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  • I'm delighted to be here.

    譯者: 泓翔 王 審譯者: K. C. Peng

  • I'm honored by the invitation, and thanks.

    我非常高興來到這裡。

  • I would love to talk about stuff that I'm interested in,

    受到邀請我感到非常榮幸,謝謝。

  • but unfortunately, I suspect that what I'm interested in

    我想談論一些我感興趣的事情,

  • won't interest many other people.

    但遺憾的是我猜測大多數的人,

  • First off, my badge says I'm an astronomer.

    不會對這些事情感興趣。

  • I would love to talk about my astronomy,

    首先,識別證上說我是位天文學家。

  • but I suspect that the number of people who are interested in radiative transfer

    我很想談論我的天文學,

  • in non-gray atmospheres

    不過我懷疑對輻射轉移、

  • and polarization of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere

    非灰色大氣層、

  • are the number of people who'd fit in a bus shelter.

    和木星上層大氣層的光偏振感興趣的人數

  • So I'm not going to talk about that.

    是不是足夠塞滿一整個公車候車站。

  • (Laughter)

    所以,我不打算去談那些。

  • It would be just as much fun

    (笑聲)

  • to talk about some stuff that happened in 1986 and 1987,

    有件值得一提的趣事,

  • when a computer hacker is breaking into our systems

    一件發生在1986和1987的事情,

  • over at Lawrence Berkeley Labs.

    當時有個電腦駭客正在入侵我們的電腦系統

  • And I caught the guys,

    嘗試駭進我們在羅倫斯‧柏克萊(Lawrence Berkeley)的實驗室。

  • and they turned out to be working for what was then the Soviet KGB,

    然後我抓到了那些人,

  • and stealing information and selling it.

    發現原來他們正在替前蘇聯國家安全委員會(情報單位)工作,

  • And I'd love to talk about that -- and it'd be fun --

    他們竊取資料,並兜售它們。

  • but, 20 years later ...

    我很想說說那件事情──而且一定會很有趣──

  • I find computer security, frankly, to be kind of boring.

    但是,20年後‧‧‧

  • It's tedious.

    我發現電腦安全這個領域,老實說,有點無聊。

  • I'm --

    非常的乏善可陳。

  • The first time you do something, it's science.

    我‧‧‧

  • The second time, it's engineering.

    當你第一次做一件事情的時候,它就像是一門科學。

  • A third time, it's just being a technician.

    第二次做時,它就變成了一項工程。

  • I'm a scientist. Once I do something, I do something else.

    第三次時,你就只是個技術員。

  • So, I'm not going to talk about that.

    我是一位科學家。當我正在著手一件事情時,我已經在想下一件事情了。

  • Nor am I going to talk about what I think are obvious statements from my first book,

    所以,我不打算去談那些。(關於駭客的事情)

  • "Silicon Snake Oil," or my second book,

    我也不會去談論那些在我第一本書(Silicon Snake Oil)裡頭我認為很明顯的論點,

  • nor am I going to talk about

    或者我的第二本書,

  • why I believe computers don't belong in schools.

    我也不會去說明

  • I feel that there's a massive and bizarre idea going around

    為什麼我會堅持電腦不應該出現在校園。

  • that we have to bring more computers into schools.

    我覺得有個具有巨大影響力且奇怪的想法正在蔓延

  • My idea is: no! No!

    那就是我們要在學校中設立更多電腦。

  • Get them out of schools, and keep them out of schools.

    我的想法是:錯!錯!

  • And I'd love to talk about this,

    讓那些電腦遠離學校,讓它們離校園遠遠的。

  • but I think the argument is so obvious to anyone who's hung around a fourth grade classroom

    雖然我會想討論這個議題,

  • that it doesn't need much talking about --

    不過我認為我的論點對於任何一個上過小學四年級的人來說,是如此明顯的

  • but I guess I may be very wrong about that,

    以至於我不需要過多的描述──

  • and everything else that I've said.

    不過我猜想我在這上面的觀點可能是錯的離譜,

  • So don't go back and read my dissertation.

    甚至我以上所說的可能全都是錯的。

  • It probably has lies in it as well.

    所以也不需要回頭去讀我的論文。

  • Having said that, I outlined my talk about five minutes ago.

    也許當中也有著錯誤的訊息。

  • (Laughter)

    說到這,剛剛五分鐘前我把我的演說列了幾個項目。

  • And if you look at it over here,

    (笑聲)

  • the main thing I wrote on my thumb was the future.

    然後假如你看這裡,

  • I'm supposed to talk about the future, yes?

    寫在我大拇指上,最重要的東西未來。

  • Oh, right. And my feeling is, asking me to talk about the future is bizarre,

    我應該要討論一下未來,對嗎?

  • because I've got gray hair,

    噢,對。我的感覺是,要我去談論未來會有點奇怪。

  • and so, it's kind of silly for me to talk about the future.

    因為我已經滿頭白髮了,

  • In fact, I think that if you really want to know what the future's going to be,

    所以對我來說,要我去討論未來是一件很蠢的事情。

  • if you really want to know about the future,

    事實上,我認為如果你真的想知道未來會變成什麼樣,

  • don't ask a technologist, a scientist, a physicist.

    如果你真的想要知道關於未來的一切,

  • No! Don't ask somebody who's writing code.

    不要去問工程師、科學家、物理學家。

  • No, if you want to know what society's going to be like in 20 years,

    不!不要去問那些寫程式碼的傢伙。

  • ask a kindergarten teacher.

    如果你想知道20年後的社會會變成什麼樣子,

  • They know.

    去問幼稚園老師。

  • In fact, don't ask just any kindergarten teacher,

    他們知道。

  • ask an experienced one.

    事實上,也不要隨便抓一個幼稚園老師來問。

  • They're the ones who know what society is going to be like in another generation.

    問有經驗的幼稚園老師。

  • I don't. Nor, I suspect,

    他們就是那個知道下一代的社會會變成什麼樣子的人。

  • do many other people who are talking about what the future will bring.

    不是我,我猜測也不會是那些,

  • Certainly, all of us can imagine these cool new things

    那些在談論未來會變怎樣的人。

  • that are going to be there.

    當然啦,我們所有人都可以想像這些超酷的新事物

  • But to me, things aren't the future.

    那些將要出現的新事物。

  • What I ask myself is, what's society is going to be like,

    但是對我來說,新事物並不等於未來。

  • when the kids today are phenomenally good at text messaging

    我問我自己的是,當現今的小孩們厲害熟練地傳著簡訊

  • and spend a huge amount of on-screen time,

    並且花很多時間待在電腦螢幕前,

  • but have never gone bowling together?

    卻從未一起去打過保齡球,

  • Change is happening, and the change that is happening

    未來將會變成什麼樣?

  • is not one that is in software.

    改變正在發生,而且那些正在發生的改變

  • But that's not what I'm going to talk about.

    不是存在於電腦軟體裡的那些。

  • I'd love to talk about it, it'd be fun,

    但是那不是我要說的。

  • but I want to talk about what I'm doing now. What am I doing now?

    我很想要講那個,那樣一定會很有趣,

  • Oh -- the other thing that I think I'd like to talk about

    但是我想要說說關於我正在做的事情,我正在做什麼?

  • is right over here. Right over here.

    噢──另一件我想談論的事情

  • Is that visible? What I'd like to talk about is one-sided things.

    在這裡。就在這裡。

  • I would dearly love to talk about

    這樣可以看見嗎?我想說的是單向性的事物。

  • things that have one side.

    我非常樂於談論這個

  • Because I love Mobius loops. I not only love Mobius loops,

    這種單向性的事物。

  • but I'm one of the very few people,

    因為我熱愛莫比烏斯(Mobius)循環。我不只是愛莫比烏斯循環,

  • if not the only person in the world, that makes Klein bottles.

    我也是非常少數人當中,

  • Right away, I hope that all of your eyes glaze over.

    如果世界上不是只有我的話,在製作克萊(Klein)瓶的人

  • This is a Klein bottle.

    現在,我希望所有人的眼睛仔細看這邊。

  • For those of you in the audience who know,

    這就是克萊瓶。

  • you roll your eyes and say, yup, I know all about it.

    對知道克萊瓶的觀眾來說,

  • It's one sided. It's a bottle whose inside is its outside.

    你會翻個白眼 然後說:對。我都知道。

  • It has zero volume. And it's non-orientable.

    它是一個面的。它是一個內壁跟外壁是同一面的瓶子。

  • It has wonderful properties.

    它沒有體積。而且它還是不可定向的。

  • If you take two Mobius loops and sew their common edge together,

    它具有十分奇妙的特性。

  • you get one of these, and I make them out of glass.

    假如你將兩個莫比烏斯循環的相同一邊接合起來,

  • And I'd love to talk to you about this,

    你會得到我手裡的這個,我用玻璃做的。

  • but I don't have much in the way of ... things to say because --

    我很高興可以談論這個,

  • (Laughter)

    但是這個...我沒有什麼事情可以多說 因為──

  • (Chris Anderson: I've got a cold.)

    (笑聲)

  • However, the "D" in TED of course stands for design.

    (Chris Anderson:我有感冒耶!)

  • Just two weeks ago I made --

    然而,「TED」中的「D」正是代表設計。

  • you know, I've been making small, medium and big Klein bottles for the trade.

    兩個星期前我剛做了──

  • But what I've just made --

    你知道的,我一直在做小型、中型還有大型的克萊瓶來販售。

  • and I'm delighted to show you, first time in public here.

    不過我剛剛做了──

  • This is a Klein bottle wine bottle,

    而且我很高興可以在這裡第一次公開展現給你們看。

  • which, although in four dimensions

    這是一支克萊瓶的葡萄酒瓶,

  • it shouldn't be able to hold any fluid at all,

    儘管在四維空間

  • it's perfectly capable of doing so

    它沒辦法裝下任何液體,

  • because our universe has only three spatial dimensions.

    但是它完全可以這麼做

  • And because our universe is only three spatial dimensions,

    因為我們的宇宙只有三維空間。

  • it can hold fluids.

    況且因為我們的空間只有三維空間,

  • So it's highly -- that one's the cool one.

    所以它可以存放液體。

  • That was a month of my life.

    所以它非常──它是比較酷的一個。

  • But although I would love to talk about topology with you, I'm not going to.

    那可是花了我生命中的一個月。

  • (Laughter)

    雖然我很想和你們分享拓撲學,但今天我不會。

  • Instead, I'm going to mention my mom,

    (笑聲)

  • who passed away last summer.

    相反地,我想要提一下我媽,

  • Had collected photographs of me, as mothers will do.

    她去年夏天過世了。

  • Could somebody put this guy up?

    就像所有母親會做的事情,她收集了我的照片。

  • And I looked over her album

    有人可以把這個傢伙(投影機)打開嗎?

  • and she had collected a picture of me, standing --

    我瀏覽她的相簿

  • well, sitting -- in 1969, in front of a bunch of dials.

    她有收集了一張我的相片,站著──

  • And I looked at it, and said, oh my god,

    嗯,坐著,在1969年,在一堆調節器前面。

  • that was me, when I was working at the electronic music studio!

    然後我看著這張相片,我說:我的天,

  • As a technician, repairing and maintaining

    這是我在電子音樂錄音室工作時候的照片!

  • the electronic music studio at SUNY Buffalo. And wow!

    我當時是一個技師,負責維修和保養

  • Way back machine. And I said to myself, oh yeah!

    那間電子音樂工作室在美國紐約州立大學水牛城分校。哇!

  • And it sent me back.

    老舊的機器。然後我對自己說:噢 我想起來了!

  • Soon after that, I found in another picture that she had, a picture of me.

    那張照片讓我的思緒回到那時。

  • This guy over here of course is me.

    不久之後,我在我媽收集的另外一張相片裡發現我。

  • This man is Robert Moog,

    在那邊的那個人正是我。

  • the inventor of the Moog synthesizer,

    他是羅伯特‧馬各(Robert Moog),

  • who passed away this past August.

    馬各合成器(Moog synthesizer)的發明者,

  • Robert Moog was a generous, kind person, extraordinarily competent engineer.

    他去年八月過世了。

  • A musician who took time from his life to teach me,

    羅伯特‧馬格是個慷慨、仁慈的人,除此之外,他還是個超群的工程師。

  • a sophomore, a freshman at SUNY Buffalo.

    他還是個音樂家,他用他生命中很多的時間來教導我,

  • He'd come up from Trumansburg to teach me

    教一個還在美國紐約州立大學水牛城分校念大一、大二的我。

  • not just about the Moog synthesizer, but we'd be sitting there --

    他會專程從特魯曼斯堡(Trumansburg)來教我

  • I'm studying physics at the time. This is 1969, 70, 71.

    不只是關於馬各合成器,我們就坐在那裏──

  • We're studying physics, I'm studying physics,

    我當時在攻讀物理,那時候是1969年、70和71。

  • and he's saying, "That's a good thing to do.

    我們一起研究物理,我還在攻讀物理的時候,

  • Don't get caught up in electronic music if you're doing physics."

    他說:「那是件值得去做的事。

  • Mentoring me. He'd come up and

    如果你要研究物理,就不要迷上電子音樂。」

  • spend hours and hours with me.

    為了指導我,他每次來

  • He wrote a letter of recommendation for me to get into graduate school.

    花無數個小時陪我。

  • In the background, my bicycle.

    我進研究所的推薦信,也是他幫我寫的。

  • I realize that this picture was taken at a friend's living room.

    在背景裡,我的腳踏車。

  • Bob Moog came by and hauled a whole pile of equipment

    我才發現這張照片是在朋友的客廳照的。

  • to show Greg Flint and I things about this.

    羅伯斯‧馬各帶著一大堆儀器來

  • We sat around talking about Fourier transforms,

    為了向蓋瑞‧佛林特(Greg Flint )和我展現這些東西。

  • Bessel functions, modulation transfer functions,

    我們圍著圈坐,談論傅立葉變換(Fourier transforms)。

  • stuff like this.

    貝索函數(Bessel functions)、調製轉換函數(modulation transfer functions),

  • Bob's passing this past summer has been a loss to all of us.

    類似這樣的東西。

  • Anyone who's a musician has been profoundly influenced by Robert Moog.

    對所有人來說,去年夏天羅伯斯‧馬各的死是一大損失。

  • (Applause)

    任何音樂家都深深地被羅伯特‧馬各影響。

  • And I'll just say what I'm about to do. What I'm about to do --

    (掌聲)

  • I hope you can recognize that there's a distorted sine wave,

    我會說我要做什麼。我將要做的是──

  • almost a triangular wave upon this Hewlett-Packard oscilloscope.

    我希望你們可以分辨出一種扭曲的正弦波(sine wave),

  • Oh, cool. I can get to this place over here, right?

    在這個惠普示波器上,幾乎像是一個三角形的波纹。

  • Kids. Kids is what I'm going to talk about -- is that okay?

    噢!酷!我可以換到這個話題了嗎?

  • It says kids over here, that's what I'd like to talk about.

    孩子們。孩子們是我下一個話題──這樣跳可以嗎?

  • I've decided that, for me at least,

    它說下一個就是孩子們了,那就是我下一個要說的話題了。

  • I don't have a big enough head.

    我已經決定了,至少對我來說,

  • So I think locally and I act locally.

    我沒有太多的創意點子。

  • I feel that the best way I can help out anything is to help out very, very locally.

    所以我思考小地方,也從小地方著手。

  • So Ph.D. this, and degree there, and the yadda yadda.

    我覺得我可以幫助任何小孩子的最好辦法就是幫助小區域的孩子,非常非常小的部份。

  • I was talking about this stuff to

    所以不論是博士,還是任何學位,還是之類的。

  • some schoolteachers about a year ago.

    大約一年前,我和一些學校老師

  • And one of them, several of them would come up to me and say,

    討論了這個議題。

  • "Well, how come you ain't teaching?"

    其中一位老師,一些老師過來跟我說,

  • And I said, "Well, I've taught graduate --

    「嗯,你怎麼不試著教書呢?」

  • I've had graduate students, I've taught undergraduate classes."

    我回答:「嗯,我以前教過研究生──

  • No, they said, "If you're so into kids and all this stuff,

    我以前有教過研究生,我也教過大學生。」

  • how come you ain't over here on the front lines?

    他們說:「不,如果你這麼熱衷於孩子的事情,

  • Put your money where you mouth is."

    你怎麼還能夠不去站在教育的最前線呢?

  • Is true. Is true. I teach eighth-grade science four days a week.

    不要說大話,身體力行吧!」

  • Not just showing up every now and then.

    沒錯。沒錯。我一星期有四天在教國二學生理化。

  • No, no, no, no, no. I take attendance.

    不光只是偶爾出現而已。

  • I take lunch hour. (Applause)

    不,不,不,不,不!我上課要點名的。

  • This is not -- no, no, no, this is not claps.

    我還有午休時間。(掌聲)

  • I strongly suggest that this is a good thing for each of you to do.

    這不是──不,不,不,不需要為我鼓掌。

  • Not just show up to class every now and then.

    這是件好事,我強烈建議你們所有人去做。

  • Teach a solid week. Okay, I'm teaching three-quarters time, but good enough.

    不只光只是偶爾出席課堂而已。

  • One of the things that I've done for my science students

    一整個星期扎實地教學。嗯,一星期我有四分之三的時間在教書,但已經夠好了。

  • is to tell them, "Look, I'm going to teach you college-level physics.

    我為了我理化課學生做的其中一件事情是

  • No calculus, I'll cut out that.

    告訴他們:「聽著!我打算要教你們大學程度的物理了。

  • You won't need to know trig.

    不會有微積分,我會把那部份拿掉。

  • But you will need to know eighth-grade algebra,

    你也不需要知道三角函數。

  • and we're going to do serious experiments.

    但是你需要懂得國二的代數,

  • None of this open-to-chapter-seven-and-do-all-the-odd-problem-sets.

    然後我們就要做真正的實驗。

  • We're going to be doing genuine physics."

    不會是『翻開第七章,做所有奇數的習題。』

  • And that's one of the things I thought I'd do right now.

    我們將要做的是真正的物理。」

  • (High-pitched tone)

    接下來我要做的是,我帶他們做過的實驗中的一項。

  • Oh, before I even turn that on,

    (高音頻)

  • one of the things that we did about three weeks ago in my class --

    噢!在我打開之前,

  • this is through the lens, and one of the things we used a lens for

    三個星期前,我在課程上做過一件事情──

  • was to measure the speed of light.

    透鏡的其中一向用途是:透過透鏡,

  • My students in El Cerrito -- with my help, of course,

    去測量光速。

  • and with the help of a very beat up oscilloscope --

    在愛瑟利托(El Cerrito )高中的學生,在我的協助下,

  • measured the speed of light.

    和非常老舊的示波器幫助下,

  • We were off by 25 percent. How many eighth graders do you know of

    測量光速。

  • who have measured the speed of light?

    雖然我們的實驗有25%的誤差,但就你所知

  • In addition to that, we've measured the speed of sound.

    有多少國二生測量過光速?

  • I'd love to measure the speed of light here.

    除此之外,我們還測量過音速。

  • I was all set to do it and I was thinking, "Aw man,"

    我想現在就測量光速給你們看。

  • I was just going to impose upon the powers that be,

    我早就準備好一切測量的儀器,我想:「哇!老天。」

  • and measure the speed of light.

    我只是想不斷加強這方面的能力,

  • And I'm all set to do it. I'm all set to do it,

    來測量光速。

  • but then it turns out that to set up here, you have like 10 minutes to set up!

    我已經都準備好了。我已經都準備好了。

  • And there's no time to do it.

    但是要把儀器在這裡設好,大該需要十分鐘!

  • So, next time, maybe, I'll measure the speed of light!

    現在沒有這個時間。

  • But meanwhile, let's measure the speed of sound!

    所以,下次,也許吧,我會測量光速給你們看!

  • Well, the obvious way to measure the speed of sound

    不過現在,讓我們來測量音速吧!

  • is to bounce sound off something and look at the echo.

    嗯,要測量音速最簡單的方法

  • But, probably -- one of my students, Ariel [unclear], said,

    是讓聲音反彈,然後測量它的回音。

  • "Could we measure the speed of light using the wave equation?"

    不過,也可能──我有一個學生,艾里爾(Ariel)說:

  • And all of you know the wave equation is

    「我們可以用波的公式來測量光速嗎?」

  • the frequency times the wavelength of any wave ...

    你們都知道的波的公式是:

  • is a constant. When the frequency goes up,

    頻率乘以任何波的波長…

  • the wavelength comes down. Wavelength goes up,

    會得到一個常數。當頻率升高,

  • frequency goes down. So, if we have a wave here --

    波長就會變短。波長變長,

  • over here, that's what's interesting --

    頻率就會下降。所以如果我們有一個波──

  • as the pitch goes up, things get closer,

    看這裡,那是之所以有趣的地方──

  • pitch goes down, things stretch out.

    當音調升高,波紋就會變的集中,

  • Right? This is simple physics.

    當音調降低,波紋就會分散。

  • All of you know this from eighth grade, remember?

    不是嗎?這是簡單的物理。

  • What they didn't tell you in physics -- in eighth-grade physics --

    你們在國二的時候都學過,記得嗎?

  • but they should have, and I wish they had,

    但他們在國二物理課沒告訴你

  • was that if you multiply the frequency times the wavelength of sound

    但應該要告訴你──而且我希望他們有告訴你──

  • or light, you get a constant.

    的是如果你將頻率乘以聲音波長

  • And that constant is the speed of sound.

    或光的波長,你會得到一個常數。

  • So, in order to measure the speed of sound,

    那個常數就是音速。

  • all I've got to do is know its frequency. Well, that's easy.

    所以想要測量音速,

  • I've got a frequency counter right here.

    我們只需要知道頻率就好。嗯,就是這麼簡單。

  • Set it up to around A, above A, above A. There's an A, more or less.

    我這裡有一台頻率測量儀。

  • Now, so I know the frequency.

    將它設定在A這裡,大概在A這裡。

  • It's 1.76 kilohertz. I measure its wavelength.

    現在,我就知道它的頻率了。

  • All I need now is to flip on another beam,

    是 1.76 千赫。我來測量波長。

  • and the bottom beam is me talking, right?

    我現在只需要去打開另外一個開關,

  • So anytime I talk, you'd see it on the screen.

    下面那個輸入端就可以聽到我的聲音,對嗎?

  • I'll put it over here, and as I move this away from the source,

    只要我說話,你就可以在螢幕上看到波動。

  • you'll notice the spiral.

    我把麥克風放在這裡,然後當我漸漸的將它遠離聲源。