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  • "We are hurtling toward the day when climate change could be irreversible."

    "我們正朝著氣候變化可能不可逆轉的那一天前進。"

  • "Rising sea levels already altering this nation’s coast."

    "海平面上升已經改變了這個國家的海岸"

  • "China’s capital is choking in its worst pollution of the year."

    "中國的首都在今年最嚴重的汙染中窒息。"

  • "5% of species will become extinct."

    "5%的物種會滅絕"

  • "Sea levels rising, glaciers melting."

    "海平面上升,冰川融化。"

  • Okay.

    好吧,我知道了

  • Enough.

    足夠的。

  • I get it.

    我明白了。

  • It’s not like I don’t care about polar bears and melting ice caps.

    我又不是不關心北極熊和冰蓋融化的問題。

  • I’m a conservation scientist, so of course I care.

    我是一個保護科學家,所以我當然關心。

  • I’ve dedicated my entire career to this.

    我的整個職業生涯都獻給了這個。

  • But over the years, one thing has become clear to me: We need to change the way we talk about

    但這些年來,有一件事我已經很清楚了。我們需要改變我們談論的方式

  • climate change.

    氣候變化;

  • This doom-and-gloom messaging just isn’t working; we seem to want to tune it out.

    這種悲觀的資訊傳遞就是沒有用,我們似乎想把它調出來。

  • And this fear, this guilt, we know from psychology is not conducive to engagement.

    而這種恐懼,這種內疚,我們從心理學上知道是不利於參與的。

  • It's rather the opposite.

    它'而是相反。

  • It makes people passive, because when I feel fearful or guilt-full, I will withdraw from

    這讓人很被動,因為當我感到恐懼或充滿罪惡感時,我會退出

  • the issue and try to think about something else that makes me feel better.

    的問題,並嘗試去想一些其他的事情,讓我感覺更好。

  • And with a problem this overwhelming, it’s pretty easy to just turn away and kick the

    而面對這樣一個讓人難以接受的問題,很容易就會轉身離開,然後踢掉。

  • can down the road.

    可以在路上。

  • Somebody else can deal with it.

    別人可以處理。

  • So it’s no wonder that scientists and policymakers have been struggling with this issue too.

    所以,難怪科學家和政策制定者也一直在努力解決這個問題。

  • So I like to say that climate change is the policy problem from hell.

    所以我喜歡說,氣候變化是來自地獄的政策問題。

  • You almost couldn't design a worse problem as a fit with our underlying psychology or

    你幾乎不能設計一個更糟糕的問題,作為一個符合我們的基本心理或。

  • the way our institutions make decisions.

    我們的機構決策的方式。

  • Many Americans continue to think of climate change as a distant problem: distant in time,

    許多美國人仍然認為氣候變化是一個遙遠的問題:在時間上是遙遠的。

  • that the impacts won't be felt for a generation or more; and distant in space, that this is

    在一代人或更多的人中,不會感覺到影響;而在遙遠的空間中,這是不可能的。

  • about polar bears or maybe some developing countries.

    關於北極熊或者一些開發中國家。

  • Again, it’s not like we don’t care about these thingsit’s just such a complicated

    再說一遍,我們不是不關心這些事情----------就是這麼複雜

  • problem.

    問題。

  • But the thing is, weve faced enormous, scary climate issues before.

    但問題是,我們以前也面臨過巨大的、可怕的氣候問題。

  • Remember the hole in the ozone layer?

    還記得臭氧層的洞嗎?

  • As insurmountable as that seemed in the 1970s and ’80s, we were able to wrap our heads

    雖然這在70年代和80年代看來是不可逾越的,但我們還是能夠做到的

  • around that and take action.

    左右,並採取行動。

  • People got this very simple, easy to understand, concrete image of this protective layer around

    人們得到了這個非常簡單、易懂、具體的形象,這個保護層的周圍。

  • the Earth, kind of like a roof, protecting us, in this case, from ultraviolet light,

    地球,有點像一個屋頂,保護我們,在這種情況下,從紫外線。

  • which by the way has the direct health consequence of potentially giving you skin cancer.

    順便說一下,這有直接的健康後果 潛在的給你的皮膚癌。

  • Okay, so now you've got my attention.

    好了,現在你已經引起我的注意了。

  • And so then they came up with this fabulous term, theozone hole.”

    於是他們想出了這個美妙的詞,"臭氧洞"。

  • Terrible problem, great term.

    可怕的問題,偉大的名詞。

  • People also got a concrete image of how we even ended up with this problem.

    大家也有了一個具體的印象,我們甚至最後怎麼解決了這個問題。

  • For decades, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, were the main ingredient in a lot of products,

    幾十年來,氟氯化碳或氟氯化碳是許多產品的主要成分。

  • like aerosol spray cans.

    如氣霧劑噴罐。

  • Then scientists discovered that CFCs were actually destroying the atmospheric ozone.

    後來科學家發現,氟氯化碳實際上是在破壞大氣中的臭氧。

  • People could look at their own hairspray and say, “Do I want to destroy the planet because

    人們可以看著自己的髮膠說:"我想毀掉這個星球,因為

  • of my hairspray?

    我的髮膠的?

  • I mean, god no.”

    我的意思是,神不。"

  • And so what's interesting is that sales of hairspray and those kinds of products and

    所以什麼'有趣的是,銷售的髮膠和這些種類的產品和。

  • underarm aerosols started dropping quite dramatically.

    腋下氣溶膠開始大幅下降。

  • People listened to scientists and took action.

    人們聽取了科學家的意見,並採取了行動。

  • Now scientists predict that the hole in the ozone layer will be healed around 2050.

    現在科學家們預測,臭氧層的漏洞將在2050年左右被治癒。

  • That’s actually pretty amazing.

    這其實是很神奇的。

  • And while stopping the use of one product is actually pretty easy, climate change caused

    而停止使用一種產品其實很容易,但氣候變化造成的

  • by greenhouse gasesthat’s much trickier.

    由溫室氣體......那就棘手多了。

  • Because the sources are more complicated, and for the most part, theyre totally invisible.

    因為來源比較複雜,而且大部分情況下,完全看不到。

  • Right now, there is CO2 pouring out of tailpipes, there is CO2 pouring out of buildings,

    現在,尾氣管裡有二氧化碳湧出,建築物裡有二氧化碳湧出。

  • there is CO2 pouring out of smokestacks, but you can't see it.

    有二氧化碳倒出煙囪,但你不能'看到它。

  • The fundamental cause of this problem is largely invisible to most of us.

    這個問題的根本原因,我們大多數人是看不到的。

  • I mean, if CO2 was black, we would have dealt with this issue a long time ago.

    我的意思是,如果二氧化碳是黑色的,我們早就處理好這個問題了。

  • So CO2 touches every part of our livesour cars, the places we work, the food we eat.

    是以,二氧化碳涉及到我們生活的每一個部分--我們的汽車、我們工作的地方、我們吃的食物。

  • For now, let’s just focus on one thing: our energy use.

    現在,我們只關注一件事:我們的能源使用。

  • How do we make that visible?

    我們如何讓人看到?

  • That was the initial goal of UCLA’s Engage project, one of the nation’s largest behavioral

    這是加州大學洛杉磯分校的Engage項目的最初目標,該項目是全國最大的行為學項目之一。

  • experiments in energy conservation.

    能量守恆的實驗。

  • What we're trying to do is to figure out how to frame information about electricity usage

    我們正在努力做的是找出如何構架有關電力使用的資訊。

  • so that people save energy and conserve electricity.

    以便人們節約能源,節約用電。

  • The idea is that electricity is relatively invisible to people.

    觀念是,電對人們來說是比較隱形的。

  • The research team outfitted part of a student housing complex with meters that tracked real-time

    研究小組在一個學生宿舍樓的部分區域安裝了能實時跟蹤的儀表。

  • usage of appliances and then sent them weekly reports.

    電器的使用情況,然後每週向他們發送報告。

  • So you can see how much energy the stove used versus the dishwasher or the fridge.

    是以,你可以看到爐子與洗碗機或冰箱的能耗。

  • We realized, because of this project, the fridge was like the monster.

    我們意識到,因為這個項目,冰箱就像怪物一樣。

  • So lucky for them, their landlord upgraded their fridge to an energy-efficient one.

    所以他們很幸運,房東把他們的冰箱升級為節能冰箱。

  • They also learned other energy-saving tips, like unplugging their dishwasher when not

    他們還學習了其他節能小竅門,比如不使用洗碗機的時候就拔掉插頭。

  • in use and air-drying their clothes during the summer months.

    使用中,並在夏季晾晒衣服。

  • And researchers, in turn, discovered where people were willing to cut back.

    而研究人員,也發現了人們願意削減的地方。

  • The Engage project wanted to know what types of messaging could motivate people to change

    Engage項目想知道什麼類型的資訊可以激勵人們改變。

  • their behavior.

    他們的行為。

  • We wanted to see over time over a year and with repeated messages, how do people, behave?

    我們想通過一年的時間和反覆的資訊來看,人,是如何表現的?

  • How does that impact the consumer behavior?

    這對消費者的行為有何影響?

  • And what we found is that it's very different.

    而我們發現的是,它很不一樣'。

  • Some households were sent personalized emails with their energy bill about how they could

    一些家庭在收到能源賬單時,會收到個人化的電子郵件,告訴他們如何能夠

  • save money; others learned how their energy usage impacted the environment and children’s

    省錢;還有人瞭解到他們的能源使用對環境和兒童的影響。

  • health.

    健康。

  • Those who received messages about saving money did nothing.

    收到省錢資訊的人什麼也沒做。

  • It was totally ineffective because electricity is relatively cheap.

    因為電力相對便宜,所以完全沒有效果。

  • But emails sent that linked the amount of pollutants produced to rates of childhood

    但發送的電子郵件,將汙染物的產生量與兒童的發病率聯繫起來。

  • asthma and cancerwell, those led to an 8% drop in energy use, and 19% in households

    哮喘和癌症--這些導致能源使用量下降了8%,在家庭中下降了19%。

  • with kids.

    與孩子們。

  • Now, in a separate study, researchers brought social competition into the mix.

    現在,在一項單獨的研究中,研究人員將社會競爭引入其中。

  • First, they hung posters around a dorm building to publicly showcase how students were really

    首先,他們在一棟宿舍樓周圍懸掛海報,公開展示學生的真實情況

  • doing: red dots for energy wasters, green for those doing a good job, and a shiny gold

    做:紅點代表能量浪費者,綠點代表做得好的人,還有一個閃亮的金點

  • star for those going above and beyond.

    星為那些超越的人。

  • This social pressure approach led to a 20% reduction in energy use.

    這種社會壓力的方法使能源使用量減少了20%。

  • This strategy was also used at Paulina’s complex, and it definitely brought out her

    這個策略也被用在了寶琳娜的情結上,這無疑讓她的表現更加突出

  • competitive streak.

    競爭的連勝。

  • For me, the competition was what motivated me, because seeing your apartment number and

    對我來說,競爭是我的動力,因為看到你的公寓號和...

  • telling you that you are doing at the average, but you are not the best, was like, Why?

    告訴你,你是做在平均水平,但你不是最好的,是喜歡,為什麼?

  • I’m doing everything you are telling me to do.

    你讓我做的事情我都在做。

  • I always wanted the gold star, because it was like, “Oh, my god, I want to be like

    我一直想要金星,因為它就像,"哦,我的上帝,我想成為這樣的。

  • the less consumption of energy in the whole building.”

    整個建築的能源消耗越少"。

  • And psychology studies have proved this.

    而心理學研究已經證明了這一點。

  • We are social creatures, and as individualistic as we can be, turns out we do care about how

    我們是社會性動物,儘管我們可以是個人主義的,但事實證明,我們確實關心如何。

  • we compare to others.

    我們與他人相比。

  • And yes, we do like to be the best.

    是的,我們確實想成為最好的。

  • Some people don’t want to say, Oh, I'm like the average.

    有些人不想說,哦,我'像一般人一樣。

  • No, my usage is different and I want to be able to act on it.

    不,我的用法是不一樣的,我希望能夠行動起來。

  • And people can act on it because with these meters, they can now see their exact impact.

    而人們可以採取行動,因為有了這些儀表,他們現在可以看到他們的確切影響。

  • A company called Opower is playing with this idea of social competition.

    一家名為Opower的公司就在玩這種社會競爭的概念。

  • They work with over 100 utility companies to provide personalized energy reports to

    他們與超過100家公用事業公司合作,為客戶提供個性化的能源報告。

  • millions of customers around the world.

    全球數百萬客戶。

  • Now consumers can not only see their energy use but how it compares to their neighbors’.

    現在,消費者不僅可以看到自己的能源使用情況,還可以看到與鄰居的能源使用情況的比較。

  • Like the UCLA study found, this subtle social pressure encourages consumers to save energy.

    就像加州大學洛杉磯分校的研究發現的那樣,這種微妙的社會壓力鼓勵消費者節能。

  • It’s been so effective that in 2016, Opower was able to generate the equivalent of two

    它的效果非常好,在2016年,Opower能夠產生相當於兩臺

  • terawatt-hours of electricity savings.

    太瓦時的節電。

  • That’s enough to power every home in Miami for more than a year.

    這足以為邁阿密的每家每戶提供一年多的電力。

  • And theyre not alone.

    而且他們並不孤單。

  • Even large companies are tapping into behavioral science to move the dial.

    即使是大公司也在利用行為科學來移動錶盤。

  • Virgin Atlantic Airways gave a select group of pilots feedback on their fuel use.

    維珍大西洋航空公司向一組選定的飛行員反饋了他們的燃料使用情況。

  • Over the course of a year, they collectively saved over 6,800 tons of fuel by making some

    在一年的時間裡,他們共節約了6800多噸燃料,通過對一些。

  • simple changes: Adjusting their altitudes, routes, and speed

    簡單的變化。調整其高度、路線和速度。

  • reduced their carbon dioxide emissions by over 21,000 tons.

    減少了21,000多噸的二氧化碳排放量。

  • These behavioralnudgesdo seem to be advancing how we as a society deal with some

    這些行為上的 "點撥",似乎確實在推進我們這個社會如何處理一些。

  • pretty complicated climate change issues, but it turns out were just getting started.

    相當複雜的氣候變化問題,但事實證明,我們才剛剛開始。

  • There is noquick fix.”

    沒有 "速成 "的辦法。

  • We need people changing their companies, changing their business models, changing the products

    我們需要人們改變他們的公司,改變他們的商業模式,改變產品。

  • and services they provide.

    以及它們提供的服務。

  • This is about broader-scale change.

    這是關於更廣泛的變革。

  • And part of this change includes embracing what makes us human.

    而這種改變的一部分包括接受我們的人性。

  • That it can’t just be a guilt trip about dying polar bears or driving around in gas

    它不能只是一個關於北極熊死亡的內疚之旅,或者是在汽油中開車的旅行。

  • guzzlers.

    吞雲吐霧者。

  • We need to talk about our wins, as welllike how were making progress, really being

    我們需要談論我們的勝利,以及--比如我們如何取得進步,真正地成為

  • aware of our energy use, and taking advantage of that competitive spirit we all have in

    意識到我們的能源使用情況,並利用我們每個人都有的競爭精神。

  • order to really move us from a state of apathy to action.

    以便真正讓我們從冷漠狀態轉為行動。

  • Global warming is by far the biggest issue of our time.

    全球變暖是目前我們這個時代最大的問題。

  • Climate Lab is a new series from Vox and the University of California, and well be exploring

    氣候實驗室是Vox和加州大學的一個新系列,我們將探討

  • some surprising ways we can tackle this problem.

    我們可以用一些令人吃驚的方法來解決這個問題。

  • If you want to learn more, head to climate.universityofcalifornia.edu.

    如果你想了解更多,請前往氣候.universityofcalifornia.edu。

"We are hurtling toward the day when climate change could be irreversible."

"我們正朝著氣候變化可能不可逆轉的那一天前進。"

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 Vox 能源 氣候 二氧化碳 問題 變化

為何人們不擅長思考氣候變遷 (Why humans are so bad at thinking about climate change)

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    Kana kawai 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 01 日
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