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  • On these African plains some 60,000 years ago our ancestors began migrating north.

    LEMMiNO

  • A trek that would ultimately give rise to modern day civilization. And it's nothing short of

    "千萬別忘了"

  • a miracle that we've progressed as far as we have, especially in such a short amount

    "原子彈的火光隨時都有可能來臨"

  • of time. It's really not that difficult to see why intelligent life may be extremely

    "它的閃光比太陽更亮,是你前所未見的"

  • sparse across the universe given how absurdly fortunate we've been. So many things could've

    "這點非常非常的重要"

  • gone wrong along the way and so many times it almost did.

    "說不定這顆炸彈會無預警的爆炸..."

  • On the morning of the 12th of August, 1883, Mexican astronomer, José Bonilla, was observing

    與世界末日擦身而過

  • the Sun when numerous UFOs began to sweep across the solar disk. The objects were surrounded

    大約在六萬年前的非洲平原,我們的祖先開始向北遷移

  • by a coronal haze and left behind a trailing mist. The phenomenon continued for two consecutive

    這個遷移,最終造就了所謂的現代文明

  • days and Bonilla counted 447 objects in total. As the event could not be explained the UFOs

    我們能取得如此成就,可說是一個奇蹟

  • were simply dismissed as birds, insects, or dust passing in front of the telescope.

    特別是在這麼短的時間內

  • But based upon Bonilla's description of the event coupled with an improved understanding of various

    由此不難以見得為何在整個宇宙中智慧生命竟如此稀少

  • astronomical phenomena, an article published in 2011 hypothesized that the objects where

    這需要多少荒謬的機緣巧合

  • fragments of a comet nearly colliding with the Earth. The only bodies in the solar system

    曾有好幾個剎那,我們可能就此覆滅

  • that leave trails and are surrounded by a bright haze are comets. And much like this

    而其中有那麼幾次,我們真的差點就掰了

  • comet observed in 2006, we now know that fragmentation is a frequent occurrence. It is estimated

    (1883年8月12日)

  • that the comet broke into more than 3,200 fragments ranging in size between 50-1000

    1883年8月12日的早晨,墨西哥天文學家何塞·包尼牙

  • meters in diameter and sailed past the earth at a distance of no more than a few thousand

    在觀察太陽時,發現大量不明飛行物體正從日面掠過

  • kilometers. Had only one of these fragments struck the planet, it could have resulted

    這些物體被日冕霾霧所壟罩,並留下一片尾霧

  • in millions of casualties. Had all or at least a significant portion of the fragments impacted

    這種現象持續兩天,包尼牙計算出總共有447個物體

  • the Earth, we're looking at an extinction level event.

    由於他無法解釋這個現象的起因

  • It's the middle of the Siberian taiga, around 7:00 AM, when a powerful explosion would lit

    這些不明飛行物體被單純的當作了從望遠鏡前 掠過的鳥、昆蟲或灰塵

  • up the sky. An eyewitness 65 kilometers away from the blast accounts that:

    然而,基於包尼牙對此次事件的描述 再輔以各種對天文現象的理解

  • "...the sky split in two and fire appeared high and wide over the forest. At that moment I became so

    一篇於2011年發表的文章認為

  • hot that I couldn't bear it, as if my shirt was on fire... I wanted to tear off my shirt

    那些是險些撞上地球的彗星碎片

  • and throw it down but then the sky shut closed. A strong thump sounded and I was thrown a few meters."

    在太陽系中唯一會留下霧尾並且被亮光霾霧所壟罩的 就只有彗星

  • Two decades later in 1927, the first expedition to the blast site would capture this footage.

    而就如在2006年觀測到的彗星那樣

  • Some 2000 km² of forest, some 80 million trees in total, had been completely

    我們現在已經知道彗星分裂是一個很普遍的狀況

  • fattened by the event. The broad consensus is that an asteroid or comet, less than 200 meters wide,

    據估計,這個彗星分裂成超過3200個碎塊

  • exploded a few kilometers above ground and produced a fireball as demonstrated in this simulation.

    直徑介於50至1000公尺之間

  • Transposed over New York City its destructive power becomes a lot more apparent.

    並在距離地面數千公里處航行

  • [Edward Lu] This one is a little bit harder to say. The one that..

    只要有一塊碎塊撞上了地球,就可能造成數百萬人的傷亡

  • Over Tunguska, the one that was slightly larger. Had that happened over a city.

    而如果是全部、或一定數量的碎塊撞上地球

  • Let's say New York City, we would have 7 million casualties.

    那絕對就是毀滅級別的狀況了

  • At least, whatever the population of New York City is, they would be gone.

    (1908年6月30日)

  • [Bill Nelson] Really?

    在西伯利亞針葉林中,大約早上七點

  • While the two bombs dropped on Japan marked a dramatic end to the war, they also marked the beginning

    一個劇烈的爆炸照亮的天空

  • of an entirely new kind of fear. A fear of annihilation by incompetence. Humans are fallible.

    一名身處爆炸處65公里遠的目擊者說道

  • We make mistakes. And knowing this, coupled with the realization that one mistake could

    "天空被切成了兩半、火焰在森林中燒得又高又廣"

  • result in apocalyptic levels of destruction, the likes of which had so far been reserved

    "剎那之間,我感受到一股我無法忍受的熱"

  • by nature, this new kind of fear was undeniably justified.

    "就好像我的襯衫著了火似的"

  • In early October of 1960 a new early warning system on Greenland had just become operational.

    "我正想把我的襯衫撕下來、丟在地上"

  • In the event that the Soviet Union should launch an attack against the United States,

    "但緊接著天空又閉了起來"

  • a level 5 warning would be sent to the command center located in Colorado. On October the 5th,

    "隨著一股巨響,我被扔飛了幾公尺遠"

  • the number on the display suddenly changed from 0 to 1. Indicating that a low-risk unidentified

    二十年後,1927年,終於有第一支考察隊來到爆炸現場 捕捉這些畫面

  • object had been detected. A bit strange but no immediate cause for alarm. But then the

    占地約2000平方公里的森林,約8000多萬棵樹木

  • number continued to climb until a level 5 warning was issued, meaning that long-range

    在這次爆炸後被夷為平地

  • missiles would strike the United States in less than 20 minutes. The alert quickly worked

    大家普遍認為它是一個直徑不足200公尺的小行星或彗星

  • its way up the chain of command and a slight panic ensued. But it was quickly eased by

    在距離地表數公里處爆炸,並產生一團火球,如模擬所示

  • the realization that Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union at the time, was currently

    若換作落在紐約市的話,破壞力將是相當顯著的

  • visiting the United States. Not exactly where you'd expect him to be in the event of a nuclear attack.

    [盧傑] 這很難說...那個...通古斯卡大爆炸是屬於比較大的一次

  • 20 minutes passed and the value of bottle caps remained the same. A subsequent

    如果它落在一座城市上

  • investigation revealed that the base on Greenland had mistaken the rising Moon for an incoming Soviet attack.

    舉例來說,紐約吧,將會造成700萬人的傷亡

  • In the early morning of January the 24th, 1961, an American B-52 bomber carrying two

    至少,無論紐約人口有多少,他們都死定了

  • hydrogen bombs crashed into an empty field in the state of North Carolina. Officials

    [比爾·納爾遜] 真的?

  • quickly issued a report stating that there was no cause for alarm and that there was

    (1945年8月)

  • no danger of a nuclear explosion or radiation. However, declassified documents released in

    當兩枚原子彈落在日本時,戰爭戲劇性的結束了

  • 2013, reveal that one of the two bombs actually came extremely close to a full scale detonation.

    他們同時也象徵著一種新型態恐懼的開始

  • Three out of four safety switches erroneously activated upon impact with the ground and

    在毀滅面前毫無抵抗之力的恐懼

  • the slight separation of two wires was the only thing standing in the way of a nuclear

    人類是容易犯錯的生物,我們犯過不少錯誤

  • explosion. Had this 3.8 Mt bomb detonated, and had the wind condition been just right,

    要知道,再加上我們意識到犯下某個錯誤

  • the radioactive fallout could've reached Washington, Philadelphia, and even New York.

    可能會引發毀滅世界的末日

  • In the early 1960s, tensions between the US and the Soviet Union is strained to the breaking

    至今自然演化而來的一切將不復存在

  • point and culminated in a situation known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. It is perhaps

    這個新的恐懼無疑是合理的

  • the closest we've ever come to committing omnicide. The short version is that the US

    (1960年10月5日)

  • installed nuclear missiles near the Soviet union, specifically in Turkey, so in response,

    1960年10月初,格陵蘭島上的一個新的早期預警系統 剛剛開始運作

  • the Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles near the United States, specifically in Cuba.

    如果蘇聯意圖對美國發動攻擊

  • The US would have none of that. "Hey, you can't do that! Only we are allowed to do that!"

    等級5的警報將會發送至位於科羅拉多的指揮中心

  • said the United States. "I don't know what you're talking about?" the Soviet Union replied.

    10月5日,顯示器上的數字突然從0變成了1

  • I'm paraphrasing of course as these where classified communications.

    這意味著有一個低風險身分不明的對象已被偵測

  • While the impasse in and of itself came extremely close to disaster,

    有些奇怪,但並不足以立刻發送警報

  • one specific event stands out. After the US imposed a blockade to prevent the Soviet Union

    但隨後這個數字繼續攀升,直到顯示5級警報

  • from exporting even more missiles to Cuba, a Soviet submarine was detected near Cuban

    這意味著遠程導彈將在20分鐘內落在美國本土

  • shores. In an attempt to force the submarine to surface so that they could have a friendly

    警報迅速的起到了指揮的作用

  • chat, multiple US naval destroyers dropped low intensity explosives to signal the submarine

    隨之而來的則是些許的恐慌

  • to surface. However, the captain of the submarine misinterpreted this as an attack and ordered

    但很快的他們就意識到尼基塔·赫魯雪夫

  • his men to retaliate against one of the US destroyers by launching a nuclear-armed torpedo.

    即當時的蘇聯領導人,正好出訪美國

  • Fortunately, one of the two senior officers aboard disagreed with the captain's decision

    不用說,當發生核攻擊時,你會期望他在哪裡?

  • and eventually managed to convince him that they should surface and await orders form

    Fallout的梗) 20分鐘過去了,瓶蓋的價值依然保持不變

  • Moscow. And that's exactly what they did and thus the apocalypse had to reschedule.

    隨後的調查顯示,格陵蘭島基地錯把上升的月亮 當成了蘇聯的攻擊

  • On May the 23rd, 1967, all of the early warning systems across the United States ceased to function.

    (1961年1月24日)

  • In fact, all manner of military communications and radar technology malfunction

    1961年1月24日凌晨

  • simultaneously and it was interpreted as intentional jamming by the Soviets. Bomber planes immediately

    攜帶兩枚氫彈的美國B-52轟炸機

  • scrambled and prepared to launch an attack. But as luck would have it just a few years prior, a branch of the US

    墜毀在北卡羅萊納州的一個空地

  • military had begun observing solar activity and its effects on the Earth. And on this

    官方很快地就發出一份公告表示毋須恐慌

  • day in 1967, the Sun had ejected a powerful solar storm that had stuck the planet and

    沒有發生核爆或輻射洩漏的危險

  • knocked out military defenses and other equipment. Had a project for something as unrelated as

    然而,在2013年發布的解密文件中指出

  • studying the Sun been delayed for just a few years, no one could've explained this nationwide

    兩枚炸彈的其中一枚其實已經處於啟動爆炸的邊緣

  • interference in time to prevent World War III.

    有四分之三的安全開關在與地面碰撞時遭到破壞

  • In the mid 1980s squadrons of US aircrafts would often fly straight towards Soviet airspace,

    僅存兩條稍稍分離的電線,是唯一阻礙核彈爆炸的關卡

  • thus triggering their early warning systems, only to turn around at the very last moment.

    如果這個3.8公噸的炸藥引爆且風向正好的話

  • A form of psychological warfare that kept the Soviets on edge for an attack. In the

    放射性汙染可以會擴散到華盛頓、費城,甚至是紐約

  • early hours of September the 26th, 1983, the command center just outside Moscow was awoken

    (1962年10月16~28日)

  • by the sound of an alarm.

    1960年代初期,美蘇之間的局勢緊張

  • An intercontinental ballistic missile had just been launched by

    並爆發了一場危機,稱之為古巴飛彈危機

  • the US and was now heading towards the Soviet Union. In the event of a nuclear attack by

    (Omnicide 由人類導致人類滅絕的行為) 這可能是人類史上最接近「Omnicide」的時刻

  • the Americans it was standard procedure to launch an immediate counter-attack. It was

    基本上就是美國在蘇聯附近的土耳其設置了核導彈

  • now up to the man in charge, Stanislav Petrov, to contact his superiors and to inform them

    所以作為回應,蘇聯就在美國附近的古巴架設核導彈

  • that a nuclear attack was imminent. A few minutes passed when four additional missiles

    美國當然不會同意他這麼做

  • were detected. However, Petrov decided to go against his training and did nothing.

    美國說 "嘿,你不可以這樣,只有我才能這麼玩!"

  • He reasoned that if the United States were to strike, the attack would likely involve hundreds

    蘇聯則回覆 "我不知道你在公三小?"

  • of missiles, not just a few. In other words, he suspected that this was a false-alarm.

    我所轉述的當然是他們之間通訊解碼後的意思

  • But as he had no way of confirming his suspicions, he could only wait and hope for the best.

    雖然這整個僵局已經夠災難了

  • Fortunately, Petrov was correct in his assumption as evident by the fact that you are currently

    但其中一次事件成了整件事的爆發點

  • breathing and a subsequent investigation revealed that sunlight, reflecting of off high altitude

    在美國對古巴進行封鎖以防蘇聯向古巴出口更多導彈後

  • clouds, was responsible for the anomaly.

    在古巴海岸附近發現了一艘蘇聯潛艦

  • On March the 31st, 1989, two American astronomers discovered that a week prior, on March the 22nd,

    他們打算將潛艦逼出來,以便進行友好的交流

  • a 300 meters wide asteroid had come fairly close to the Earth. It had not come

    數艘美國的驅逐艦投放了訓練用的魚雷

  • close enough to pose any risk of impact and was even further away than the Moon but it's

    以迫使潛艦浮出水面

  • still worth a mention as it passed through the exact position that the Earth had occupied

    然而,潛艦的艦長誤以為這是攻擊信號

  • a mere six hours prior. Which is in and of itself extraordinarily close on the comic scale.

    並下令對這些驅逐艦展開反擊,發射一枚核武魚雷

  • An impact with an asteroid of this size would obliterate almost everything within

    幸運的是,兩名高級船員中有一位反對艦長的指令

  • a radius of 60-75 kilometers. Superimposed over Tokyo, one of the largest cities on Earth,

    最後還說服他們應該等待莫斯科的命令

  • it looks like it would've been a rough day.

    這就是整件事的經過,我們又逃過了一次末日啟示

  • Some of you may remember that a few years ago there was a lot of eschatological prophecies

    (1967年5月23日)

  • that the world would end in 2012. While the world is still spinning, as evident by the

    1967年5月23日,美國所有的早期預警系統全部停止運作

  • rotation of this globe, we did narrowly escape a catastrophic event in July of 2012. On the

    事實上,各種軍事通訊設備和雷達在同一時間發生故障

  • 23rd of July the Sun expelled something known as a coronal mass ejection or CME for short.

    他們將這個狀況被解讀為蘇聯的蓄意干擾

  • A CME is a release of large quantities of magnetized plasma and if it strikes the Earth

    轟炸機已經加滿油,準備好發動攻擊了

  • it can cause some serious damage to any and all electronic devices.

    但幸運的是,幾年前正好有個美軍的部門

  • This was also one of the most powerful CMEs in recorded history.

    專門在研究太陽活動對地球的影響

  • And it blasted straight through the Earth's orbit.

    而在1967年的這一天,太陽發射出了一個強大的太陽風暴

  • Luckily for us, the Earth was on the other side when that eruption occurred but

    壟罩了地球,並破壞了軍事防禦等設施

  • due to the rotation of the Sun, had this eruption occurred just 9 days prior, we would've been

    要是這個研究被某個和太陽無關的項目延誤了幾年

  • engulfed by that storm. If that had happened, and there's a 12% chance that it will happen in the

    就沒有人能及時解釋這個全國性的干擾 進而阻止第三次世界大戰發生

  • next 10 years, it could've taken us as much as a decade to fully recover. It's difficult

    (1983年9月26日)

  • to overstate the ramifications of a CME on this scale. Worldwide power outages would

    1980年代中期,美國的飛機中隊時常會闖入蘇聯的領空

  • take weeks, months, or even years to resolve. Many satellites would have to be replaced.

    除發了他們的早期預警系統後,在最後一刻轉身離去

  • Electronic equipment of all kinds would cease to function seemingly over night.

    這是一種讓蘇聯人感受到處於進攻邊緣的心理戰

  • Medical, transportational, financial, military, national security, and other critical systems would

    而在1983年9月26日凌晨

  • all be compromised or destroyed. Society would grind to a halt...

    莫斯科指揮中心的警報聲突然響起

  • ...and be literally plunged into darkness for years to come.

    美國剛剛發射了一枚洲際道導彈

  • Given how dependent we've become on electricity and various technologies

    正朝著蘇聯的方向飛去

  • like the internet, it's difficult to image anything but global panic and chaos. It would

    當美國方發動核武攻擊時,他們的標準程序是即刻反擊

  • not have been the end of the world but it would no doubt have felt like it.

    當前的負責人叫做斯坦尼斯拉夫·彼得羅夫

  • Declassified documents reveal that the US military has had over a thousand close calls

    應該要聯繫他的上級長官,告訴他們核攻擊迫在眉睫

  • with nuclear weapons since the 1950s. Over a thousand times when cataclysmic devastation

    幾分鐘後,又有另外四枚導彈被檢測到

  • was just narrowly avoided. And who knows how many near accidents the Russian military have

    然而,彼得羅夫決定違反他的訓練,不做任何回報

  • experienced or any of the other nuclear weapon states. Coupled with the destructive power

    他推斷,如果美國打算要發動攻擊的話

  • of natural events, it is truly a miracle that we've come as far as we have.

    那這次攻擊會檢測到的應該要是數百枚導彈 而非少少幾枚

On these African plains some 60,000 years ago our ancestors began migrating north.

LEMMiNO

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啟示錄》中的牧草 (Grazed by the Apocalypse)

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    shes96011 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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