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  • So, a few years ago I heard an interesting rumor.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yuyang Zhao

  • Apparently, the head of a large pet food company

    幾年前,我聽到了一個有趣的謠言。

  • would go into the annual shareholder's meeting

    似乎是,有一家大型 寵物食品公司的經理

  • with can of dog food.

    帶著一罐狗食去參加

  • And he would eat the can of dog food.

    年度股東大會。

  • And this was his way of convincing them that if it was good enough for him,

    然後他吃掉那罐狗食。

  • it was good enough for their pets.

    這是他以此說服股東, 如果這狗食對他而言夠好,

  • This strategy is now known as "dogfooding,"

    那對他們的寵物一定也夠好。

  • and it's a common strategy in the business world.

    這個策略現在被稱為 「使用自家產品」,(吃狗食)

  • It doesn't mean everyone goes in and eats dog food,

    是商業界常用的策略。

  • but businesspeople will use their own products

    這策略不表示每個人 都得要試吃狗食,

  • to demonstrate that they feel --

    而是商人要使用他們自己的產品,

  • that they're confident in them.

    來展現他們對於該產品

  • Now, this is a widespread practice,

    有足夠的信心。

  • but I think what's really interesting is when you find exceptions

    現在,這是一個十分普遍的做法,

  • to this rule,

    但是我認為真正有趣的 是找到這個規則的例外,

  • when you find cases of businesses or people in businesses

    就是當你找到企業或企業中的人

  • who don't use their own products.

    不使用自家產品的案例。

  • Turns out there's one industry where this happens in a common way,

    結果是有一個產業經常有這種現象,

  • in a pretty regular way,

    且發生頻率很高。

  • and that is the screen-based tech industry.

    那就是以螢幕為基礎的科技產業。

  • So, in 2010, Steve Jobs, when he was releasing the iPad,

    當史帝夫·賈伯斯 在 2010 年發表 iPad 時,

  • described the iPad as a device that was "extraordinary."

    他將 iPad 描述是 一個「超凡」的裝置。

  • "The best browsing experience you've ever had;

    「你不曾擁有過的最佳瀏覽體驗;

  • way better than a laptop, way better than a smartphone.

    遠勝過筆記型電腦, 遠勝過智慧型手機。

  • It's an incredible experience."

    它是一種不可思議的經驗。」

  • A couple of months later, he was approached by a journalist

    幾個月後,一位 紐約時報的記者採訪了他,

  • from the New York Times,

    他們在電話上談了很久。

  • and they had a long phone call.

    在通話結束前,

  • At the end of the call,

    那位記者問了一個問題, 感覺不痛不癢問題。

  • the journalist threw in a question that seemed like a sort of softball.

    記者對他說:「你的孩子 肯定非常喜愛 iPad。」

  • He said to him, "Your kids must love the iPad."

    這個問題的答案不言可喻,

  • There's an obvious answer to this,

    但是賈伯斯的回答卻讓記者很吃驚。

  • but what Jobs said really staggered the journalist.

    記者非常訝異,

  • He was very surprised,

    因為賈伯斯說: 「他們還沒用過 iPad。

  • because he said, "They haven't used it.

    我們限制孩子在家中 使用電子產品。」

  • We limit how much technology our kids use at home."

    在科技世界中,這非常常見。

  • This is a very common thing in the tech world.

    事實上,離矽谷很近的一所學校

  • In fact, there's a school quite near Silicon Valley

    叫做半島華德福學校。

  • called the Waldorf School of the Peninsula,

    他們不會讓學生 在八年級以前接觸到螢幕。

  • and they don't introduce screens until the eighth grade.

    這間學校真正有趣的一點是,

  • What's really interesting about the school

    75% 學生的家長

  • is that 75 percent of the kids who go there

    是矽谷的高階技術主管。

  • have parents who are high-level Silicon Valley tech execs.

    所以當我聽到這件事, 我覺得它非常有趣也令人驚訝。

  • So when I heard about this, I thought it was interesting and surprising,

    它促使我開始思考螢幕 對我、我的家人、我愛的人、

  • and it pushed me to consider what screens were doing to me

    以及對所有人有什麼影響。

  • and to my family and the people I loved,

    所以,在過去五年,

  • and to people at large.

    身為一個商業和心理學教授,

  • So for the last five years,

    我一直在研究螢幕對 我們的生活所產生的影響。

  • as a professor of business and psychology,

    我想先談談 我們在螢幕上花多少時間,

  • I've been studying the effect of screens on our lives.

    接著我們可以再談談 那些時間的狀況。

  • And I want to start by just focusing on how much time they take from us,

    我在這裡呈現給各位看的 是三個不同時間點的

  • and then we can talk about what that time looks like.

    一般 24 小時工作日:

  • What I'm showing you here is the average 24-hour workday

    2007 年,十年前──

  • at three different points in history:

    2015 年,

  • 2007 -- 10 years ago --

    以及我上週才收集的目前資料。

  • 2015

    很多東西的變化不大。

  • and then data that I collected, actually, only last week.

    我們每天大約睡 7.5 到 8 小時;

  • And a lot of things haven't changed

    有些人說這數字稍微下降了, 但變化不大。

  • all that much.

    我們每天工作 8.5 到 9 小時。

  • We sleep roughly seven-and-a-half to eight hours a day;

    我們從事的維生活動──

  • some people say that's declined slightly, but it hasn't changed much.

    像吃飯、洗澡、照顧小孩──

  • We work eight-and-a-half to nine hours a day.

    每天大約 3 小時。

  • We engage in survival activities --

    剩下的是白色的這段,

  • these are things like eating and bathing and looking after kids --

    那是我們的個人時間。

  • about three hours a day.

    這段時間對我們來說極重要。

  • That leaves this white space.

    我們用這段時間做一些 使我們獨特的事。

  • That's our personal time.

    我們用這段時間 進行嗜好,建立親密關係,

  • That space is incredibly important to us.

    真正思考我們的人生,產生創意,

  • That's the space where we do things that make us individuals.

    思考反省

  • That's where hobbies happen, where we have close relationships,

    我們的人生是否過得有意義。

  • where we really think about our lives, where we get creative,

    我們在工作中有時也做這些,

  • where we zoom back and try to work out

    但當人們在人生的盡頭,

  • whether our lives have been meaningful.

    回顧他們的人生,

  • We get some of that from work as well,

    好奇他們的人生是怎樣的,

  • but when people look back on their lives

    他們最後說什麼──

  • and wonder what their lives have been like

    他們會談到的是在 白色個人時間內發生的事。

  • at the end of their lives,

    所以那是很神聖的, 對我們很重要的。

  • you look at the last things they say --

    我接下來要給各位看的,

  • they are talking about those moments that happen in that white personal space.

    在歷史的不同時間點, 有多少個人時間被螢幕給佔據。

  • So it's sacred; it's important to us.

    在 2007 年,

  • Now, what I'm going to do is show you

    有這麼多。

  • how much of that space is taken up by screens across time.

    這是蘋果推出第一支 iPhone 的那一年。

  • In 2007,

    8 年後,

  • this much.

    這麼多。

  • That was the year that Apple introduced the first iPhone.

    現在,這麼多。

  • Eight years later,

    那就是我們在螢幕前面 所花的閒瑕時間。

  • this much.

    很狹窄的這個黃色區段, 就是魔力發生的時候。

  • Now, this much.

    你的人性存在於這裡。

  • That's how much time we spend of that free time in front of our screens.

    現在,這個區塊非常小。

  • This yellow area, this thin sliver, is where the magic happens.

    所以我們要如何處理這狀況?

  • That's where your humanity lives.

    第一個問題是:

  • And right now, it's in a very small box.

    紅色區段是怎樣的?

  • So what do we do about this?

    當然,現在的螢幕 在許多方面都是很神奇的。

  • Well, the first question is:

    我住在紐約,

  • What does that red space look like?

    我有許多家人住在澳洲,

  • Now, of course, screens are miraculous

    我有一個一歲的兒子,

  • in a lot of ways.

    我透過螢幕把家人介紹給兒子。

  • I live in New York,

    15 或 20 年前我就無法如此做。

  • a lot of my family lives in Australia,

    所以螢幕的確帶來很多好處。

  • and I have a one-year-old son.

    你可以做的一件事是,問問自己:

  • The way I've been able to introduce them to him is with screens.

    在那段時間發生了什麼事?

  • I couldn't have done that 15 or 20 years ago

    我們在使用的應用程式有多充實?

  • in quite the same way.

    有些是很充實。

  • So there's a lot of good that comes from them.

    如果你在別人使用應用程式時 阻止他們,並說:

  • One thing you can do is ask yourself:

    「告訴我們,你現在感覺如何?」

  • What goes on during that time?

    他們說他們對於 這些應用程式感覺很好──

  • How enriching are the apps that we're using?

    這些主要是放鬆、 運動、天氣、閱讀、

  • And some are enriching.

    教育、及健康的應用程式。

  • If you stop people while they're using them and say,

    對上述每一項,他們平均 一天會花上 9 分鐘。

  • "Tell us how you feel right now,"

    這些應用程式 則讓他們覺得比較不快樂。

  • they say they feel pretty good about these apps --

    當你打斷人們並問: 「你感覺如何?」

  • those that focus on relaxation, exercise, weather, reading,

    有一半的人會說他們對於使用 這些應用程式的感覺並不好。

  • education and health.

    有趣的是,這些是──

  • They spend an average of nine minutes a day on each of these.

    約會、社交網路、遊戲、

  • These apps make them much less happy.

    娛樂、新聞、 網路瀏覽的應用程式──

  • About half the people, when you interrupt them and say, "How do you feel?"

    這些每一項就會佔用到人們 一天中的 27 分鐘。

  • say they don't feel good about using them.

    我們花 3 倍長的時間在 不能讓我們快樂的應用程式上。

  • What's interesting about these --

    這看起來不是很明智。

  • dating, social networking, gaming,

    我們花這麼多時間 在這些讓我們不快樂的

  • entertainment, news, web browsing --

    應用程式的原因之一是,

  • people spend 27 minutes a day on each of these.

    這些應用程式奪走了 我們的停止提示。

  • We're spending three times longer on the apps that don't make us happy.

    在二十世紀,停止提示還處處可見。

  • That doesn't seem very wise.

    我們所做的每件事當中都有。

  • One of the reasons we spend so much time on these apps

    基本上,停止提示就是一個信號, 說:該是繼續前進的時候了,

  • that make us unhappy

    去做點新鮮事、不同的事。

  • is they rob us of stopping cues.

    想想看報紙,當你看到最後,

  • Stopping cues were everywhere in the 20th century.

    你會把報紙折起來,放到一旁。

  • They were baked into everything we did.

    他們與我們做的每件事情都有關係。

  • A stopping cue is basically a signal that it's time to move on,

    它會提示性地問你是否要繼續。

  • to do something new, to do something different.

    看電視上的節目,節目終究會結束,

  • And -- think about newspapers; eventually you get to the end,

    你得要再等一週才會有下一集。

  • you fold the newspaper away, you put it aside.

    停止提示在過去處處可見。

  • The same with magazines, books -- you get to the end of a chapter,

    但我們現今消費媒體的方式 就像是完全沒有停止提示一樣。

  • prompts you to consider whether you want to continue.

    新聞饋給滔滔不絕,

  • You watched a show on TV, eventually the show would end,

    什麼都是無限的: 推特、臉書、Instagram、

  • and then you'd have a week until the next one came.

    電子郵件、文字訊息、新聞。

  • There were stopping cues everywhere.

    當你真的去查看各種其他來源,

  • But the way we consume media today is such that there are no stopping cues.

    你可以無止境地持續下去。

  • The news feed just rolls on,

    關於要怎麼做,我們可以 從西歐得到一個提示,

  • and everything's bottomless: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram,

    在西歐的工作場所 似乎有許多很好的點子。

  • email, text messaging, the news.

    這裡有一個例子。 這是一間荷蘭的設計公司。

  • And when you do check all sorts of other sources,

    他們的做法是把桌子 用繩鎖吊在天花板上,

  • you can just keep going on and on and on.

    每天下午六點,

  • So, we can get a cue about what to do from Western Europe,

    不論你在寫電子郵件給誰、 不論你在做什麼事,

  • where they seem to have a number of pretty good ideas in the workplace.

    桌子就會升到天花板上。

  • Here's one example. This is a Dutch design firm.

    (笑聲)

  • And what they've done is rigged the desks to the ceiling.

    (掌聲)

  • And at 6pm every day,

    一週中有四天, 這個空間會轉為瑜伽教室;

  • it doesn't matter who you're emailing or what you're doing,

    一週中有一天,轉為跳舞俱樂部。

  • the desks rise to the ceiling.

    由你決定你哪天想留下來。

  • (Laughter)

    這是一個很棒的停止規則,

  • (Applause)

    因為它意味著,在一天結束時,

  • Four days a week, the space turns into a yoga studio,

    一切要停下來,絕對不做工作。

  • one day a week, into a dance club.

    德國汽車公司戴姆勒 有另一個很棒的策略。

  • It's really up to you which ones you stick around for.

    當你去渡假時,

  • But this is a great stopping rule,

    他們不是說:「這個人去渡假了,

  • because it means at the end of the day,

    他們最終會回覆您的。」

  • everything stops, there's no way to work.

    而是說:「這個人去渡假了, 所以我們已刪除了你的電子郵件。

  • At Daimler, the German car company, they've got another great strategy.

    這個人永遠不會看到 你剛剛寄來的電子郵件。」

  • When you go on vacation,

    (笑聲)

  • instead of saying, "This person's on vacation,

    「您可以幾週後再來信,

  • they'll get back to you eventually,"

    或是您也可以寫給別人。」

  • they say, "This person's on vacation, so we've deleted your email.

    (笑聲)

  • This person will never see the email you just sent."

    所以──

  • (Laughter)

    (掌聲)

  • "You can email back in a couple of weeks,

    你可以想像那樣的狀況,

  • or you can email someone else."

    你去渡假,而你也真正在渡假。

  • (Laughter)

    在這間公司工作的人會覺得

  • And so --

    他們真的能從工作中休息一下。

  • (Applause)

    但,當然,這並沒有告訴我們,

  • You can imagine what that's like.

    對於我們自己在家時的人生, 要如何做是好,

  • You go on vacation, and you're actually on vacation.

    所以我想做些建議。

  • The people who work at this company feel

    說我在下午五點到六點間 不會用手機是很容易的,

  • that they actually get a break from work.

    問題是,在不一樣的日子裡, 五點和六點看起來也不太一樣。

  • But of course, that doesn't tell us much

    我認為,更好的策略是說,

  • about what we should do at home in our own lives,

    我每天會做某些事情,

  • so I want to make some suggestions.

    有些場合是每天都會發生的,

  • It's easy to say, between 5 and 6pm, I'm going to not use my phone.

    比如吃晚餐。

  • The problem is, 5 and 6pm looks different on different days.

    有時,我會獨自一人,

  • I think a far better strategy is to say,

    有時,我會和別人在一起,

  • I do certain things every day,

    有時,我會在餐館中,

  • there are certain occasions that happen every day,

    有時,我會在家,

  • like eating dinner.

    但我採用的規則是這條: 我絕對不會在餐桌上用手機。

  • Sometimes I'll be alone,

    它離我很遠,

  • sometimes with other people,

    盡可以越遠越好。

  • sometimes in a restaurant,

    因為我們真的很不擅長拒絕誘惑。

  • sometimes at home,

    但當你有了這條停止提示:

  • but the rule that I've adopted is: I will never use my phone at the table.

    「每當晚餐開始時, 我的手機就會放得遠遠的。」

  • It's far away,

    你就能夠避免所有誘惑。

  • as far away as possible.

    一開始,會很痛。

  • Because we're really bad at resisting temptation.

    我有嚴重的錯失恐懼症。

  • But when you have a stopping cue that, every time dinner begins,

    (笑聲)

  • my phone goes far away,

    我會掙扎。

  • you avoid temptation all together.

    但你會漸漸習慣它。

  • At first, it hurts.

    你克服退縮的方式和克服毒品一樣,

  • I had massive FOMO.

    結果會是,人生 變得更多采多姿、更豐富、

  • (Laughter)

    更有意思──

  • I struggled.

    你會有更好的對話,

  • But what happens is, you get used to it.

    你真正與在你身邊的人連結。

  • You overcome the withdrawal the same way you would from a drug,

    我認為這是個極棒的策略,

  • and what happens is, life becomes more colorful, richer,

    我們知道它可行, 因為當人們這麼做──

  • more interesting --

    我追縱過很多嘗試這麼做的人──

  • you have better conversations.

    它會擴展。

  • You really connect with the people who are there with you.

    他們對此感覺十分良好,

  • I think it's a fantastic strategy,

    讓他們開始在早晨起床後的 第一個小時就這麼做。

  • and we know it works, because when people do this --

    他們開始在週末 將手機的飛安模式開啟。

  • and I've tracked a lot of people who have tried this --

    這麼做,手機會有照相功能, 但就不再是手機了。

  • it expands.

    這是個效力強大的點子,

  • They feel so good about it,

    我們知道當人們這麼做時, 他們對自己人生的感覺就更好了。

  • they start doing it for the first hour of the day in the morning.

    所以我們從中學到什麼重點?

  • They start putting their phones on airplane mode on the weekend.

    螢幕很不簡單,我已經說過這點了,

  • That way, your phone remains a camera, but it's no longer a phone.

    且我認為真的是如此。

  • It's a really powerful idea,

    但我們使用螢幕的方式,

  • and we know people feel much better about their lives when they do this.

    就如同在一條 又快又長的道路上開車,

  • So what's the take home here?

    車的油門一踩到底,

  • Screens are miraculous; I've already said that,

    很難去踩煞車。

  • and I feel that it's true.

    你有個選擇,

  • But the way we use them is a lot like driving down a really fast, long road,

    比如你可以選擇 從美麗的海景旁邊滑過,

  • and you're in a car where the accelerator is mashed to the floor,

    從窗戶拍照──那很容易辦到──

  • it's kind of hard to reach the brake pedal.

    或是你可以選擇特別把車移到路邊,

  • You've got a choice.

    踩下煞車,

  • You can either glide by, past, say, the beautiful ocean scenes

    走下車,

  • and take snaps out the window -- that's the easy thing to do --

    脫掉你的鞋子和襪子,

  • or you can go out of your way to move the car to the side of the road,

    在沙子上走幾步,

  • to push that brake pedal,

    感受一下腳下沙子的感覺,

  • to get out,

    走向海洋,

  • take off your shoes and socks,

    讓海洋圍繞著你的腳踝。

  • take a couple of steps onto the sand,

    你的人生會更豐富、更有意義,

  • feel what the sand feels like under your feet,

    因為你呼吸著那經驗,

  • walk to the ocean,

    也因為你把手機留在車上。

  • and let the ocean lap at your ankles.

    謝謝各位。

  • Your life will be richer and more meaningful

    (掌聲)

  • because you breathe in that experience,

  • and because you've left your phone in the car.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

So, a few years ago I heard an interesting rumor.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yuyang Zhao

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 螢幕 程式 應用 狗食 人生

【TED】亞當-阿爾特:為什麼我們的螢幕讓我們不那麼快樂(為什麼我們的螢幕讓我們不那麼快樂|亞當-阿爾特)。 (【TED】Adam Alter: Why our screens make us less happy (Why our screens make us less happy | Adam Alter))

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    Amy.Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字