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  • In 2010 Nicaragua invaded Costa Rica.

    西元 2010 年尼加拉瓜侵略哥斯大黎加

  • When asked why they'd seized territory,


  • they claimed it belonged to them....


  • On Google Maps.

    在 Google 地圖上

  • Who did Costa Rica turn to first? Nicaragua? The United Nations?


  • No


  • They went straight to Google, because in the eyes of the world Google Maps has become the de facto

    他們直接找上 Google,因為在世人的眼中,Google 地圖早已成為事實上的世界地圖

  • world map. Despite having no legal authority over international borders, Google have become the world's most powerful player.

    儘管在國際邊界判定上並沒有法律權限,Google 儼然成為世界上最具影響力的組織了

  • Borders are a uniquely human concept. In most of the world the only tangible legitimacy they have is through maps.


  • But the cost and resources required to make a map are staggering. Until recently countries were the only ones who could afford it.


  • Cartography was a nationalized industry, which meant no map was without bias or influence.


  • Historically if you wanted to seize territory from a less powerful nation.


  • You just re-drew the map.


  • When questioned by locals, you show them the map. Ignore their claims of already living there, and hold up the only piece of real evidence that exists.


  • This is basically how colonialism worked.


  • But with more genocide.


  • Probably the most extreme example is Africa. In 1884, 10% of Africa was under European control.

    或許最極端的案例就是非洲。西元 1884 年,非洲有 10% 的土地在歐洲列強掌控之下

  • Just 30 years later,

    但僅僅過了 30 年

  • this had risen to 90%.

    這比例提升至 90%

  • Land was negotiated from thousands of miles away and countries redrawn with little


  • consideration for local or cultural boundaries. Yet the map drawn then remains largely


  • unchanged today. Most would argue that today's map of Africa is correct. There is some objective truth to it, but 130 years ago

    完全無法改變。許多人會爭辯今日的非洲地圖是正確的,這是個客觀的事實存在,但 130 年前

  • it was nothing of the sort. Over time the existence of a map is self legitimising.


  • While countries were the sole map makers it was fine if two states


  • disagreed over a border. Each produced their own map and their citizens would rarely have a chance to see any other version.


  • But as the internet arrived, nationalized mapping decreased and companies like Google started to fill the gap.

    但網際網路的存在,國有的地圖製作減少,而私人企業如 Google 開始補上這些缺口

  • An international company creating an international map for all.


  • Not quite. Google still relies on the approval of nation states.

    也不完全是所有人,Google 還是要依靠國家的認同

  • It's all too easy to censor a website. Google only have to annoy one government to lose a

    現在刪改一個網站太容易了,Google 只要惹惱了一國政府,對那個國家來說

  • country's worth of users. Any errors along the China-India border could lose them a third of the world's customers.

    就沒有使用的價值了。中國與印度邊界上的任何失誤,都會讓他們損失世界上 3 分之 1 人口的顧客

  • The region of Arunachal Pradesh borders India, China, Bhutan and Myanmar. Administrated as a state of India,


  • they keep a hundred thousand troops in the region.


  • But China also claims ownership calling it South Tibet.


  • Each country has laws to stop map makers drawing the border in the others favour, or even acknowledging the region's


  • disputed. So Google creates three different maps...

    爭議存在。所以 Google 就做了 3 種版本的地圖

  • This is what two thirds of the world will see on Google Maps - the dotted line indicates disputed territory.

    這是世界上其他 3 分之 2 的人在 Google 地圖上看到的樣子,這個虛線圍起來的地區就是爭議領土

  • But if you view the area from a Chinese domain it shows it belonging to China, and part of India from an Indian domain.


  • No map maker previously had the ability to do this. Historically you had to pick sides.


  • The average Chinese or Indian citizen would be unaware of any dispute. Or at least they would have been until Google

    通常中國或印度公民都不會察覺到任何爭議在此。或是至少在西元 2007 年以前不會察覺到

  • accidentally switched the borders in 2007. This caused outrage in both countries.

    因為 Google 不小心將地圖上中印雙方邊界交換了。這個錯誤使雙方衝突一觸即發

  • Many in China were unaware that most of the world didn't recognize China's legitimacy over the region. And members of the Indian Parliament


  • accused Google of purposefully derailing an upcoming summit between the two nations.

    指責 Google 有意地搗亂兩國即將舉行的會談

  • There are similar disputes all along the India-China border. All are heavily militarised, with regular standoffs, backed by two of the largest


  • armies in the world, both with nuclear weapons.


  • So just in case nobody noticed the first time round, Google managed to make the same mistake again in 2009.

    所以如果沒有人注意到第一次錯誤,Google 在西元 2009 年再次犯下相同錯誤

  • But the advantage of online maps is the speed they can be changed.


  • A mistake of that magnitude 20 years ago would have taken years to correct instead of hours.

    20 年前一個重大的失誤將會花費數年來修正,而非數小時

  • Google can react to geo-political events quicker than any other map maker. When Russian troops arrived in Crimea in February

    Google 對於地緣政治事件能夠比其他地圖製作者有更快的反應。當俄羅斯軍隊西元 2014 年 2 月抵達克里米亞

  • 2014, it was less than a month till Google showed the territory as disputed.

    還不到一個月,直到 Google 將此領土顯示為爭議地區

  • This was despite the United Nations asking nobody...."…to recognise any alteration of the status of Crimea."


  • Google Maps in Russia shows Crimea as Russian territory, and Ukrainian when viewed from Ukraine.

    Google 地圖 在俄羅斯顯示克里米亞為俄羅斯領土,在烏克蘭看則是烏克蘭領土

  • The fact that Google are willing to ignore

    Google 願意忽略聯合國決議的事實

  • UN resolutions is a big deal. Countries do all the time, they protect their own interests and alliances above other nations.


  • But Google is a company who now has the power and influence of a state.

    但 Google 現在是個有權力與影響力的企業

  • They're big enough to survive any confrontation with the UN and probably see Russia as the worse enemy to make.


  • The UN moves slowly. The United Nations


  • Regional Cartographic Conference, only meets every three or four years. Google have to make border and naming decisions daily. Those decisions may not have any legal

    聯合國地區製圖會議每 3 到 4 年才召開一次。Google 每天都得對邊界與命名做決策。這些決策或許沒有任何法律

  • weight, but everyone uses Google Maps so in reality

    效力,但每個人都會使用 Google 地圖,所以事實上

  • they're the most important. When South Sudan became a country in

    他們是最重要的。當南蘇丹在西元 2011 年獨立

  • 2011, the vote didn't specify the exact placement of the border. Leaving some towns and villages


  • unsure whether they would be in Sudan or South Sudan. Each country naturally claimed ownership,


  • but no official map would be made for a while. It was left to Google to organize South Sudan community mapping events. They encouraged local

    但當時並沒有一個正式地圖標明邊界。留待 Google 組織南蘇丹的社區製圖活動。鼓勵地方

  • people to create detailed maps of an area that was lacking any accurate data.


  • And through a semi-democratic process, an almost-precise border was decided. There are still


  • contested areas today, and not without their bloodshed.


  • But Google did more to help local territorial disputes than the UN or any state.

    但 Google 跟聯合國或其他國家比起來,為地方領土爭議奉獻更多心力

  • This isn't the only example of Google using local input as the basis for their maps.

    這並非 Google 利用當地投入做為他們地圖基礎的唯一案例

  • They publish a program called Google Map Maker, this allows anyone to make changes in suggestions.

    他們發表了一個 Google 地圖製作者的程式,讓任何人都能提出建議來修改地圖

  • This is useful for new roads and public footpaths, but also helps Google decide what to call things.

    這對辨別一些新建道路與公共小徑相當有用,也幫助 Google 幫這些地方取名

  • It's strictly moderated and Google have final say over the public version, but like Wikipedia things inevitably slip through the cracks...

    它運作起來相當有節制,且 Google 擁有公眾版本的最終決定權,但就像維基百科一樣免不了出些差錯

  • For obvious reasons you can't edit the border of a country. There are hundreds of disputes in the world - imagine the chaos.


  • So Google don't get involved with most of them.

    所以 Google 不會將這些地區納入

  • But here and there throughout the world map, it does change slightly based on where you're stood. This may not necessarily be a bad thing.


  • Historically the larger power would just stamp out the smaller one.


  • But with Google Maps as the unofficial-official adjudicator,

    但 Google 地圖可以做為官方與非官方的調解者

  • borders could remain disputed forever. Both sides constantly pointing guns at the other


  • but rarely firing. Is a long cold war better than a short hot one?


  • That's a philosophical question best left for the comments. But for better


  • or worse Google are making editorial decisions on something most people view as an objective truth.

    但無論好壞,Google 都在對大多數人認為是客觀事實的事物做出編輯決策

  • No political map can ever be a hundred percent accurate in the scientific sense of the word. At best they can be a diplomatic


  • compromise, and at worse they can be a propaganda tool. Maps (and especially Google Maps) are amazing,

    承諾,最差它們也就是個宣傳工具。地圖 (尤其是 Google 地圖) 是個驚人的東西

  • but they should be treated it like any other media.


  • They are subject to the motives and influences of the humans that made them.


  • If you enjoyed this video, please consider supporting the channel by checking out the Patreon link in the description. Thank you for subscribing.


In 2010 Nicaragua invaded Costa Rica.

西元 2010 年尼加拉瓜侵略哥斯大黎加

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