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  • - [Instructor] In other videos we talk about some of the

  • truly ancient Chinese dynasties, the Shang Dynasty,

  • the Zhou Dynasty, and as we get to the end of the Zhou

  • Dynasty, China falls into chaos in the Warring States

  • Period, which is a really tough time for China.

  • But the silver lining is it's also the time that you have

  • all these schools of thought, the Hundred Schools

  • of Thought, of which Confucianism and Daoism

  • and Legalism and all of these other schools of thought

  • begin to emerge.

  • But what we're really going to focus on in this video

  • is the beginning of truly imperial China under the Qin

  • Dynasty from which China gets its name.

  • So here we are in the third century B.C.E. and you have

  • your first true emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang,

  • and the dynasty that he sets up is known as the Qin

  • Dynasty which will be shortly lived but it's known

  • as the first dynasty to truly unify China.

  • This is where we believe the word China actually comes from,

  • from the Qin Dynasty.

  • The dynasty is known for its fairly harsh, centralized

  • rule motivated over the foundation on legalism.

  • In terms of relics that we have from that period,

  • you might have heard of the Terra Cotta Army

  • which was buried along with Qin Shi Huang's grave.

  • Now the Qin Dynasty is most known for ending the

  • Warring States Period and unifying China, and really

  • laying the foundation for the Golden Age of China

  • that will happen in the Han Dynasty.

  • The Han Dynasty lasts from roughly 200 B.C.E. to a little

  • after 200 C.E.

  • And in my head I think of it as bit of a contemporary

  • as the Roman Empire.

  • The 200 years of the Western Han Dynasty correspond

  • roughly to the Roman Republic, and as we get to the

  • Eastern Han Dynasty, that corresponds to really the heyday

  • of the Roman Empire.

  • And it's also a golden age of China, a time where science

  • and the arts, and especially Confucianism begins to

  • really take hold in China, becomes officially part

  • of the civil service, part of the bureaucracy.

  • The Han Dynasty was so successful at unifying China

  • culturally and linguistically, that today, 92% of Chinese

  • identify themselves as ethnically Han.

  • So sometimes you'll hear the word Han referring to

  • the Han Dynasty, and sometimes it will be referring to

  • the Han ethnic group, which really derives from

  • the notion of the unification under the Han Dynasty.

  • Now the Han Dynasty, as we see here, ends at the beginning

  • of the third century in the Common Era, and then China

  • gets fragmented again, and it gets split into

  • multiple dynasties.

  • This roughly 360 years that I don't have marked on my

  • timeline, it's not that nothing was happening in China,

  • in fact, a lot was, but China was not unified.

  • To get a sense of that, here is China during the

  • Three Kingdoms Period in the third century,

  • shortly after the fall of the Han Dynasty.

  • You see the Jin Dynasty depicted here in the fourth century,

  • still part of what's often known as the

  • Six Dynasties Period, this roughly 360 years of a

  • fragmented China.

  • And then you see this North and South Dynasty Period

  • here in the sixth century.

  • And eventually, China is reunified, and that happens

  • under the Sui.

  • It is unified under Emperor Wen of Sui for whom

  • the dynasty is known, and similar to the Qin,

  • what the Sui are most known for is taking this chaotic

  • period and finally unifying China.

  • And the Sui are ethnically Han, and they lay the foundation

  • for another golden age of China under the Tang

  • and the Sung Dynasties.

  • The Tang Dynasty depicted here, it rivals the Han

  • as a golden age of China.

  • It's a time where the arts, the sciences really come about.

  • One interesting thing about this Six Dynasties Period

  • that we talk about, which is a chaotic time,

  • it is a time that Buddhism starts to come into China

  • from central Asia, originally from India, and by the

  • Sui and the Tang, it really takes hold.

  • Now one of the most important innovations that comes from

  • Tang China is the notion of block printing.

  • What you see depicted here is one of the first books

  • ever printed, the Diamond Sutra, during the Tang Dynasty.

  • Now, after the Tang falls in 907, you have, on a historical

  • time scale, a relatively brief period of chaos again.

  • About 50, I guess exactly 53 years where you get this

  • Five Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms Period, but then China

  • gets reunified under the Song Dynasty.

  • And the Song Dynasty is able to, on some level, pick up

  • where the Tang Dynasty left off.

  • One thing that happens as we get into the late Tang

  • Dynasty, is that there's push-back against Buddhism

  • that we talk about in other videos, and you see

  • Neo-Confucianism begin to take hold and it really

  • takes hold under the Song Dynasty that we talk about

  • in other videos.

  • The Song Dynasty is also known as a time of really

  • putting a lot of energy into the civil service

  • and the bureaucracy, and it really being very meritocratic,

  • based on some of these Neo-Confucian ideals.

  • It's also a time of significant technological innovation.

  • The compass, which has use as early as the Han Dynasty,

  • but it really gets into its fairly evolved or modern form,

  • especially for maritime use, during the Song Dynasty.

  • The notion of a Chinese junk boat also gets into its

  • evolved form during the Song Dynasty.

  • Some of the really far-reaching innovations from this

  • Dynasty include building on the Tang use of block printing,

  • but thinking about movable type, which makes printing

  • far more practical.

  • And maybe the biggest single innovation that changed

  • the world, for better or worse, was the use of gunpowder,

  • which there's some use in the late Tang, but it really

  • starts to get perfected during the Song Dynasty.

  • The Song Dynasty is eventually overthrown in the

  • 13th century by the Mongols.

  • They are able to establish the Yuan Dynasty with

  • Kublai Khan being the first emperor of it,

  • grandson of Genghis, or Jen-gees Khan.

  • They are eventually overthrown in the 14th century

  • by the Ming Dynasty.

  • The Ming Dynasty is once again ethnically Han,

  • and some of the most famous attractions that are associated

  • with China today really came about from the Ming Dynasty.

  • This is the Forbidden Palace, the imperial residence

  • during the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing.

  • This is the Great Wall of China.

  • And even though the history of the Great Wall of China

  • goes a good ways back, even to the Zhou and Warring States

  • Periods, much of what you now see as the Great Wall,

  • a lot of this brick work, was built during the Ming Dynasty.

  • And then the last true Dynasty of China is the Qing.

  • The Qing Dynasty is again, to some degree, foreign rule.

  • It's ruled by the Manchus who come from Manchuria,

  • which is this region right over here, and they're

  • eventually able to overwhelm the Ming Dynasty,

  • and ruled China all the way until the early 20th century

  • when the Republic of China is able to overthrow them.

- [Instructor] In other videos we talk about some of the

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中國曆代帝王|世界歷史|可汗學院 (Chinese Imperial Dynasties | World History | Khan Academy)

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    廖芯琳 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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