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  • His face is recognized all over the world.

    全世界都認得他的臉孔

  • The young medical student who became a revolutionary icon.

    一位年輕學子從醫界轉為革命領袖

  • But was Che Guevara a heroic champion of the poor

    但切・格瓦拉,究竟是為貧民喉舌的英雄革命家

  • or a ruthless warlord who left a legacy of repression?

    還是兇殘的軍閥,武力鎮壓貽害後代?

  • Order, order.

    肅靜,肅靜

  • Hey, where have I seen that guy before?

    嘿,我在哪見過這小子?

  • Ahem, your Honor, this is Ernesto Che Guevara.

    庭上,這是埃內斯托・格瓦拉

  • In the early 1950s,

    在 50 年代初期

  • he left behind a privileged life as a medical student in Argentina

    他離開了在阿根廷優渥的醫學生生活

  • to travel through rural Latin America.

    環遊拉丁美洲的鄉間

  • The poverty and misery he witnessed convinced him that saving lives

    途中所見的慘澹貧困,使他確信

  • required more than medicine.

    要救贖百姓,遠遠不止醫療

  • So he became a terrorist

    所以他成為了一名

  • seeking to violently overthrow the region's governments.

    以武力推翻當地政府的極端分子

  • What?

    甚麼?

  • The region's governments were brutal oligarchies.

    當地政府皆為蠻橫的寡頭

  • Colonialism may have formally ended,

    或許形式上殖民政府早已結束

  • but elites still controlled all the wealth.

    但上層階級仍然主宰了多數的財富

  • American corporations bought up land originally seized from indigenous people

    美國企業收購了原住民的土地

  • and used it for profit and export,

    作為私利及輸出買賣所用

  • even keeping most of it uncultivated while locals starved.

    放任當地居民飢貧仍不耕種

  • Couldn't they vote to change that?

    他們能藉由民主投票方式改變現狀嗎?

  • Oh, they tried, your Honor.

    噢,他們試過了,庭上

  • In 1953, Che came to Guatemala

    在 1953 年,切・格瓦拉來到瓜地馬拉

  • under the democratically-elected government of President Árbenz.

    當時,阿本斯因民主投票出任總統

  • Árbenz passed reforms to redistribute

    阿本斯重新分配土地

  • some of this uncultivated land back to the people

    將未經耕作的土地還給居民

  • while compensating the landowners.

    同時賠償給地主

  • But he was overthrown in a CIA-sponsored coup.

    但接著他被 CIA (美國中情局) 支持的政變推翻了

  • The military was protecting against the seizure of private property

    軍人阻止掠奪私人財產

  • and communist takeover.

    共產黨取得政權

  • They were protecting corporate profits

    他們保衛美國公司的財產

  • and Che saw that they would use the fear of communism

    切・格瓦拉看見 CIA 利用人們對共產黨的恐懼

  • to overthrow any government that threatened those profits.

    推翻任何威脅到利益的政府

  • So he took the lessons of Guatemala with him to Mexico.

    切格瓦拉帶著他在瓜地馬拉學到的經驗,前往墨西哥

  • There, he met exiled Cuban revolutionaries

    在那,他結識了流亡的古巴革命軍

  • and decided to help them liberate their country.

    並決定要幫助他們解放古巴

  • You mean help Fidel Castro turn a vibrant Cuba into a dictatorship.

    你是說,幫助卡斯楚把原本充滿活力的古巴,變成獨裁統治

  • Dictatorship was what Cuba had before the revolution.

    古巴的獨裁政體,早在革命前就有了

  • Fulgencio Batista was a tyrant who came to power in a military coup.

    巴蒂斯塔是個暴虐的軍閥領導人,他透過軍事政變奪取政權

  • He turned Havana into a luxury playground for foreigners

    他讓哈瓦那 (古巴首都) 成為外國人的極樂之地

  • while keeping Cubans mired in poverty and killing thousands in police crackdowns.

    同時讓古巴子民陷入貧困,並在警力鎮壓中殺害千人

  • Even President Kennedy called it the worst example

    甘迺迪總統甚至譴責

  • of "economic colonization, humiliation, and exploitation in the world."

    「這是以殖民式經濟方式操弄,世上最羞恥、自私的示範。」

  • Whatever Batista's faults,

    但巴蒂斯塔的錯

  • it can't compare to the totalitarian nightmare Castro would create.

    也比不上卡斯楚夢靨般的極權領導

  • Forced labor camps, torture of prisoners, no freedom to speak or to leave.

    勞改營、虐待囚犯、限制言語行動自由

  • But this isn't the trial of Fidel Castro, is it?

    但這是卡斯楚的問題吧!

  • Che Guevara was instrumental in helping Castro seize power.

    切・格瓦拉從旁協助卡斯楚

  • As a commander in his guerilla army,

    作為游擊兵的指揮官

  • he unleashed a reign of terror across the countryside,

    他從鄉間發動恐怖統治

  • killing any suspected spies or dissenters.

    殺害所有涉嫌的間諜或叛國者

  • He also helped peasants build health clinics and schools,

    他也同時幫助農夫建蓋診所及學校

  • taught them to read,

    教導他們閱讀

  • and even recited poetry to them.

    甚至朗誦詩詞給他們聽

  • His harsh discipline was necessary against a much stronger enemy

    他嚴厲的風紀是必須的,因為他更為強大的敵人

  • who didn't hesitate to burn entire villages suspected of aiding the rebels.

    不惜燒光整個村莊只因其涉嫌幫助叛國賊

  • Let's not forget that the new regime held mass executions

    別忘了新一任的統治者,在 1959 年拿下政權時,

  • and killed hundreds of people without trial

    就展開了大屠殺

  • as soon as they took power in 1959.

    並未經審判就殺害數百人

  • The executed were officials and collaborators

    被判死的是官員與

  • who had tormented the masses under Batista.

    在巴蒂斯塔的統治下凌虐百姓的其他同夥人

  • The people supported this revolutionary justice.

    人們支持這復仇式的正義

  • Which people?

    哪些人?

  • An angry mob crying for blood does not a democracy make.

    激昂嗜血的暴徒,無法代表真正的民主

  • And that's not even mentioning the forced labor camps,

    更不用說長年被壓迫的勞改者

  • arbitrary arrests,

    遭任意逮捕的受害者

  • and repression of LGBT people that continued long after the revolution.

    壓抑的同志族群,同樣盼望革命

  • There's a reason people kept risking their lives to flee,

    這就是為甚麼人們願意冒著生命危險出逃

  • often with nothing but the clothes on their backs.

    逃跑時除了身上的衣著外一無所有

  • So was that all this Che brought to Cuba?

    這是切・格瓦拉在古巴的所有作為了嗎?

  • Just another violent dictatorship?

    就是另一個凶暴的獨裁政權?

  • Not at all.

  • He oversaw land redistribution,

    他監督土地改革,重新分配

  • helped established universal education,

    協助建立全民教育

  • and organized volunteer literacy brigades that raised Cuba's literacy rate to 96%,

    組織教育志工,將古巴識字率提升到 96%

  • still one of the highest in the world.

    至今仍是世界識字率最高的國家之一

  • Which allowed the government to control what information everyone received.

    這也使得政府能控制訊息內容,傳遞給民眾

  • Guevara's idealistic incompetence as Finance Minister

    切格瓦拉的理想主義,不適合擔任財政部長

  • caused massive drops in productivity

    任內生產力大幅下降

  • when he replaced worker pay raises with moral certificates.

    因為他道德證書取代調漲的工資

  • He suppressed all press freedom,

    他壓制了新聞

  • declaring that newspapers were instruments of the oligarchy.

    主張報章是寡頭用來操控政治的工具

  • And it was he who urged Castro to host Soviet nuclear weapons,

    切・格瓦拉也同時鼓吹卡斯楚擁護蘇聯的核子武器

  • leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis

    導致古巴飛彈危機

  • that brought the world to the brink of destruction.

    將世界推向毀滅的邊緣

  • He was a leader, not a bureaucrat.

    他是領導人,不是官僚

  • That's why he eventually left to spread the revolution abroad.

    這就是切・格瓦拉最終離開古巴,在其他國家延續革命

  • Which didn't go well.

    但沒有成功啊

  • He failed to rally rebels in the Congo

    他在剛果重振反抗軍時失敗了

  • and went to Bolivia even when the Soviets disapproved.

    再到玻利維亞,即便蘇聯不同意

  • The Bolivian Government, with the help of the CIA,

    玻利維亞政府因著 CIA 的協助

  • was able to capture and neutralize this terrorist in 1967,

    在 1967 年,得以逮捕、並歸化切・格瓦拉這個極端革命份子

  • before he could do much damage.

    搶先在他釀成更多悲劇前

  • While doing plenty of damage themselves in the process.

    但他們自己也帶來很多傷害

  • So that was the end of it?

    所以事情就這樣結束了?

  • Not at all. As Che said, the revolution is immortal.

    此言非矣。切格瓦拉曾說:「革命不死。」

  • He was publicly mourned in cities all over the world.

    他去世時,世界各地都有人哀悼

  • Not by the Cubans who managed to escape.

    除了成功出逃的古巴人

  • And his story would inspire young activists for generations to come.

    它的故事激勵世世代代的年輕社運人士

  • Ha. A trendy symbol of rebellion for those who never had to live under his regime.

    呵,也就是被那些從未被他領導的人當成反抗的流行標誌

  • Symbols of revolution may become commodified

    革命的標誌,可能被商品化了

  • but the idea of a more just world remains.

    但對於一個更正義的世界的想像卻還在

  • Maybe, but I'm not sharing my coffee.

    或許吧,但我不打算跟你分享咖啡

  • Che Guevara was captured and executed by government forces in Bolivia.

    切・格瓦拉在玻利維亞被逮並處決

  • His remains would not be found for another 30 years.

    他的遺體遲了三十年才被找到

  • But did he die a hero or had he already become a villain?

    他是從容就義或是早該以死謝罪?

  • And should revolutions be judged by their ideals or their outcomes?

    人們該以理想初衷或是行動結果評價革命家?

  • These are the questions we face when we put history on trial.

    這些問題就交由歷史論定

His face is recognized all over the world.

全世界都認得他的臉孔

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 古巴 卡斯楚 政權 玻利維亞 政府

【TED-Ed】歷史與切格瓦拉 (History vs. Che Guevara - Alex Gendler)

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    湯承恩 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 13 日
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