顯衣架, 或是玉米片, 或是牙膏,

  • Sony's got an idea -- Sony's our biggest customers right now.

    或是在戲院大廳的看板, 那就太好了。

  • They tried this back in the '60s

    Sony 有一個點子 -- Sony 現在是我們最大的客戶。

  • and were too smart, and so they gave up.

    早在1960年代他們就在嘗試這個,

  • But they want to use it -- seriously.

    不過當時人們的接受度不高,所以放棄了。

  • There's a mix an inventor has to have.

    但是他們很認真的想要去使用它。

  • You have to be kind of smart,

    對一個發明家而言,必須要有多元性。

  • and though I did not graduate from college doesn't mean I'm stupid,

    你必須要有點小聰明,

  • because you cannot be stupid and do very much in the world today.

    雖然我大學沒畢業,但不表示我很笨,

  • Too many other smart people out there. So.

    因為如果你很笨,你就沒辦法做太多事。

  • I just happened to get my education in a little different way.

    外頭有一大堆聰明的傢伙。

  • I'm not at all against education.

    所以我用了不同的方式來進行我的學習。

  • I think it's wonderful; I think sometimes people,

    我不反對接受教育。

  • when they get educated, lose it:

    我覺得這很棒。只是我覺得有些人,

  • they get so smart they're unwilling to look at things that they know better than.

    當他們畢業之後就忘光了。

  • And we're living in a great time right now,

    因為他們太聰明了,所以不願意去看他們已經知道的東西。

  • because almost everything's being explored anew.

    我們生活在一個很棒的時代,

  • I have this little slogan that I use a lot, which is:

    因為幾乎所有東西都是全新設計的。

  • virtually nothing --

    我有一個座右銘,

  • and I mean this honestly --

    事實上大部分的東西 --

  • has been invented yet.

    都還沒有被發明出來 --

  • We're just starting.

    我很認真的這麼想。

  • We're just starting to really discover the laws of nature and science and physics.

    我們才剛剛開始而已。

  • And this is, I hope, a little piece of it.

    我們才剛開始發現自然, 科學和物理的法則。

  • Sony's got this vision back -- to get myself on track --

    而這只是,我希望,其中的一小部份而已。

  • that when you stand in the checkout line in the supermarket,

    Sony 找回了這個想法 -- 讓我步上這條路 --

  • you're going to watch a new T.V. channel.

    當你在超級市場結帳處排隊時,

  • They know that when you watch T.V. at home,

    你將會看見一個全新的電視頻道。

  • because there are so many choices

    他們知道你在家看電視時,

  • you can change channels, miss their commercials.

    因為有太多選擇,

  • A hundred and fifty-one million people every day stand in the line at the supermarket.

    你會轉台而跳過他們的廣告了。

  • Now, they've tried this a couple years ago and it failed,

    全球每天有一億五千萬人在超級市場中排隊。

  • because the checker gets tired of hearing the same message

    他們幾年前曾經試過這個方法但失敗了,

  • every 20 minutes, and reaches out, turns off the sound.

    因為結帳人員會厭倦於每隔20分鐘就聽見同樣的東西,

  • And, you know, if the sound isn't there, the sale typically isn't made.

    結果就會去把聲音給關掉。

  • For instance, like, when you're on an airplane, they show the movie,

    你知道,如果沒聲音,生意通常就做不成了。

  • you get to watch it for free;

    例如,當你坐飛機時,他們會放電影,

  • when you want to hear the sound, you pay.

    你可以看免費的電影,

  • And so ABC and Sony have devised this new thing

    當你想聽音樂時,你卻必須付錢。

  • where when you step in the line in the supermarket --

    於是 ABC 和 Sony 想到這個新點子,

  • initially it'll be Safeways. It is Safeways;

    當你在超級市場排隊時 --

  • they're trying this in three parts of the country right now --

    頭一家將會是在 Safeways,

  • you'll be watching TV.

    他們正在國內三個分店試用 --

  • And hopefully they'll be sensitive

    你會在那兒看他們的電視廣告。

  • that they don't want to offend you with just one more outlet.

    所幸他們很細心,

  • But what's great about it, from the tests that have been done, is,

    聲音只會在你站的那條結帳隊伍中出現。

  • if you don't want to hear it,

    而在這個測試裡最棒的事情是,

  • you take about one step to the side and you don't hear it.

    如果你不想聽的話,

  • So, we create silence as much as we create sound.

    你只要往旁邊站一步,你就不會聽見了。

  • ATMs that talk to you; nobody else hears it.

    於是,如同我們創造聲音一般,我們也創造出寧靜。

  • Sit in bed, two in the morning, watch TV;

    提款機對你說的事情,旁邊的人不會聽見。

  • your spouse, or someone, is next to you, asleep;

    半夜兩點做在床上看電視時,

  • doesn't hear it, doesn't wake up.

    你的另一半或其他睡在你旁邊的人,

  • We're also working on noise canceling things like snoring, noise from automobiles.

    不會聽見聲音,更不會被吵醒。

  • I have been really lucky with this technology:

    我們同時也在努力進行噪音消除,例如打鼾或手機的雜音。

  • all of a sudden as it is ready, the world is ready to accept it.

    關於這項技術,我的運氣挺好的,

  • They have literally beat a path to our door.

    當它完成的同時,這個世界已經準備好去使用它了。

  • We've been selling it since about last September, October,

    人們爭相找上門來。

  • and it's been immensely gratifying.

    我們從去年九月十月左右就開始賣了,

  • If you're interested in what it costs -- I'm not selling them today --

    大家的反應都很滿意。

  • but this unit, with the electronics and everything,

    如果你想知道價格的話 -- 我今天不是來賣這東西的 --

  • if you buy one, is around a thousand bucks.

    這一台附帶這些電子配備和其他東西,

  • We expect by this time next year,

    如果你想買的話,大概要一千美元左右。

  • it'll be hundreds, a few hundred bucks, to buy it.

    我們希望到明天此時,

  • It's not any more pricey than regular electronics.

    價格能降到幾百塊美元。

  • Now, when I played it for you, you didn't hear the thunderous bass.

    它將不會再比一般家用電器貴很多。

  • This unit that I played goes from about 200 hertz to above the range of hearing.

    當我播放給大家聽時,你不會聽見吵雜的低音。

  • It's actually emitting ultrasound -- low-level ultrasound --

    我播放的這個設備可以從200Hz到超音波。

  • that's about 100,000 vibrations per second.

    它可以發出超音波 --低頻的超音波 --

  • And the sound that you're hearing,

    振動頻率大約每秒 10 萬次。

  • unlike a regular speaker on which all the sound is made on the face,

    你所聽見的聲音,

  • is made out in front of it, in the air.

    不會像一般喇叭直接對著你的臉來,

  • The air is not linear, as we've always been taught.

    而是在你面前的空氣中產生。

  • You turn up the volume just a little bit --

    我們所了解的空氣是非線性的。

  • I'm talking about a little over 80 decibels --

    當你把音量提高一點時 --

  • and all of a sudden the air begins to corrupt signals you propagate.

    我指的是高過80分貝 --

  • Here's why: the speed of sound is not a constant. It's fairly slow.

    空氣會導致聲音被扭曲。

  • It changes with temperature and with barometric pressure.

    因為,聲音並不是固定速度。它相當緩慢。

  • Now, imagine, if you will, without getting too technical,

    它的速度會因為溫度和壓力而改變。

  • I'm making a little sine wave here in the air.

    想像一下,如果用簡單的技術原理來說明,

  • Well, if I turn up the amplitude too much,

    當我在空氣中製造一個正弦波,

  • I'm having an effect on the pressure,

    如果我把擴大器開太大,

  • which means during the making of that sine wave,

    會因為壓力而產生干擾,

  • the speed at which it is propagating is shifting.

    就是說,當製造正弦波時,

  • All of audio as we know it

    剛生成的波,移動速度會產生變化。

  • is an attempt to be more and more perfectly linear.

    我們所知道的聲波

  • Linearity means higher quality sound.

    全都會趨向於形成線性。

  • Hypersonic sound is exactly the opposite:

    線性代表高品質的聲音。

  • it's 100 percent based on non-linearity.

    超級超音波則完全相反,

  • An effect happens in the air, it's a corrupting effect of the sound --

    它是100%非線性的。

  • the ultrasound in this case -- that's emitted,

    空氣造成的干擾,會將聲音扭曲 --

  • but it's so predictable

    這裡的超音波會因此四散,

  • that you can produce very precise audio out of that effect.

    但這是可預期的,

  • Now, the question is, where's the sound made?

    所以你可以造出正確的聲音來導正這個干擾結果。

  • Instead of being made on the face of the cone,

    現在的問題是,聲音在哪裡形成的呢?

  • it's made at literally billions of little independent points

    不同於原本由喇叭前面的振動膜發聲,

  • along this narrow column in the air,

    它是在狹長的空氣柱中

  • and so when I aim it towards you,

    幾十億個獨立的小點所產生,

  • what you hear is made right next to your ears.

    所以當我將它瞄準你時,

  • I said we can shorten the column,

    你所聽見的是在你耳邊所發出的聲音。

  • we can spread it out to cover the couch.

    我們可以將這個空氣柱變小,

  • I can put it so that one ear hears one speaker,

    也可以將它擴大到覆蓋整張沙發。

  • the other ear hears the other. That's true binaural sound.

    我可以讓你一隻耳朵聽見一個喇叭的聲音,

  • When you listen to stereo on your home system,

    另一隻耳朵聽到另一個喇叭的聲音。這才是真正的立體聲。

  • your both ears hear both speakers.

    當你在家裡聽立體音效時,

  • Turn on the left speaker sometime

    你的兩隻耳朵都能聽見兩個喇叭的聲音。

  • and notice you're hearing it also in your right ear.

    有時只開左邊的喇叭時,

  • So, the stage is more restricted --

    你的右耳還是會聽見聲音。

  • the sound stage that's supposed to spread out in front of you.

    在舞台上的話限制就更多了 --

  • Because the sound is made in the air along this column,

    因為聲音必須要傳到你的面前。

  • it does not follow the inverse square law,

    正因為聲音是在空氣柱中產生的,

  • which says it drops off about two thirds

    它不會遵循反平方定理,

  • every time you double the distance:

    那是指當距離變成兩倍時,

  • 6dB every time you go from one meter, for instance, to two meters.

    音量會減少二分之三:

  • That means you go to a rock concert or a symphony,

    舉例來說,每移動一到兩公尺就會少 6 分貝。

  • and the guy in the front row gets the same level

    也就是說,當你聽搖滾演唱會或交響樂時,

  • as the guy in the back row, now, all of a sudden.

    在後排的人所聽見的聲音,

  • Isn't that terrific?

    現在突然之間就和前排的人一樣了。

  • So, we've been, as I say, very successful, very lucky,

    這不是很棒嗎?

  • in having companies catch the vision of this,

    因此,我們相當成功,也相當幸運,

  • from cars -- car makers who want to put a stereo system in the front for the kids,

    能有許多公司願意採用這種概念,

  • and a separate system in the back --

    在車上 -- 汽車製造商想在前面替小孩們放一套立體聲系統,

  • oh, no, the kids aren't driving today.

    以及後面放置不同的立體聲系統 --

  • (Laughter)

    喔,不對,小孩子不能開車。

  • I was seeing if you were listening.

    (笑聲)

  • Actually, I haven't had breakfast yet.

    我只是在試看看你有沒有注意聽。

  • A stereo system in the front for mom and dad,

    事實上,我還沒吃早餐。

  • and maybe there's a little DVD player in the back for the kids,

    在前面替爸爸媽媽放一套立體聲系統,

  • and the parents don't want to be bothered with that,

    後面也許有個DVD播放器讓小孩子看,

  • or their rap music or whatever.

    而父母們不想被這個

  • So, again, this idea of being able to put sound anywhere you want to

    或是rap音樂或其他的吵到。

  • is really starting to catch on.

    於是,可以讓你在任何想要的地方放音樂的概念

  • It also works for transmitting and communicating data.

    逐漸趕上需求了。

  • It also works five times better underwater.

    這也可以用來傳輸或溝通資料。

  • We've got the military -- have just deployed some of these into Iraq,

    在水底的運作效果好上5倍。

  • where you can put fake troop movements

    國軍採購了這些 -- 用在伊拉克戰爭時,

  • quarter of a mile away on a hillside.

    你可以在山腰的1/4英里外

  • (Laughter)

    播放偽造的士兵走動聲音。

  • Or you can whisper in the ear of a supposed terrorist some Biblical verse.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    或者你可以在疑似恐怖份子的耳邊小聲的說一些聖經的詩句。

  • I'm serious. And they have these infrared devices

    (笑聲)

  • that can look at their countenance,

    我是認真的。它們還有這些紅外線裝置,

  • and see a fraction of a degree Kelvin in temperature shift

    可以在一百碼外,

  • from 100 yards away when they play this thing.

    看見他們的表情,

  • And so, another way of hopefully determining who's friendly and who isn't.

    以及每一度絕對溫度的變化量。

  • We make a version with this which puts out 155 decibels.

    希望這個能成為另一種判別敵我的方式。

  • Pain is 120.

    我們還製造了一種可以造出155分貝的機器。

  • So it allows you to go nearly a mile away and communicate with people,

    120分貝就能讓人感到痛苦。

  • and there can be a public beach just off to the side,

    它可以讓你和距離一英里左右的人交談,

  • and they don't even know it's turned on.

    那可以是在公共海灘旁邊,

  • We sell those to the military presently for about 70,000 dollars,

    旁人甚至不會發現它已經被打開了。

  • and they're buying them as fast as we can make them.

    我們最近把這東西以7萬美金賣給軍方,

  • We put it on a turret with a camera, so that when they shoot at you,

    我們才剛做好立刻就被他們買走了。

  • you're over there, and it's there.

    我們將它裝置在砲塔上,並裝置了攝影機,當他們朝你射擊時,

  • I have a bunch of other inventions.

    你並不在他們瞄準的地方。

  • I invented a plasma antenna, to shift gears.

    我還有許多其它發明。

  • Looked up at the ceiling of my office one day --

    我發明了一個用來變速的電漿天線。

  • I was working on a ground-penetrating radar project --

    有天我看著天花板想事情時 --

  • and my physicist CEO came in and said, "We have a real problem.

    我正在進行一個地底探測雷達的案子 --

  • We're using very short wavelengths.

    我的物理學CEO跑來跟我說,"我們遇到麻煩了。

  • We've got a problem with the antenna ringing.

    我們用的是極短波長。

  • When you run very short wavelengths,

    這會產生天線鳴叫的問題。

  • like a tuning fork the antenna resonates,

    當使用極短波長時,

  • and there's more energy coming out of the antenna

    就像是用音叉讓天線產生共鳴,

  • than there is the backscatter from the ground

    這會讓天線產生出

  • that we're trying to analyze, taking too much processing."

    比起地底反射獲得的還要更高的能量,

  • I says, "Why don't we make an antenna that only exists when you want it?

    這樣會造成分析上更多的困難。"

  • Turn it on; turn it off.

    我說,"為什麼不做一個只有在需要時存在的天線?