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  • With both sides stuck in a hard stalemate, they knew this war wasn't going to be about taking territory,

    雙方陷入漫長的壕溝戰,他們知道這場戰爭不會因佔領他國領土而結束

  • but about simply wearing each other down.

    而是耗盡其他國家的士氣

  • The Allies had plenty of men to expend from its overseas dominions.

    協約國有許多的兵力去擴張海外的領土

  • And the British also started a naval blockade,

    而英國也開始進行海上封鎖

  • so Germany couldn't import stuff, like food.

    所以德國就不能進口東西,像是食物

  • Neither side really wanted a long grueling war, though.

    雙方都不想要一個耗盡國力的戰爭

  • So, they both thought of ways to break the deadlock on the western front.

    所以雙方打算突破西線的對峙情形

  • Idea number one: New Frontiers.

    點子一:新戰線

  • When the war first broke out Australia was quick to take German New Guinea

    當戰爭剛開始時,澳洲很快地便佔領了德屬新幾內亞

  • The Allies also quickly jumped on Germany's colonies in Africa,

    協約國也很快就進攻了德國在非洲的殖民地 (多哥 喀麥隆 德屬東非 德屬西南非洲)

  • and particularly in German East Africa,

    尤其是在德屬東非

  • locals were enlisted as soldiers and carriers by both sides.

    當地居民被雙方招募成士兵或是運送工人

  • Leading to a tragic loss of life for the Native Africans.

    造成非洲原住民大量的因戰爭死亡

  • Some new combatants entered the war as well.

    一些新的戰場也加入了大戰的行列

  • The Allies newest friends were Italy,

    協約國的新盟友為義大利

  • and Japan.

    跟日本

  • Japan was busy building itself an empire.

    日本正忙著將自身打造成一個帝國

  • So, it was more than happy to take away German Islands and colonies in East Asia

    所以對他們而言 能A走一些德國在東亞的小島與殖民地再好不過了

  • Italy actually had an alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary before the war.

    義大利其實跟德 奧兩國在戰前是盟友

  • But after some tense relations,

    直至雙方關係惡化

  • and then the Allies promising to give them some of Austria-Hungary's stuff,

    然後協約國承諾會給義大利一些奧匈帝國的土地 (提羅爾 伊斯特拉半島)

  • they switched sides.

    義大利就換邊站了

  • Italy opened up a front in the mountains here,

    義大利在山區展開了戰線

  • but like everyone else,

    但就像西線般

  • they were stuck in stalemate for most of the war.

    奧 義兩國也在戰爭的大多數時間陷入了對峙

  • The Central Powers' new friend was a struggling empire in the middle East.

    而同盟國的新盟友是在中東奮鬥的一個帝國

  • The Ottomans....

    鄂圖曼帝國

  • (Ottomen?)

    鄂圖蠻?

  • The Ottomen where divided on whether to actually join the war or not,

    鄂圖曼帝國內部分裂成了不參戰派與參戰派

  • since they had been exhausted by the recent Balkan Wars.

    自從他們在第一次巴爾幹戰爭已經國力疲勞以來

  • Some of the politicians who did want to join went off on their own and fired some shells at Russia.

    一些想要參戰的政治家自己跑去炮擊了俄國的海岸

  • And then came back and said,

    然後回來說:

  • "Whoops, looks like we're at war now."

    [糟糕 看來我們已經參戰摟]

  • The Ottoman entry into the war was of particular concern to the British,

    鄂圖曼帝國加入戰局讓英國特別關心,

  • since the middle East was full of oil and Britain wanted all of that oil.

    自從中東地區有滿滿的石油,而英國想要全部的石油

  • First, the Ottomans tried to attack Russia in the Caucasus Mountains.

    一開始,鄂圖曼帝國嘗試去攻打在高加索山區的俄軍

  • But they weren't prepared for the cold and many of them froze to death.

    但他們並未為酷寒的天氣準備好,所以他們大多數被凍死了

  • Then they crossed miles of desert to take the Suez Canal from the British.

    然後他們跨越數英里的沙漠想從英國手上奪走蘇伊士運河

  • But that failed, too.

    但那也失敗了

  • Then the Allies tried to take the Dardanelles at Gallipoli in a long and hard trench warfare campaign....

    然後協約國想要佔領在加里波利的達達尼爾,然後進行了漫長且艱辛的壕溝戰

  • but that also failed.

    但那也失敗了

  • The Ottomans blamed their initial losses on the ethnic Armenians living within Ottoman territory.

    鄂圖曼帝國把他們的損失怪在住在鄂圖曼帝國境內的亞美尼亞人身上

  • And the resulting Armenian genocide

    並造成了亞美尼亞種族大屠殺

  • led to the deaths of one and a half million people.

    使得150萬的人死亡

  • Then, the Germans sent spies into Afghanistan

    然後,德國把間諜派往了阿富汗

  • to try to convince the Arab tribes there to rise up in Jihad against the British

    嘗試與當地的阿拉伯部落溝通來引發對英國人的聖戰

  • and attack India.

    並攻擊印度

  • But that plan failed. Partly because the spies got bored, brewed their own alcohol, and got drunk....

    但計畫失敗了,一部分是因為間諜覺得有點無聊 便釀了自己的酒 然後喝醉了

  • which is a bad thing to do in Afghanistan.

    而那件事在阿富汗做是不好的 (伊斯蘭教教義禁止教徒飲酒)

  • All these new Frontiers hadn't done much to change the war.

    所有這些新的戰線對戰爭並沒有太大的改變

  • Aware that the Allies had more men and supplies than them,

    知道協約國有更多人力與補給之後

  • the Germans knew they had to do something to break the stalemate.

    德國知道他們必須做些事來打破對峙的局面

  • Before the war, there was a big conference that set out the rules of Modern warfare:

    戰前,有個大會議招開了,立下一些現代戰爭的規則

  • No chemical weapons,

    不能使用化學武器

  • no killing civilians.

    不能故意殺死平民

  • Basically: Don't be jerks.

    基本上就是:不要當個G8人

  • The Germans held a meeting, and decided to be jerks.

    德軍內部開了個會議 並決定要當個G8人

  • Zeppelin air raids commenced over British cities,

    齊柏林飛船開始從空中轟炸英國城市

  • they also started attacking the ally trenches with chlorine gas,

    他們也開始以氯氣攻擊協約國的戰壕

  • and they used submarines to sink civilian ships.

    並讓潛艇擊沉民用船隻

  • One such civilian ship was the Lusitania

    其中一艘船隻叫做盧西塔尼亞號

  • which had a hundred and fifty-nine Americans on board when it was sunk.

    當它沉沒時有159名美國人在船上

  • Further swaying US opinion against the Germans.

    讓遠在天邊且仍躊躇不前的美國決定要對抗德國 (有人要被解放了)

  • Not to be completely unfair to the Germans,

    德國也不是那麼的不公平

  • the Allies also engaged in chemical warfare soon after,

    協約國也在不久後使用了化學武器

  • and they had been hiding anti-submarine weapons on their civilian ships.

    且他們已經開始在民用船隻上藏著潛艦武器

  • Which led the Germans justify their attacks.

    讓德國開始停止這些G8的行為

  • Meanwhile, Austria-Hungary still hadn't dealt with Serbia,

    同一時間,奧匈帝國仍然還沒處理好塞爾維亞的問題

  • so the central powers enlisted some help.

    所以同盟國徵求了一些幫助

  • Bulgaria wished it was bigger and was still bitter about

    保加利亞希望國土能更大

  • losing the second Balkan war.

    且仍然對輸掉第二次巴爾幹戰爭感到怨恨

  • The Central Powers promised to make all of Bulgaria's wildest dreams come true if they helped.

    同盟國保證如果保加利亞能幫忙 他們能成全所有保加利亞的瘋狂夢想

  • So they signed on and together they knocked out Serbia.

    所以他們成為了盟友 並打爆了塞爾維亞

  • The Serbian troops retreated through Albania

    塞軍撤退到了阿爾巴尼亞

  • which was neutral but had some ties to Austria-Hungary.

    雖然中立 但跟奧匈帝國有所勾結

  • So, Austria-Hungary entered Albania in a 'friendly invasion' to chase down the Serbians

    所以奧軍進入了阿爾巴尼亞,並以[善意的侵略]為名追殺著殘存的塞軍

  • many of whom escaped by sea.

    許多塞軍逃到了海上

  • It's 1916 and a lot is happening.

    現在是1916年,而很多事情發生

  • As if they didn't have enough enemies already,

    既然如果他們還沒有足夠的敵人

  • Germany added one more to the list.

    德國又加了一個到敵國名單中

  • Portugal had been getting a bit chummy with the allies behind the scenes ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

    葡萄牙跟協約國在幕後為密友

  • and Germany didn't like that one bit.

    而德國並不喜歡那發生

  • Around the same time, the only sea battle of the war happened.

    大概在同一時間,一戰中唯一的一次海戰發生了

  • Both sides had a new powerful class of battleships called "Dreadnought."

    雙方都有著一個新的強力的戰艦級別稱為[無畏級]

  • But they were so expensive to build that neither side wanted to risk losing them in a battle.

    但建造它們太貴了,雙方都不想冒險在戰鬥中失去它們

  • So they kept them in port. Except for one time when they had a big fight and a bunch of them got damaged.

    所以他們把戰艦都停在港內,除了有一次他們之間有個大海戰,而很多的無畏艦都被損傷了,所以他們沒再做第二次 (日德蘭海戰 史上最大的無畏艦海戰)

  • So they didn't try that again. The UK started conscripting men to the army so they had plenty of reserves.

    英國開始招募士兵所以他們有很多的後備軍力

  • Which is just as well because the western front was about to get brutal.

    而正好西線開始變的血腥了

  • The longest and one of the bloodiest battles of the war started

    一戰中持續時間最長且最為血腥的戰爭開始了

  • when the Germans launched an attack around the French city of Verdun.

    就在德軍在法國城市凡爾登發動攻勢的時候

  • The French defended it desperately,

    法國拚了老命的去防禦它

  • leading to hundreds of thousands of casualties.

    並造成了數十萬的傷亡

  • Under pressure, the French called on its allies to do something to draw the Germans' attention away.

    在壓力之下,法軍呼叫它的盟友做些事情來轉移德軍的注意力

  • So, the British started their own long and brutal fight, the Battle of the Somne,

    所以英軍他們自己的漫長且殘忍的戰爭:索姆河戰役

  • with 60,000 British casualties on just the first day.

    僅在第一天便造成6萬英軍傷亡

  • It was also here that the British first used one crazy brand-new piece of Sci-Fi technology.

    這場也是英軍第一次使用一個瘋狂且全新的科幻科技的戰爭 (坦克)

  • The Russians had been getting pushed back further and further into their own territory,

    俄軍開始被後推到越來越靠近他們自己的領土了

  • but in response to the French call for help,

    但為了回應法軍的呼救

  • they began a huge offensive

    他們開始了一次浩大的攻勢 (勃魯希洛夫攻勢)

  • and did really well until they ran out of supplies and got stuck.

    而他們做的不錯,直到他們補給耗盡並卡在那裏

  • Seeing how well the Russians have been doing

    看看俄軍做的多棒啊

  • Romania decided now would be a great time to jump in on win the war.

    羅馬尼亞決定現在是個絕佳的時機參戰並贏得戰爭

  • And then they got pounded.

    然後他們就被打爆了 (真的無言了)

  • The Greeks were fighting amongst themselves about whether to join the war or not

    希臘因為要不要加入戰爭,因而內部分裂成兩派

  • The king liked the Central powers while the prime minister wanted to join the Allies.

    國王親近同盟國,但首相想加入協約國

  • After a brief national Schism during which the country split into two,

    在一個簡短的國家內部分裂後,國家分裂成兩部分

  • the king finally abdicated and the country reunited.

    國王終於退位而國家重新統一

  • With Allied help they began a new offensive.

    有了協約國的幫助,他們開始了新一波的攻勢

  • In the Middle East, Russia was pushing into Ottoman territory from the North.

    在中東,俄國在從北方入侵鄂圖曼帝國

  • The British had also made a landing in Mesopotamia to protect Persia's oil fields.

    英國也在美索不達米亞地區登陸來保護在波斯的油田

  • And they'd also sent a small army up the Tigris river to try to take Baghdad

    而他們也派了一小批軍隊渡過了底格里斯河並嘗試佔領巴格達

  • but the army got sieged in the town of Kut along the way

    但英軍在庫特鎮遭到包圍

  • And eventually surrendered.

    並最終投降了

  • A new offensive was launched from the south with all-out desert warfare.

    一次新的攻勢在南方展開 且是個須全力以赴的沙漠戰場

  • The offensive was aided by one famous British officer, better known as Lawrence of Arabia,

    這場攻勢是由一位有名的英軍軍官所協助進行,更為人所知的名字是[阿拉伯的勞倫斯]

  • who helped to lead the Arab tribes in a revolt that wreaked Havoc on the Ottoman supply lines.

    協助領導阿拉伯部落群起抵抗並摧毀了鄂圖曼的補給線

  • By the time 1917 rolled around everyone was exhausted.

    在1917年的時候,所有人都已疲累了

  • There are mutinies in the French army, the German populace was starving,

    法軍軍中發生兵變,德國國民正在挨餓

  • and the war had drained all of Russia's supplies.

    而戰爭已經將俄國的所有補給耗盡了 (食物 彈藥 士氣)

  • There is no clear winner, and it was still anyone's war.

    這裡沒有一個清靜的冬天 仍然是各國的戰爭

  • The only question now was: Who is going to break first?

    唯一的問題是:誰會率先打破僵局˙?

  • And the answer was: Russia.

    答案是俄國

  • Tired of not eating and mad that a crazy magic homeless guy was calling some of the shots

    因為飢餓所帶來的疲勞 讓一個瘋狂且會魔法的無家可歸的人想要吸引一些注意力 (拉斯普京)

  • there was an uprising in Petrograd complete with riots and strikes.

    在彼得格勒(現為聖彼得堡)發生了一次起義,伴隨著暴動與鎮壓

  • The riots turned into a full-scale revolution

    此場起義轉變為了一場全面革命

  • and a new government overthrew the Tsar.

    然後新政府推翻了沙皇 (自由!)

  • Then a few months later the Bolsheviks overthrew the new government.

    然後幾個月後,布爾什維克推翻了新政府 (共產!)

  • And they pulled Russia out of the war.

    然後他們讓俄國退出了戰爭

  • This was great news for Germany that now only had to focus on the western front.

    這對德國而言是個好消息,現在他們只需要專心對付西線了

  • But there was still one problem:

    但仍然有一個問題

  • The pesky United States of America was looking increasingly like it was going to join the war.

    那討厭的美國看起來參戰意念正在日益增加

  • America had been selling supplies to the Allies throughout the war

    美國已經在戰中賣了許多的補給給協約國

  • and was getting super rich off the back of it.

    讓他們變的超級有錢

  • Meaning it was in fantastic shape and was dangerous to the Germans.

    意即這對美國而言是個完美的型態,且嚴重威脅著德國

  • So Germany sent a telegram to Mexico saying:

    所以德國寄了則電報到墨西哥並說:

  • "Wouldn't it be crazy cool if you guys attacked America?"

    如果逆們攻擊美國的話,難刀這布會變DER炒枯的嗎? (如果你們攻擊美國的話,難道這不會變的超酷的嗎?)

  • But the British intercepted the message, showed it to the Americans, and that was the final straw.

    但英國接收到了這則電報,然後把這秀給了美國,而這是壓垮駱駝的最後一根稻草

  • American troops began shipping out to Europe.

    美國部隊開始橫渡大西洋,派往歐洲

  • This was terrible news for Germany.

    這對德國而言是個超級壞消息

  • And they knew their only hope now is to force France and the UK to surrender

    而且他們知道他們的唯一希望是強迫英法兩國投降,就在尚未訓練好的美國士兵訓練好之前

  • before the fresh American troops arrived. It was now or never.

    現在只能做,否則就沒機會了

  • So they started one final attack.

    所以他們開始了最後攻勢

  • They converged their troops and hit hard at the Somme

    他們匯集軍隊並強力攻打索姆河 (索姆河攻勢)

  • and pushed the Allies back.

    並將協約國戰線推了回去

  • They hit a second time for the north, then again, and again.

    然後他們在北方展開第二次攻勢,然後又一次 又一次

  • With each hit the germans were spending more and more resources

    每一次的攻勢,德軍都在消耗更多的資源

  • while the allies were getting better and better at repelling their attacks.

    但是協約國的軍力在變得越來越充足且能更好的反擊德國的攻勢

  • By the fifth punch, the Allies held the line and even pushed back.

    在第五次攻勢,協約國堅持住了戰線,甚至還反推了回去 (第二次馬恩河戰役與百日攻勢)

  • With American troops now arriving in larger numbers

    在大量的美軍士兵的來臨下

  • the Allies launched a counter-attack, and that was it.

    協約國展開了反攻

  • The central powers were being pushed back on all fronts.

    同盟國已無力反抗,所有戰線遭到全數反推

  • Bulgaria collapsed first, followed by the Ottoman Empire,

    保加利亞先投降了,接著是鄂圖曼帝國

  • then Austria-Hungary and finally on November 11th, 1918 at 11 o'clock, Germany surrendered.

    然後是奧匈帝國,而最終,1918年11月11日,在上午11點鐘,德國投降

  • At the peace treaty Germany was forced to

    在合約中,德國被迫縮減軍隊數量,承認戰爭罪行,並賠償巨額賠款 (凡爾賽條約)

  • reduce its military, accept war guilt, and pay the bill for the war.

    在無法形容的代價與百萬人的傷亡後,世界受到教訓了 (1700萬死亡,2000萬受傷)

  • After indescribable suffering and millions dead, the world learned its lesson

    並不再有那麼慘烈的戰爭了

  • and never had such an awful war again.

    但只持續了20年

  • For about 20 years.

With both sides stuck in a hard stalemate, they knew this war wasn't going to be about taking territory,

雙方陷入漫長的壕溝戰,他們知道這場戰爭不會因佔領他國領土而結束

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 德國 帝國 戰爭 俄國 保加利亞 英國

第一次世界大戰--過於簡單化(第二部分) (WW1 - Oversimplified (Part 2))

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    bfvjkg 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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