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  • Hi I'm John Green, this is Crash Course Literature.

    嗨!我是 John Green,歡迎來到文學速成班

  • And today we'll continue our discussion of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, a

    今天我們要繼續討論珍·奧斯汀的「傲慢與偏見」

  • book that reads like it was written by your funny and mean best friend, who also happens

    本書就像你有趣又刻薄的好友寫的,他剛好是個

  • to be a brilliant novelist and a pretty interesting moral philosopher.

    才華洋溢的小說家,也是有趣的道德哲學家

  • I mean, I love my best friend, but I REALLY

    我是說我很愛我的死黨,但我真的

  • wish Jane Austen was my best friend.

    很希望珍·奧斯汀是我的死黨

  • But let's face it, she wouldn't have been that into me.

    但面對現實吧!她不會對我有興趣的

  • Last time we talked about the political context of the novel, and how to choose between your

    上回我們聊到小說中的政治內容,跟如何在

  • personal fulfillment and the good of your family.

    自我滿足和家族利益中做選擇

  • Today we'll look at whether it's an endorsement of materialism or a rejection of it.

    今天我們要了解它是支持或反對唯物主義的呢?

  • We'll also consider the novel's politics--whether it's liberal or conservative in its outlook.

    我們也會考量到小說中的政治文化,它的看法究竟是自由或保守主義

  • And we'll enjoy some sexy, sexy landscape description.

    我們會欣賞一些迷人的景色描述

  • But first let's consider the epistemological problems of the novel.

    但首先我們要考量一下小說中的知識論問題

  • Because here at Crash Course we know how to party.

    因為我們文學速成班知道如何享受派對

  • And also we just learned the meaning of the word epistemological.

    而我們剛學會知識論這個詞的意義

  • Let's go.

    開始吧

  • INTRO So, epistomology is the study of knowledge--it's

    知識論是對知識的研究

  • knowing how we know, and what it means to know.

    意思是了解我們所知的,和「所知」代表的意義

  • And knowledge is a real problem in Pride and Prejudice--much of the plot hinges on what

    「傲慢與偏見」中知識是個實在的問題,許多情節的關鍵在於人們的知識、

  • people know and when they know it, and how they can be sure of knowledge.

    他們何時知道的和他們如何堅信這些知識

  • Remember this is Regency England.

    請記得這是攝政時代的英國

  • If you like someone you can't immediately Google them or snapchat them or, I have no idea what

    如果你喜歡上某人,你不能馬上用 Google 或 snapchat 或我不知現代人

  • people do.

    怎麼做的

  • Compared to today's young people, I basically grew up in Regency England.

    和今日的年輕人比,我算是生長於攝政時代的英國

  • At the beginning of the novel, Jane and Mr. Bingley meet, Jane has no way to let him

    小說的開頭,珍和賓利先生相遇,珍無法讓他知道

  • know that she likes him.

    自己喜歡上他了

  • She can't just swipe right, or left--I really, I don't know.

    她又不能把照片向右或向左滑

  • I don't know any of this stuff..

    我真搞不懂這些玩意兒

  • I'm trying to sound young, and hip, and relatable, and I should just give up because

    我試圖讓自己聽起來很年輕、時髦有共鳴,但我該直接放棄

  • I'm one year younger than Jane Austen was when she DIED.

    因為我只比珍·奧斯汀逝世時的年紀小一歲

  • I'm sorry, what were we talking about?

    很抱歉,我們剛剛在說什麼?

  • Right.

    對了

  • Jane has no way of discovering just how available he is.

    珍無從得知他是否有對象

  • Characters have to rely on gossip, subtle

    角色只能依賴八卦,有時用

  • inquiries sometimes in the form of letters, and what they can see with their own eyes.

    書信的方式巧妙探詢,和他們自身的所見所聞

  • But Austen is skeptical about whether or not you can trust the evidence of your own eyes.

    但奧斯汀對於能否相信親眼所見的事物持懷疑態度

  • When Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy see each other they hate each other.

    當伊莉莎白和達西先生初見就一見反目

  • And months go by before they learn enough

    幾個月後他們才對彼此更認識

  • about each other to readjust those initial impressions.

    也改變對對方的初次印象了

  • Mr. Darcy's pride flourishes because he doesn't know or understand the people around

    達西先生如此驕傲自滿是因為他不了解他身邊

  • him.

    的人

  • The same goes for Elizabeth's prejudice.

    而伊莉莎白的偏見也是一樣的

  • In addition to constantly reminding us how little we know about other people, Austen

    除了不斷提醒我們對周遭的人所知甚少外,奧斯汀

  • also questions how little we know of ourselves.

    也對自身了解有多少提出疑問

  • Elizabeth is the character that most of us will identify with in this novel.

    伊莉莎白是我們多數人會產生共鳴的角色

  • Austen wrote in a letter, “I think her as delightful a character as ever appeared in

    奧斯汀在信中寫道「我想她是出版物中最明亮的角色了,

  • print, and how I shall be able to tolerate those who do not like her at least, I do not

    我該如何折磨那些從頭到尾都不喜歡她的人呢?

  • know.”

    我不知道。」

  • But even clever Elizabeth has to admit that she has been mistaken in most of her beliefs,

    但聰明如伊莉莎白也得承認她的信念有很多誤判

  • particularly ones about herself.

    尤其是關於她自己的

  • Once she learns the truth of the bad feelings

    一旦她了解達西和韋克翰之間

  • between Darcy and Wickham, she has to acknowledge her own prejudices and even says, “Till

    憎惡的真相後,她終於看請自己的偏見了,還說道「直到

  • this moment, I never knew myself.”

    這一刻,我從來不瞭解自己。」

  • One of the most fascinating things Austen does in this book is to put the reader into

    奧斯汀做過最迷人的事就是讓讀者保持

  • the place of not knowing.

    所知有限的狀態

  • Take the scene in which Elizabeth watches Wickham, whom she likes, and Mr. Darcy, whom

    就拿伊莉莎白見到她有好感的韋克翰和她討厭的達西先生

  • she hates, run into each other.

    相遇時來說

  • At this point, she believes that Mr. Darcy

    這時,她相信達西先生

  • has cheated Wickham of his inheritance, but when she sees them, she doesn't know what

    騙走了韋克翰遺產,但當她看見他們倆,她不知道該相信什麼

  • to believe: “Elizabeth happening to see the countenance

    「伊莉莎白剛好看見他們

  • of both as they looked at each other, was all astonishment at the effect of the meeting.

    互望的表情,整個會面的印象是很驚愕的

  • Both changed colour, one looked white, the other red.

    雙方都變了臉色,一個慘白,一個通紅

  • Mr. Wickham after a few moments, touched his hat -- a salutation which Mr. Darcy just deigned

    幾秒後韋克翰先生觸碰了他的帽子,達西先生則點點頭當作

  • to return.

    還禮

  • What could be the meaning of it?”

    這是什麼意思?」

  • Not only do we not know why one turned white and one turned red, we don't even know who

    我們不僅不知為何一個變慘白,一個變通紅,我們也不知哪個變白

  • turned which color.

    哪個變紅

  • Elizabeth presumably knows that, of course, but by calling attention to what we as readers

    我們假設伊莉莎白知道這點,但這提醒了讀者注意他們所不知道的

  • don't know, Austen is also reminding us of all that Elizabeth doesn't know--just

    奧斯汀也提醒我們伊莉莎白不是全知的

  • how often she has to wonder, What could be the meaning of it?.

    她也常常在思索,這代表什麼意義?

  • Speaking of meaning, Pride and Prejudice spends a lot of time examining the meaning of money.

    說道意義,「傲慢與偏見」花了不少時間檢視金錢的意義

  • Austen lets us know how much everyone has, where it comes from, how much they stand to

    奧斯汀讓我們知道所有人的財富,它的來源和他們繼承了多少

  • inherit, and so on.

    之類的

  • Let's check everyone's accounts in the Thoughtbubble.

    讓我們從思想泡泡中看所有人的帳戶

  • Mr. Bennet has 2,000 pounds per year, which just about puts him into the upper middle

    班奈特先生每年有 2,000 鎊,剛好讓他晉身中上

  • class.

    階層

  • But because his estate is entailed and will be inherited by the nearest male relative

    但因他的財產被限定在他和他妻子死後,要繼承給血緣最近的男性親戚

  • when he and his wife die, his daughters will only have a share of what their mother brought

    他的女兒們只能享有母親結婚帶來的

  • into the marriage.

    部分財產

  • Each daughter will get about forty pounds

    每個女兒一年只有

  • a year.

    40 鎊

  • It's hard to estimate how much this is in today's money; it could mean as little as

    很難以現今的金錢估算那到底價值多少,很可能代表只有

  • a few thousand dollars though, so definitely not enough to live comfortably.

    幾千元而已,因此肯定不夠過舒適的生活

  • Mr. Bingley has at least 5,000 pounds per year, which is very nice.

    賓利先生每年有 5,000 鎊,數量可觀

  • But Darcy has at least double that every year from rents on his land.

    但達西先生從他的佃租有兩倍的收入

  • He might make even more on the interest from his investments, so it's safe to think of

    從他的投資中,說不定還有更多收入,所以能假設

  • him as kind of a multimillionaire.

    他是個千萬富翁

  • His sister Georgiana has an inheritance of 30,000, so even assuming a conservative investment,

    他妹妹喬治安娜繼承三萬鎊,就算假設只有保守投資

  • she'll be fine.

    她也財富可觀

  • Wickham inherited 1,000 pounds from Mr. Darcy's father and then Mr. Darcy gave him 3,000 more

    韋克翰從達西先生的父親那繼承了 1,000 鎊,而達西先生在韋克翰決定放棄教職時

  • when Wickham decided to quit the clergy.

    又多給他 3,000 鎊

  • But he spent it all, so he'll need to marry rich.

    但他全花光了,所以他要娶富婆

  • Obviously Lydia isn't rich, but between paying his debts and buying his commission,

    莉地亞顯然不是富婆,但為了讓他還清債務和買取職位

  • Mr. Darcy gives Wickham another 1,500 pounds.

    達西先生又給韋克翰 1,500 鎊

  • Plus, he may even have given him 10,000 more in order to convince him to marry Lydia and

    另外,他可能為了讓他娶莉地亞來避免醜聞,又

  • avoid scandal.

    給他一萬鎊

  • Thanks, Thoughtbubble.

    謝啦,思想泡泡

  • Whether the amount of money someone indicates moral worth?

    人擁有的財富是否也象徵品性的價值?

  • Which may seem like a answer question in 21 century investment banker America.

    這在 21 世紀美國的投資銀行家看來像反問句

  • But in 19 century England things were a little different.

    但在 19 世紀的英國可能不太一樣

  • For instance, Darcy is certainly richer than Wickham, and morally superior.

    例如達西肯定比韋克翰有錢,品行也更高尚

  • But in a couple of places the novel seems to make the point that money isn't everything.

    但書中幾處似乎表明金錢不代表一切

  • Mr. Darcy's aunt, Lady Catherine has plenty of money, but that doesn't stop her from

    達西先生的姨母凱薩琳夫人很有錢,但她被描述成一個

  • being portrayed as a killjoy and a snob.

    掃興且勢利眼的人

  • Austen satirizes her materialism, like the way Lady Catherine pays attention to how nice

    奧斯汀會諷刺唯物主義,例如凱薩琳夫人關注人們的馬車有多華麗

  • people's carriages are or how Mr. Collins fawns over Lady Catherine and her daughter

    或柯林斯夫人因為凱薩琳夫人和她女兒很富有而

  • just because they're rich.

    對她們阿諛奉承

  • But Austen satirizes materialism in people

    但奧斯汀也諷刺窮人的

  • who have less money, too, like Wickham with his debts.

    唯物主義,就像韋克翰的債務

  • The book is also pretty hard on Lydia who can't afford to buy lunch for her sisters

    書中對莉地亞也較苛刻,例如她因為把錢都花在難看的帽子上

  • because she's spent all her money on a disgusting hat, saying, “Look here, I have bought this

    所以她無法為姊妹們的午餐買單,然後說「看,我買了一頂

  • bonnet.

    帽子

  • I do not think it is very pretty; but I thought I might as well buy it as not.”

    我覺得它不怎麼好看,但無論如何我還是買了。」

  • Here, Austen seems to be suggesting that how

    這裡奧斯汀似乎在暗示

  • you spend money probably matters as much or more than how much of it you have.

    你如何運用金錢比你擁有多少財富還重要

  • Quick side note: The growing industrialization

    快速補充說明:英國的工業化發展

  • of England meant that more artifacts were available to the average person.

    代表人工製品更加普及了

  • And when I say artifacts, I mean everything from, you know, pots and pans to clothing.

    提到人工製品,我是指從鍋碗瓢盆到服飾都算

  • Even a generation or two before, the middle class had been vastly smaller, and there weren't

    就算是一兩個世紀前,中產階級的規模較小

  • as many, like, materials to be materialistic about.

    而且也沒這麼多物質來進行唯物主義

  • So almost all people, almost all of the time would have been buying lunch, rather than

    所以幾乎所有人的所有時間都是用來買午餐,而非

  • buying bonnets.

    買帽子

  • Maybe, then money can actually chip away at personal happiness and moral character?

    也許金錢真的會削弱自身的幸福與品行道德?

  • Again, not exactly.

    再說一次,不一定

  • Austen doesn't come out and say that you should marry for money, but the novel does

    奧斯汀從不直說你該為金錢結婚,但小說似乎確實

  • seem to endorse the idea that the characters who acquire the most money will be the happiest.

    贊同得到最多錢的角色最幸福這個想法

  • Clearly Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy will live happily ever after and so will Jane and Mr.

    伊莉莎白和達西先生顯然會永遠幸福快樂,而珍和賓利先生

  • Bingley.

    也會

  • Charlotte and Mr. Collins are only a little happy, because Mr. Collins is almost as horrible

    夏洛特和柯林斯先生勉強算幸福,因為柯林斯先生跟瑪麗一樣

  • as Mary, but they'll probably be happier once Mr. Collins inherits.

    糟糕,但一旦柯林斯先生繼承財產後就會更幸福了

  • And it doesn't seem like Lydia and Wickham, who have the least, won't be happy at all.

    而莉地亞和韋克翰似乎連一點幸福也沒有

  • They don't even like each other by the time the book ends.

    書的結尾處他們看起來一點也不喜歡對方

  • And it's only Mr. Darcy's money that saved Lydia from total disgrace.

    甚至還要達西先生的金錢讓莉地亞免於恥辱

  • And also, we need to remember how and why Elizabeth falls in love with Mr. Darcy.

    我們也別忘了伊莉莎白為何會愛上達西先生

  • Part of it is the letter he sends and part of it has to do with how he rescues her sister,

    部分是因為他寫的信,部分是因為他拯救了她妹妹

  • but a lot of it has to do with his estate, Pemberley.

    但多數是因為他的房地產,彭博里莊園

  • When Elizabeth first sees Pemberley, we get a rare passage of description in the book:

    當伊莉莎白第一眼看到彭博里莊園時,我們難得看見書中的描述:

  • It was a large, handsome, stone building, standing well on rising ground, and backed

    「那是棟很大很漂亮的石砌建築,屹立在高地上

  • by a ridge of high woody hills;—and in front, a stream of some natural importance was swelled

    後倚著一片高高的小山岡,前有一泓天然珍貴的溪流正在漲潮

  • into greater, but without any artificial appearanceand at that moment she felt that to be mistress

    沒有一絲一毫人工的痕跡...這一刻她覺得當彭博里莊園的女主人

  • of Pemberley might be something!”

    也許也不錯吧!」

  • Now, obviously this is a stand-in for Mr. Darcy himself, who is also large and handsome

    這顯然對達西先生處於有利的形勢,他有影響力、英俊

  • and not artificial.

    而且不是人工的

  • But it's the revelation of his beautiful estate that really wins Elizabeth's heart,

    但是在發現他美麗房地產後,才真正贏得伊莉莎白的心

  • which suggests that even Pemberley isn't just a metaphor for Darcy; Darcy is also a

    這暗示彭博里莊園不僅代表達西的暗喻,達西本身也代表

  • metaphor for Pemberley.

    彭博里莊園的暗喻

  • Now, it's easy to argue that this is a conservative book.

    現在,這是本保守小說是顯而易見的了

  • Everyone gets married in the end.

    所有人在最後都結婚了

  • Elizabeth gets to be both happy and rich.

    伊莉莎白愛情與麵包兼得

  • Mr. Darcy, an authoritarian figure who holds power over a lot of people, turns out to be

    達西先生本是手握許多人命運的獨裁象徵,最後

  • the hero.

    成了英雄

  • And Wickham, the upstart who comes from the servant class, is the villain.

    而韋克翰從傭僕階層變成暴發戶的人,是個混蛋

  • So the established social hierarchy gets reaffirmed in terms of class, and also in terms of gender.

    因此既定的社會階層在階級和性別上得到重申

  • Elizabeth seemed so free-thinking and independent-minded, but her reward is to subjugate herself to

    伊莉莎白看似思想自由且獨立思考,但她的獎賞是讓自己服從

  • the wealthy aristocrat who said that her looks were tolerable.

    說她長相勉強可忍受的富有貴族

  • On the other hand, you could argue that the book is a lot more radical than that.

    另一方面,你可以爭論說書其實比那個還激進

  • Yes, Mr. Darcy makes Elizabeth happy, but arguing for her own individual happiness is

    沒錯,達西先生讓伊莉莎白很幸福,但爭取自己的個人幸福會是