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  • Suppose that two American friends are traveling together in Italy.

    譯者: Coco Shen 審譯者: Geoff Chen

  • They go to see Michelangelo's "David,"

    想像兩個美國人到意大利旅遊

  • and when they finally come face to face with the statue,

    一起去看米開朗基羅的名作“大衛”

  • they both freeze dead in their tracks.

    當他們和巨大石雕面對面時

  • The first guy -- we'll call him Adam --

    兩個人都望著出神

  • is transfixed by the beauty of the perfect human form.

    第一個人﹐我們就叫他亞當吧

  • The second guy -- we'll call him Bill --

    被完美的人體肌理震懾住了

  • is transfixed by embarrassment, at staring at the thing there in the center.

    第二個人 我們就叫他比爾吧

  • So here's my question for you:

    也嚇傻了 - 被那兩腿間的玩意兒

  • which one of these two guys was more likely to have voted for George Bush,

    讓我試問

  • which for Al Gore?

    這兩個男人誰比較有可能把票投給小布希

  • I don't need a show of hands

    誰投給了高爾﹖

  • because we all have the same political stereotypes.

    大家不用舉手

  • We all know that it's Bill.

    因為我們都有一樣的刻板印象

  • And in this case, the stereotype corresponds to reality.

    我們都知道是比爾

  • It really is a fact that liberals are much higher than conservatives

    在這個例子裡﹐刻板印象反映了事實

  • on a major personality trait called openness to experience.

    事實上﹐自由黨員的確比保守黨員

  • People who are high in openness to experience

    更容易接受新體驗

  • just crave novelty, variety, diversity, new ideas, travel.

    那些喜歡接受新體驗的人

  • People low on it like things that are familiar, that are safe and dependable.

    渴望新鮮 多樣性 新想法 旅行

  • If you know about this trait,

    較難接受新體驗的人喜歡熟悉 安全 可靠的事物

  • you can understand a lot of puzzles about human behavior.

    如果你知道這些特性

  • You can understand why artists are so different from accountants.

    你便能了解人類許多難解的行為

  • You can actually predict what kinds of books they like to read,

    了解為什麼藝術家和會計師如此不同

  • what kinds of places they like to travel to,

    你可以預測他們喜歡看的書

  • and what kinds of food they like to eat.

    他們喜歡去的旅遊點

  • Once you understand this trait, you can understand

    甚至他們的飲食偏好

  • why anybody would eat at Applebee's, but not anybody that you know.

    只要你了解這個特性﹐你便能理解

  • (Laughter)

    為什麼這麼多人喜歡去連鎖餐廳吃飯 但你卻一個都不認識

  • This trait also tells us a lot about politics.

    (笑聲)

  • The main researcher of this trait, Robert McCrae says that,

    這個特性也讓我們理解政治

  • "Open individuals have an affinity for liberal, progressive, left-wing political views" --

    研究這個性格特質的研究者 Robert McCrae 說

  • they like a society which is open and changing --

    “開放的人偏向自由 進步 左翼政治思想”

  • "whereas closed individuals prefer conservative, traditional, right-wing views."

    他們喜歡一個開放 持續改變的社會

  • This trait also tells us a lot about the kinds of groups people join.

    “封閉的人偏好保守 傳統 右翼的觀點。”

  • So here's the description of a group I found on the Web.

    這個特質也讓我們了解人們所參與的社團組織

  • What kinds of people would join a global community

    這是我在網路上找到的一個組織簡介

  • welcoming people from every discipline and culture,

    怎樣的人會參加一個全球性的社群

  • who seek a deeper understanding of the world,

    歡迎來自各種文化和學科的人

  • and who hope to turn that understanding into a better future for us all?

    那些想更深刻理解世界的人

  • This is from some guy named Ted.

    同時也是那些想以這些理解讓世界變得更好的人

  • (Laughter)

    這是一個叫 TED 的男人寫的

  • Well, let's see now, if openness predicts who becomes liberal,

    (笑聲)

  • and openness predicts who becomes a TEDster,

    那麼﹐如果開放性格偏向自由派

  • then might we predict that most TEDsters are liberal?

    同時也預知了你會成為 TED 一員

  • Let's find out.

    是否大部份的 TED 成員都是自由黨呢﹖

  • I'm going to ask you to raise your hand, whether you are liberal, left of center --

    讓我們試試

  • on social issues, we're talking about, primarily --

    請你舉起手﹐不管你是自由黨﹐中間偏左

  • or conservative, and I'll give a third option,

    在我們所討論的議題上

  • because I know there are a number of libertarians in the audience.

    或是保守黨﹐還有一個第三選項

  • So, right now, please raise your hand --

    因為我知道觀眾中還有一些相信自由至上的放任自由主義者

  • down in the simulcast rooms, too,

    現在﹐舉起你的手來

  • let's let everybody see who's here --

    在聯播臺裡的人也是

  • please raise your hand if you would say that you are liberal or left of center.

    讓每個人看看都是誰

  • Please raise your hand high right now. OK.

    如果你是自由黨或中間偏左﹐請舉起手來

  • Please raise your hand if you'd say you're libertarian.

    請把你的手舉高﹐好

  • OK, about a -- two dozen.

    請舉手如果你是放任自由主義者

  • And please raise your hand if you'd say you are right of center or conservative.

    好 差不多有二十多人

  • One, two, three, four, five -- about eight or 10.

    如果你覺得你是中間偏右或保守黨﹐請舉手

  • OK. This is a bit of a problem.

    1 2 3 4 5 - 大概8 到10人

  • Because if our goal is to understand the world,

    好。這就是問題。

  • to seek a deeper understanding of the world,

    如果我們的目標是了解世界

  • our general lack of moral diversity here is going to make it harder.

    深刻的進一步了解世界

  • Because when people all share values, when people all share morals,

    但缺乏道德多樣性讓了解世界變得更難

  • they become a team, and once you engage the psychology of teams,

    因為當每個人都分享一樣的價值觀和道德觀

  • it shuts down open-minded thinking.

    便成為一個團隊﹐一旦進入團隊心理

  • When the liberal team loses, as it did in 2004,

    原本開放的思想就會閉塞

  • and as it almost did in 2000, we comfort ourselves.

    當自由隊在2004年敗選

  • (Laughter)

    就像在2000年一樣﹐我們自我安慰

  • We try to explain why half of America voted for the other team.

    (笑聲)

  • We think they must be blinded by religion, or by simple stupidity.

    我們嘗試自我解釋為什麼有一半美國人投給另外一隊

  • (Laughter)

    我們想 他們一定是被宗教蒙蔽 或是純粹愚蠢

  • (Applause)

    (笑聲)

  • So, if you think that half of America votes Republican

    (掌聲)

  • because they are blinded in this way,

    如果你認為投給共和黨的另一半美國人

  • then my message to you is that you're trapped in a moral matrix,

    是因為他們被蒙蔽了

  • in a particular moral matrix.

    我想告訴你的是你被道德母體限制住了

  • And by the matrix, I mean literally the matrix, like the movie "The Matrix."

    某一種特別的道德母體

  • But I'm here today to give you a choice.

    所謂的道德母體﹐就像“駭客人物”裡面的大電腦一樣

  • You can either take the blue pill and stick to your comforting delusions,

    但今日我讓你有個選擇

  • or you can take the red pill,

    你可以選擇藍色藥丸然後保持在舒適的幻覺中

  • learn some moral psychology and step outside the moral matrix.

    或是選擇紅色藥丸﹐

  • Now, because I know --

    了解道德心理學﹐跨越你的道德母體

  • (Applause) --

    因為我知道 --

  • OK, I assume that answers my question.

    (掌聲)

  • I was going to ask you which one you picked, but no need.

    我想這已經回答了我的問題

  • You're all high in openness to experience, and besides,

    我本來想問你們要選哪一個﹐我想不需要了

  • it looks like it might even taste good, and you're all epicures.

    你們都很愛接受新體驗﹐更何況

  • So anyway, let's go with the red pill.

    這看起來很可能很可口 能滿足你們的美食主義

  • Let's study some moral psychology and see where it takes us.

    總而言之﹐讓我們選擇紅色藥丸

  • Let's start at the beginning.

    讓我們學習一些道德心理學﹐看看我們能了解什麼

  • What is morality and where does it come from?

    讓我們從頭開始

  • The worst idea in all of psychology

    道德是什麼﹖它從哪裡來﹖

  • is the idea that the mind is a blank slate at birth.

    心理學中最糟的想法

  • Developmental psychology has shown

    便是我們像一張白紙一樣出生

  • that kids come into the world already knowing so much

    發展心理學告訴我們

  • about the physical and social worlds,

    嬰兒來到世界上時已經知道許多

  • and programmed to make it really easy for them to learn certain things

    有關世界和社會

  • and hard to learn others.

    讓他們變得更易學習

  • The best definition of innateness I've ever seen --

    卻很難向他人學習

  • this just clarifies so many things for me --

    有關這些與生俱來的天賦

  • is from the brain scientist Gary Marcus.

    有個人說的很好

  • He says, "The initial organization of the brain does not depend that much on experience.

    腦科學家 Gary Marcus

  • Nature provides a first draft, which experience then revises.

    他說“腦的初始組織不是來自經驗

  • Built-in doesn't mean unmalleable;

    自然提供了第一個版本﹐經驗只能修改

  • it means organized in advance of experience."

    先建不代表不可塑﹔

  • OK, so what's on the first draft of the moral mind?

    而是組織先於經驗。”

  • To find out, my colleague, Craig Joseph, and I

    那麼道德的第一個版本是什麼﹖

  • read through the literature on anthropology,

    我和同事 Craig Joseph

  • on culture variation in morality

    閱讀了許多人類學的文獻

  • and also on evolutionary psychology, looking for matches.

    有關不同文化的道德

  • What are the sorts of things that people talk about across disciplines?

    同時也在進化心理學裡找相同處

  • That you find across cultures and even across species?

    跨領域的人談論的時候他們都談論什麼

  • We found five -- five best matches,

    跨文化和跨物種的人又談論什麼﹖

  • which we call the five foundations of morality.

    我們總共找到五種

  • The first one is harm/care.

    我們稱它們為五種道德基礎

  • We're all mammals here, we all have a lot of neural and hormonal programming

    第一種是傷害-照護

  • that makes us really bond with others, care for others,

    我們都是哺乳類﹐我們都有許多神經和荷爾蒙程式

  • feel compassion for others, especially the weak and vulnerable.

    讓我們與他人聯結﹐關懷他人

  • It gives us very strong feelings about those who cause harm.

    同情他人﹐尤其那些脆弱容易受傷的人

  • This moral foundation underlies about 70 percent

    讓我們對那些造成傷害的人有強烈感覺

  • of the moral statements I've heard here at TED.

    這個道德基礎含括了我在TED所聽到的

  • The second foundation is fairness/reciprocity.

    七成的道德陳述

  • There's actually ambiguous evidence

    第二個道德基礎是公平-相等

  • as to whether you find reciprocity in other animals,

    有一些模糊的證據

  • but the evidence for people could not be clearer.

    證明你是否能在其他動物身上找到相互性

  • This Norman Rockwell painting is called "The Golden Rule,"

    但在人類身上的例子卻再清楚不過了

  • and we heard about this from Karen Armstrong, of course,

    這幅 Norman Rockwell 的畫叫做“金科玉律”

  • as the foundation of so many religions.

    Karen Armstrong 也告訴我們

  • That second foundation underlies the other 30 percent

    這是很多宗教的基礎

  • of the moral statements I've heard here at TED.

    第二哥道德基礎含括了我在TED所聽到的

  • The third foundation is in-group/loyalty.

    另外三成的道德陳訴

  • You do find groups in the animal kingdom --

    第三個基礎是團隊忠誠

  • you do find cooperative groups --

    你可以在動物裡面找到群體

  • but these groups are always either very small or they're all siblings.

    你可以找到合作團隊

  • It's only among humans that you find very large groups of people

    但這些組織通常不是很小或是牠們都是兄弟姐妹

  • who are able to cooperate, join together into groups,

    只有在人類的世界裡你看到一大群人

  • but in this case, groups that are united to fight other groups.

    彼此相處﹐一起合作

  • This probably comes from our long history of tribal living, of tribal psychology.

    但在這例子裡﹐團隊合作是為了和其他團隊鬥爭

  • And this tribal psychology is so deeply pleasurable

    這大概是來自我們長時間的部落生態﹐部落心理

  • that even when we don't have tribes,

    這種部落心態實在太愉快了

  • we go ahead and make them, because it's fun.

    就算我們已經不在部落裡了

  • (Laughter)

    我們還是照樣因為好玩

  • Sports is to war as pornography is to sex.

    (笑聲)

  • We get to exercise some ancient, ancient drives.

    運動和戰爭就像A片和性的關係

  • The fourth foundation is authority/respect.

    我們借此發泄那些古老的慾望

  • Here you see submissive gestures from two members of very closely related species.

    第四種道德基礎是權威-尊敬

  • But authority in humans is not so closely based on power and brutality,

    從這裡你可以看到兩種非常接近的物種的服從姿態

  • as it is in other primates.

    但人類的權威不是以權力和暴力為基礎

  • It's based on more voluntary deference,

    像其他動物

  • and even elements of love, at times.

    而是以自願的服從﹐

  • The fifth foundation is purity/sanctity.

    有時候甚至是愛的元素

  • This painting is called "The Allegory Of Chastity,"

    第五種基礎是純潔- 神聖

  • but purity's not just about suppressing female sexuality.

    這幅畫是“貞節的寓意”

  • It's about any kind of ideology, any kind of idea

    但純潔不只是壓抑女性性慾

  • that tells you that you can attain virtue

    而是任何理想﹐任何想法

  • by controlling what you do with your body,

    告訴你只要控制你的身體

  • by controlling what you put into your body.

    你便可以成善

  • And while the political right may moralize sex much more,

    只要控制進入你身體的東西

  • the political left is really doing a lot of it with food.

    右翼喜歡談論性方面的道德

  • Food is becoming extremely moralized nowadays,

    左翼喜歡用食物

  • and a lot of it is ideas about purity,

    今日食物變成一種道德指標

  • about what you're willing to touch, or put into your body.

    這些觀點也來自純潔

  • I believe these are the five best candidates

    有關你願意觸摸和放進身體的東西