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  • What if William Shakespeare had a sister who matched his imagination,

    如果大文豪莎士比亞有個和他一樣富有想像力、

  • his wit, and his way with words?

    機智幽默、滿有文采的妹妹,會是什麼樣子呢?

  • Would she have gone to school and set the stage alight?

    她能夠讀書、讓劇作在舞台上搬演嗎?

  • In her essay "A Room of One's Own,"

    在維吉尼亞‧吳爾芙的文章─「自己的房間」中

  • Virginia Woolf argues that this would have been impossible.

    她表示上述事情不可能發生

  • She concocts a fictional sister who's stuck at home,

    她編出一個虛擬人物─莎士比亞的妹妹,只能待在家中

  • snatching time to scribble a few pages

    攫取零碎時間零散的書寫

  • before she finds herself betrothed and runs away.

    直到發現父母為她訂下婚事後,她就逃家了

  • While her brother finds fame and fortune, she remains abandoned and anonymous.

    她的哥哥莎士比亞有名聲有財富,但是她卻沒沒無聞也無家可歸

  • In this thought experiment,

    在這樣的思想實驗中

  • Woolf demonstrates the tragedy of genius restricted,

    吳爾芙充分展現天才遭受埋沒的悲劇

  • and looks back through time for hints of these hidden histories.

    並且帶領人們從歷史中找出相關的蛛絲馬跡

  • She wrote, "When one reads of a witch being ducked,

    她寫道:「人們讀到女巫受絞刑、

  • of a woman possessed by devils,

    被邪靈侵擾的女性、

  • of a wise woman selling herbs,

    賣藥草的聰明女人、

  • or even a very remarkable man who had a mother,

    甚至是有母親的傑出男人時,

  • then I think we're on the track of a lost novelist,

    我想我們讀到的是這個世界失去了一個小說家,

  • a suppressed poet,

    一個壓抑的詩人,

  • of some mute and inglorious Jane Austen."

    或者是一些沉默無聲的珍‧奧斯汀」

  • "A Room of One's Own" considers a world denied great works of art

    「自己的房間」認為這個世界之所以否認某些傑出的藝術作品

  • due to exclusion and inequality.

    是源於既定的偏見和不平等的觀念

  • How best can we understand the internal experience of alienation?

    我們可以多細緻地理解「異化」的內在經驗?

  • In both her essays and fiction,

    在吳爾芙的文章與小說中

  • Virginia Woolf shapes the slippery nature of subjective experience into words.

    她將個人的主觀經驗,從模糊的印象轉為實質的文字

  • Her characters frequently lead inner lives that are deeply at odds

    她書寫的角色常常呈現內在生命

  • with their external existence.

    與外在世界的衝突

  • To help make sense of these disparities, the next time you read Woolf,

    如果想理解這些衝突點,下次閱讀吳爾芙的著作時

  • here are some aspects of her life and work to consider.

    你可以從下列她生活與工作的角度來閱讀

  • She was born Adeline Virginia Stephen in 1882 to a large and wealthy family,

    她於 1882 年出生在一個富裕的大家庭,出生時名為艾德琳·維吉尼亞·史蒂芬

  • which enabled her to pursue a life in the arts.

    因為家庭富裕,所以她可以在藝術領域深造

  • The death of her mother in 1895 was followed by that of her half-sister,

    1895 年她的母親去世,接下來十年間,她同母異父的姊姊、

  • father, and brother within the next ten years.

    爸爸、兄弟相繼離世

  • These losses led to Woolf's first depressive episode

    喪失親人的痛楚讓吳爾芙十分沮喪

  • and subsequent institutionalization.

    但她仍持續接受制度化教育

  • As a young woman, she purchased a house

    年輕的時候,吳爾芙在倫敦的布魯姆斯伯里

  • in the Bloomsbury area of London with her siblings.

    和她的姊妹買了一間房子

  • This brought her into contact with a circle of creatives,

    這使她得以和一群有創意思想的文學藝術大師來往

  • including E.M. Forster,

    包含愛德華‧摩根‧福斯特、

  • Clive Bell,

    克萊夫貝爾、

  • Roger Fry,

    羅傑弗萊、

  • and Leonard Woolf.

    還有倫納德吳爾芙

  • These friends became known as the Bloomsbury Group,

    這些朋友後來成為知名的布魯姆斯伯里學派

  • and Virginia and Leonard married in 1912.

    維吉尼亞和倫納德更於 1912 年結婚

  • The members of this group were prominent figures in Modernism,

    此學派的成員是現代主義的代表

  • a cultural movement that sought to push the boundaries

    他們帶來的文化風潮試圖運用更真實的方式描摹

  • of how reality is represented.

    現實世界與實際感受

  • Key features of Modernist writing include the use of stream of consciousness,

    現代主義文學的特色有意識流手法的運用、

  • interior monologue,

    內在獨白、

  • distortions in time,

    時空的扭曲與交錯、

  • and multiple or shifting perspectives.

    還有多元或是不停轉換的人稱觀點

  • These appear in the work of Ezra Pound,

    上述特色可見於多位文學家的作品中,包含艾茲拉‧龐德、

  • Gertrude Stein,

    葛楚·史坦、

  • James Joyce,

    詹姆斯‧喬伊斯、

  • and Woolf herself.

    還有吳爾芙本人

  • While reading Joyce's "Ulysses," Woolf began writing "Mrs. Dalloway."

    讀了喬伊斯的《尤利西斯》後,吳爾芙開始撰寫《戴洛維夫人》

  • Like "Ulysses," the text takes place over the course of a single day

    就像《尤利西斯》,所有書寫內容都發生在同一天

  • and opens under seemingly mundane circumstances.

    並且透過生活細節呈現

  • "Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself."

    「戴洛維夫人說她會自己買花」

  • But the novel dives deeply into the characters' traumatic pasts,

    但是這本小說更深刻的挖掘出角色背後的創傷經驗

  • weaving the inner world of numbed socialite Clarissa Dalloway,

    將社交名媛克拉麗莎‧戴洛維的內心世界

  • with that of the shell-shocked veteran Septimus Warren Smith.

    和退休軍人塞普蒂默斯·史密斯的內心世界相互交述、跨度

  • Woolf uses interior monologue to contrast the rich world of the mind

    吳爾芙運用內心獨白和角色身處華麗的外在世界

  • against her characters' external existences.

    呈現強烈對比

  • In her novel "To the Lighthouse,"

    在她另一本小說《到燈塔去》裡

  • mundane moments, like a dinner party, or losing a necklace

    描述了許多生活瑣事,像是晚餐派對或是遺失項鍊

  • trigger psychological revelations in the lives of the Ramsay's,

    揭露 Ramsay 心理層次的生活

  • a fictionalized version of Woolf's family growing up.

    有點像是吳爾芙家族的小說版本

  • "To the Lighthouse" also contains one of the most famous examples

    《到燈塔去》同時包含一個非常有名的例子

  • of Woolf's radical representation of time.

    呈現吳爾芙對「時間」有著極端現代主義的概念

  • In the Time Passes section,

    在「Time Passes」這個章節

  • ten years are distilled into about 20 pages.

    吳爾芙運用 20 頁的篇幅寫出了 10 年間發生的事情

  • Here, the lack of human presence in the Ramsays' beach house

    Ramsay 的房子在杳無人煙的海邊

  • allows Woolf to reimagine time in flashes and fragments of prose.

    讓吳爾芙可以在片刻的瞬間與散文的片段之間重新構思「時間」的概念

  • "The house was left. The house was deserted.

    「房子無人居住,在荒蕪之地。

  • It was left like a shell on a sand hill to fill with dry salt grains

    就像是在沙丘上的殼,裡面塞滿了乾燥的鹽穀

  • now that life had left it."

    生命都已逝去。」

  • In her novel "The Waves,"

    在《海浪》這本小說中

  • there is little distinction between the narratives of the six main characters.

    六個主要角色和旁白敘述之間並沒有顯著差異

  • Woolf experiments with collective consciousness,

    吳爾芙實驗性質地運用集體意識

  • at times collapsing the six voices into one.

    時不時讓六個聲音合而為一

  • "It is not one life that I look back upon:

    「我並不只回顧一個人的生活:

  • I am not one person: I am many people:

    因為我不是一個人,我有不同的自我

  • I do not altogether know who I am,

    我不太清楚所有的我合在一起是什麼樣的我

  • Jinny, Susan, Neville, Rhoda or Louis,

    到底是 Jinny 、 Susan 、 Neville 、 Rhoda 還是 Louis,

  • or how to distinguish my life from their's."

    也實在不知道該如何區辨我和他們的生活。」

  • In "The Waves," six become one, but in the gender-bending "Orlando,"

    在《海浪》一書中,六個角色合而為一,組成性別界線模糊的「Orlando」

  • a single character inhabits multiple identities.

    一個擁有多重性格的單一角色

  • The protagonist is a poet who switches between genders and lives for 300 years.

    主角是個詩人,可以自由變換性別,而且已經生活了 300 年

  • With its fluid language and approach to identity,

    這樣流動的語言還有談論人格的方法

  • "Orlando" is considered a key text in gender studies.

    「Orlando」被認為是性別研究的主要角色

  • The mind can only fly so far from the body

    意識可以飛離身體

  • before it returns to the constraints of life.

    再回到生活、身體的框架中

  • Like many of her characters, Woolf's life ended in tragedy

    吳爾芙悲劇性的生命終點和她筆下的許多角色一樣

  • when she drowned herself at the age of 59.

    59 歲的時候她就投河自盡

  • Yet, she expressed hope beyond suffering.

    然而,她透過苦痛表達希望

  • Through deep thought, Woolf's characters are shown

    藉由深厚的思想,吳爾芙藉由展現個人特質

  • to temporarily transcend their material reality,

    來短暫地勝於現實的物質世界

  • and in its careful consideration of the complexity of the mind,

    而她對於意識、精神的細微解讀

  • her work charts the importance of making our inner lives known to each other.

    更使得她的作品充分展現認識自我內在生命的重要性

What if William Shakespeare had a sister who matched his imagination,

如果大文豪莎士比亞有個和他一樣富有想像力、

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 角色 小說 內在 莎士比亞 生活

【TED-Ed】讀維吉尼亞‧吳爾芙的一百個理由 (Why should you read Virginia Woolf? - Iseult Gillespie)

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    Jamie 榕 發佈於 2017 年 10 月 23 日
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