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  • Hi, I'm John Green, This is Crash Course: World History and today we're going to talk

    嗨!我是約翰格里,你正在觀看世界史速成班。今天我要來談談

  • about something that ought to be controversial: The Renaissance.

    可能引發爭論的議題:文藝復興

  • So you probably already know about the Renaissance thanks to the work of noted teenage mutant

    你可能多少知道文藝復興,多虧舉世聞名的忍者龜:

  • ninja turtles Leonardo, Michelangelo, Donatello, and Raphael. But that isn't the whole story.

    李奧納多(達文西)、米開朗基羅、多那太羅、拉斐爾。但這都不是重點

  • (Me-from-the-past:) Mr. Green, Mr. Green. What about Splinter? I think he was an architect.

    (過去的我:)格里先生,格里先生。那史林特呢?他是建築師吧!

  • Ugh, me from the past, you're such an idiot. Splinter was a painter, sculptor, AND an architect.

    呃,過去的我啊!你真無知。史林特是位畫家、雕塑家,「還是」位建築師

  • He was a quite a Renaissance rat.

    他這老鼠真博學多才啊!

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  • Right, so the story goes that the Renaissance saw the rebirth of European culture after

    好的,重點是文藝復興發生在歐洲文化復甦之際,之前只是

  • the miserable Dark Ages, and that it ushered in the modern era of secularism, rationality,

    慘淡的黑暗時代,文藝復興使我們迎來了世俗、理性還有利己的

  • and individualism.

    現代

  • And those are all in the list of things we like here at Crash Course.

    這些都列在「速成班」的喜愛清單裡

  • (Me-from-the-past:) Mr. Green. I think you're forgetting Cool Ranch Doritos?

    (過去的我:)格里先生,你還忘了美式沙拉醬口味的多力多滋對吧?

  • Yeah, fair enough.

    對,你說的是

  • Then what is so controversial? Well, the whole idea of a European Renaissance presupposes

    那到底有什麼好爭論的?嗯,整個歐洲文藝復興思想的前提

  • that Europe was like an island unto itself that was briefly enlightened when the Greeks

    在受到短暫啟迪之前,歐洲仍像座孤島,而那時希臘人

  • were ascendant and then lost its way and then rediscovered its former European glory.

    方興未艾。後來歐洲遭到埋沒,然後重新找回了昔日輝煌的歐洲

  • Furthermore, I'm going to argue that the Renaissance didn't even necessarily happen.

    此外,我認為文藝復興未必發生

  • But first, let's assume that it did. Essentially, the Renaissance was an efflorescence of arts

    但先假設它有發生好了,文藝復興基本上就是藝術的全盛時期

  • (primarily visual, but also to a lesser extent literary) and ideas in Europe that coincided

    (主要為視覺藝術,但也有少部分的文學),歐洲思想也達到巔峰

  • with the rediscovery of Roman and Greek culture.

    同時也重新找回希臘羅馬時期的文化

  • It is easiest to see this in terms of visual art, Renaissance art tends to feature a focus

    視覺藝術顯而易見,文藝復興的藝術傾向於注重

  • on the human form, somewhat idealized, as Roman and especially Greek art had.

    人體形式,有幾分理想化,羅馬是如此;希臘更是如此

  • And this classicizing is also rather apparent in the architecture of the Renaissance which

    文藝復興的建築顯然也有這樣的古典風

  • featured all sorts of Greek columns and triangular pediments and Roman arches and domes. In fact,

    特色在於希臘的圓柱及三角楣飾,羅馬的拱門及穹頂。事實上,

  • looking at a Renaissance building you might even be able to fool yourself into thinking

    當你注視著文藝復興的建築,你可能會誤以為

  • you're looking at an actual Greek building, if you sort of squint and ignore the fact

    自己正看著真正的希臘建築,前提是如果你微微瞇著眼看,撇開

  • that Greek buildings tend to be, you know, ruins.

    希臘建築看起來較為殘破不談

  • In addition to rediscovering, that is, copying Greek and Roman art, the Renaissance saw the rediscovery

    除了重新發現,也就是如法炮製希臘羅馬藝術外,文藝復興再一次發掘

  • of Greek and Roman writings and their ideas.

    希臘羅馬的文學及思想

  • And that opened up a whole new world for scholars well, not a new world, actually since the texts

    這對學者來說,又開創了全新的世界,也不能稱得上「新」,畢竟這些文本

  • were more than 1000 years old, but you know what I mean.

    一千多年前就有了,你懂我的意思吧!

  • The scholars who examined, translated, and commented upon these writings were called

    我們稱這群探討、翻譯、評論這些作品的學者為

  • humanists, which can be a little bit of a confusing term, because it implies they were

    人文學家,但這也許令人費解,因為這暗指他們

  • concerned with, you know, humans rather than, say, the religious world.

    只關心人類,而不在乎,比如說,宗教領域

  • Which can add to the common, but totally incorrect, assumption that Renaissance writers and artists

    雖然是子虛烏有,但大家常常認定文藝復興的作家、畫家

  • and scholars were, like, secretly not religious.

    學者背地裡摒棄宗教

  • That is a favorite favorite area of speculation on the Internet and in Dan Brown novels, but

    這是網站上或丹‧布朗的小說裡最愛做的猜測,其實不然

  • the truth is that Renaissance artists were religious. As evidence, let me present you

    事實上,文藝復興的畫家虔誠得很,我證明給你看

  • with that fact that they painted the Madonna over and over and over and over and over and

    他們常常以聖母瑪利亞為題,一次一次、一次一次,又一次…

  • STAN!

    史坦!

  • Anyway, all humanism means is that these scholars studied what were called the humanities. Literature,

    無論如何,人文主義就是學者研究的人文學學科,像是文學

  • philosophy, history.

    哲學及歷史

  • Today, of course, these areas of study are known as the so-called dark arts. What? Liberal

    現今這些領域的研究就是所謂的黑魔法。什麼?通才教育?

  • arts? Aw, Stan, you're always making history less fun. I WANT TO BE A PROFESSOR OF THE

    噢!史坦!你就是會讓歷史變得無趣。我想成為一位

  • DARK ARTS.

    黑魔法教授!

  • Stan (Off camera): The Dark Arts job, it's a dangerous position.

    史坦(鏡頭外):教黑魔法,是危險的工作

  • John: Yeah, I guess that is true, so we'll stick with this.

    約翰:好吧!有道理,我會記住

  • Right so here at Crash Course, we try not to focus too much on dates, but if I'm going

    沒錯!在這速成班中,我們不用過度強調時期,但如果我要

  • to convince you that the Renaissance didn't actually happen, I should probably tell you,

    讓你相信文藝復興並未發生,我應該得告訴你

  • you know, when it didn't happen. So traditionally the Renaissance is associated with the 15th

    它何時未發生。習慣上,我們把文藝復興認定大約是在十五

  • and 16th centuries. Ish.

    十六世紀...多

  • The Renaissance happened all across Europe, but we're going to focus on Italy, because

    文藝復興在全歐洲盛行,但讓我們專注在義大利上,因為

  • I want to and I own the video camera. Plus, Italy really spawned the Renaissance.

    我就是想講,再說攝影機是我的。而且,義大利還是文藝復興的起源地

  • What was it about Italy that lent itself to Renaissancing? Was it the wine? The olives?

    義大利為何會適合文藝復興呢?因為它的葡萄酒嗎?橄欖嗎?

  • The pasta? The plumbers? The relative permissiveness when it comes to the moral lassitude of their

    義大利麵嗎?水管工人嗎?抑或放蕩不羈,素行不良的

  • leaders? Well, let's go to the Thought Bubble.

    領導人?好吧!那來看看「觀念泡泡」

  • Italy was primed for Renaissance for exactly one reason: Money.

    義大利會是文藝復興的黃金開端,只有一個確切原因:金錢

  • A society has to be super rich to support artists and elaborate building projects and

    一個社會必須超級富有才能資助畫家和精細的建築計畫

  • to feed scholars who translate and comment on thousand-year-old documents. And the Italian

    以及讓翻譯評論一千年前文物的學者衣食無虞,除此之外,義大利

  • city states were very wealthy for two reasons.

    城邦會這麼富有,有兩個原因:

  • First, many city states were mini-industrial powerhouses each specializing in a particular

    第一、不少城邦是迷你的工業動力室,各自專攻於特定的

  • industrial product like Florence made cloth, Milan made arms.

    產業,像是佛羅倫斯生產布料,米蘭生產軍武

  • Second, the cities of Venice and Genoa got stinking rich from trade.

    第二、威尼斯、熱那亞這兩個城市從貿易中大撈一筆

  • Genoa turned out a fair number of top-notch sailors, like for instance Christopher Columbus.

    熱那亞還培養出一票頂尖航海家,哥倫布即是一例

  • But the Venetians became the richest city state of all.

    但威尼斯才是最富有的城邦

  • As you'll remember from the Crusades, the Venetians were expert sailors, shipbuilders,

    回想看看,十字軍東征中,維也納人都是專業的水手、造船工人

  • and merchants and as you'll remember from our discussions of Indian Ocean trade, they

    以及商人。再回想看看,在我們討論的印度洋貿易,他們

  • also had figured out ways to trade with Islamic empires, including the biggest economic power

    還想出了與伊斯蘭帝國貿易的方法,其中包含那地區中經濟力量最龐大的

  • in the region: the Ottomans.

    鄂圖曼帝國

  • Without trading with the Islamic world, especially in pepper, Venice couldn't have afforded

    如果沒有和伊斯蘭世界貿易,尤其是交易胡椒,威尼斯根本無法支付

  • all those painters nor would they have had money to pay for the incredibly fancy clothes

    那群畫家,他們也不會有錢買華美的衣裳

  • they put on to pose for their fancy portraits.

    好讓他們的畫像增添姿色

  • The clothes, the paint, the painters, enough food to get a double chin all of that was

    衣服、畫作、畫家、養出雙下巴的糧食,這些

  • paid for with money from trade with the Ottomans.

    都是由與鄂圖曼帝國貿易的金錢換來

  • I know I talk a lot about trade, but that is because it is so incredibly awesome, and it

    我知道我提了不少貿易,但貿易實在是太棒了!它還

  • really does bind the world together.

    真的有聯繫起整個世界

  • And while trade can lead to conflicts, on balance, it has been responsible for more

    但貿易也會引爆衝突,總的來說,它是讓彼此來往更加和平的原因

  • peaceful contacts than violent ones because, you know, death is bad for business.

    而非激烈衝突,只因死亡對商業不利

  • This was certainly the case in the Eastern Mediterranean where the periods of trade-based

    地中海東岸正是如此,建立於貿易之上的外交期間

  • diplomacy were longer and more frequent than periods of war, even though all we ever talk

    來得比戰爭長久頻繁,縱使我們隻字不離

  • about is war because it is very dramatic, which is why my brother Hank's favorite video

    戰爭,因為它比較富含戲劇性,也就是為什麼我弟弟漢克最愛的電玩

  • game is called Assassin's Creed, not Some Venetian Guys Negotiate A Trade Treaty.

    遊戲叫做「刺客教條」,而不是什麼「威尼斯大夥來協約」

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. So here's another example of non-Europeans supporting the Renaissance:

    謝啦!觀念泡泡。非歐洲人助長文藝復興的另一個例子:

  • The Venetians exported textiles to the Ottomans.

    威尼斯向顎圖曼帝國出口紡織品

  • They were usually woven in other cities like Florence, and the reason Florentine textiles

    這些通常是由佛羅倫斯這些城市編織而成,佛羅倫斯的紡織品

  • were so valuable is because their color remained vibrant.

    能如此珍貴在於它的色彩鮮豔動人

  • That is because they were dyed with a chemical called alum, which was primarily found in

    這是因為他們用明礬這種化學物質染色,明礬最早是在鄂圖曼帝國的

  • Anatolia, in the Ottoman Empire.

    安那托利亞找到

  • So to make the textiles the Ottomans craved, the Italians needed Ottoman alum, at least

    為了產出鄂圖曼帝國渴求的織品,義大利需要他們的明礬至少

  • until 1460.

    到1460年

  • When Giovanni da Castro, Pope Pius Ilis' godson, discovered alum, in Italy, in Tolfa.

    教宗庇護二世的教子,喬瓦尼‧迪卡斯楚在義大利的托爾法發現明礬

  • And he wrote to his godfather, the Pope: ''Today I bring you victory over the Turk. Every year

    他接著寫信給教宗:「今天,我帶來贏得土耳其的勝利。每年

  • they wring from the Christians more than 300,000 ducats for the alum with which we dye wool

    他們榨取我們基督徒,獲利超過30萬金幣,因為販賣將羊毛染得

  • various colors... But I have found seven mountains so rich in this material that they could supply

    五彩繽紛的明礬…但我找到七座山富含這種原料,足以供應

  • seven worlds. If you will give orders to engage workmen, build furnaces, and melt the ore,

    七個世界。如果你指示要工匠上工、建造熔爐、熔煉礦石

  • you will provide all Europe with alum and the Turk will lose all his profits. Instead

    你就能供給明礬給全歐洲,土耳其則不能再獲利

  • they will accrue to you."

    利益就會為你所有。」

  • So the Pope was like, "Heck yeah." More importantly he granted a monopoly on the mining

    教宗就大概回了「當然好啊!」。更重要的,他還授予明礬的開採及專賣權

  • rights of alum to a particular Florentine family, the Medicis.

    給一個特定的佛羅倫斯家族,麥地奇家族

  • You know, the ones you always see painted.

    如你所知,他們家族的畫像十分常見

  • But vitally, Italian alum mines didn't bring victory over the Turks, or cause them to lose

    但義大利的明礬礦產並未使他們打敗土耳其,或造成他們的損失

  • all their profits, just as mining and drilling at home never alleviate the need for trade.

    就好比在自家鑿礦,從不會削減貿易的需求

  • Okay, one last way contact with Islam helped to create the European Renaissance, if indeed

    好了,與伊斯蘭有關的最後一點,也促成了文藝復興,如果真有

  • it happened: The Muslim world was the source of many of the writings that Renaissance scholars

    這回事的話。伊斯蘭世界藏有許多著作,是文藝復興學者的

  • studied.

    研究來源

  • For centuries, Muslim scholars had been working their way through ancient Greek writings,

    幾世紀以來,伊斯蘭學者對古希臘著作下了苦工

  • especially Ptolemy and Aristotle, who despite being consistently wrong about everything

    尤其是托勒密和亞里斯多德,即使他們的著作錯誤百出

  • managed to be the jumping off point for thinking both in the Christian and Muslim worlds.

    但還是成為結合基督徒與回教徒思想的開端

  • And the fall of Constantinople in 1453 helped further spread Greek ideas because Byzantine

    1453年,君士坦丁堡的陷落更進一步助於散播希臘思想,因為拜占庭

  • scholars fled for Italy, taking their books with them. So we have the Ottomans to thank

    學者帶著書本,逃到了義大利,這也是多虧了

  • for that, too.

    鄂圖曼帝國

  • And even after it had become a Muslim capital, Istanbul was still, like, the number one destination

    即使伊斯坦堡變成回教的首都,它還是書呆子首屈一指的目的地

  • for book nerds searching for ancient Greek texts.

    因為他們要尋找古希臘文本

  • Plus, if we stretch our definition of Renaissance thought to include scientific thought, there

    如果擴大文藝復興思潮的定義到科學領域

  • is a definite case to be made that Muslim scholars influenced Copernicus, arguably the

    哥白尼受到伊斯蘭學者的影響就是個明確例子,他可說是

  • Renaissance's greatest mind.

    為文藝復興帶來最頂尖的思想

  • Oh, it's time for the open letter? An Open Letter to Copernicus.

    噢!到了讀公開信的時候嗎?寫給哥白尼的

  • But first, let's see what is in the secret compartment today. Wow, the heliocentric solar

    但先來看看秘密抽屜裡頭是甚麼?哇!以太陽為中心的

  • system? Cool. Earth in the middle, sun in the middle, earth in the middle, sun in the

    太陽系?酷耶!地球為中心,太陽為中心,地心,日心

  • middle. Ptolemy. Copernicus. Ptolemy. Copernicus.

    托勒密,哥白尼,托勒密,哥白尼

  • Right, an open letter to Copernicus.

    好了,給哥白尼的信

  • Dear Copernicus,

    親愛的哥白尼

  • Why you always gotta make the rest of us look so bad?

    為何你總是讓我們如此難堪?

  • You were both a lawyer and a doctor? That doesn't seem fair.

    你既是位法學家也是醫生?也太不公平

  • You spoke four languages and discovered that the earth is not the center of the universe,

    你通曉四種語言,還發現地球不是宇宙的中心

  • come on.

    拜託!

  • But at least you didn't discover it entirely on your own. Now, there's no way to be sure

    但至少並不全然是你發現的,雖然現在無法明確的說

  • that you had access to Muslim scholarship on this topic.

    你看過回教徒在相同主題的研究

  • But one of your diagrams is so similar to a proof found in an Islamic mathematics treatise

    但你的一個圖表與一篇伊斯蘭數學論文中找到的論證相似

  • that it is almost impossible that you didn't have access to it.

    你不太可能沒看過

  • Even the letters on the diagram are almost the same. So at least I can tell my mom that

    連圖表上的文字都大同小異。這樣我就有理由跟我媽講

  • when she asks why I'm not a doctor and a lawyer and the guy who discovered the heliocentric

    如果她問起我怎麼不是位醫生或律師,發現太陽系是以太陽為中心的人

  • solar system.

    也不是我的話

  • Best wishes, John Green

    祝你好運,約翰格里上

  • Alright, so now having spent the last several minutes telling you why the Renaissance happened

    好啦!現在我要用剩下的幾分鐘來告訴你為何文藝復興是發生在

  • in Italy and not in, I don't know, like India or Russia or whatever, I'm going to argue

    義大利,而不是在印度還是俄羅斯之類的。我要來爭辯

  • that the Renaissance did not in fact happen.

    文藝復興並沒有發生

  • Let's start with the problem of time. The Renaissance isn't like the Battle of Hastings

    先從時間開始講起,文藝復興不像黑斯廷斯戰役

  • or the French Revolution where people were aware that they were living amid history.

    或法國大革命,人們能夠意識到他們正寫下歷史性的一頁

  • Like, when I was eleven and most of you didn't exist yet, my dad made my brother and me turn

    比如說,我十一歲時,那時你們大多還沒出生,我爸爸要我和弟弟別看

  • off the Cosby Show and watch people climbing on the Berlin Wall so we could see history.

    「天才老爹」,而看看攀登柏林圍牆的人們,歷史就這樣在我們眼前發生

  • But no one, like, woke their kids up in Tuscan village in 1512 like, ''Mario, Luigi, come

    但不會有人在1512年的托斯卡尼這樣叫醒小孩:「瑪利歐、路易吉,快出來!

  • outside! The Renaissance is here!

    來看看文藝復興!

  • Hurry, we're living in a glorious new era, where man's relationship to learning is changing.

    快點!我們活在嶄新的輝煌時代,人與知識的聯繫正在轉變

  • I somehow feel a new sense of individualism based on my capacity for reason."

    我有種感覺,新穎的個人主義是基於我對理性的認知。」

  • No. In fact, most people in Europe were totally unaware of the Renaissance, because its art

    並不會這樣,事實上,多數歐洲人完全沒察覺文藝復興,因為藝術

  • and learning affected a tiny sliver of the European population.

    與學識僅僅影響歐洲全人口的一小小部分

  • Like, life expectancy in many areas of Europe actually went down during the Renaissance.

    歐洲不少地區的平均壽命,在文藝復興時期居然還下降

  • Art and learning of the Renaissance didn't filter down to most people the way that technology

    文藝復興時的藝術與學識並沒有像現今的科技

  • does today.

    普及至大眾

  • And really the Renaissance was only experienced by the richest of the rich and those people,

    只有富者中的富者感受到文藝復興,還有

  • like painters, who served them.

    促使它的人,像是畫家

  • I mean, there were some commercial opportunities, like for framing paintings or binding books,

    雖然帶來一些商機,像是給畫鑲框,或是裝訂書本

  • but the vast majority of Europeans still lived on farms either as free peasants or tenants.

    但歐洲的普羅大眾還是以務農為生,不是地主就是佃農

  • And the rediscovery of Aristotle didn't in any way change their lives, which were governed

    重新發現了亞里斯多德並不會影響他們的作息,他們

  • by the rising and setting of the sun, and, intellectually, by the Catholic Church.

    日出而作,日落而息;學識則受天主教會管理

  • In fact, probably about 95% of Europeans never encountered the Renaissance's opulence or

    事實上,大約95%的歐洲人未曾見識到文藝復興時期的富麗堂皇

  • art or modes of thought.

    藝術及思想模式

  • We have constructed the Renaissance as important not because it was so central to the 15th

    我們賦予文藝復興重要的地位,可不是因為它是15世紀的核心

  • century. I mean, at the time Europe wasn't the world's leader in, anything other than

    我指的是,那時候歐洲並沒有領先全世界,除了

  • the tiny business of Atlantic trade.

    大西洋貿易的小型商業之外

  • We remember it as important because it matters to us now. It gave us the ninja turtles.

    我們注重文藝復興是因為它與我們有關,我們因此有了忍者龜

  • We care about Aristotle and individualism and the Mona Lisa and the possibility that

    我們關切亞里斯多德、個人主義、蒙娜麗莎,還很有可能

  • Michelangelo painted an anatomically correct brain onto the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel,

    米開朗基羅在西斯廷禮拜堂的天花板上,畫出了準確的頭腦剖面

  • because these things give us a narrative that makes sense.

    因為這些給了我們合理的敘述

  • Europe was enlightened, and then it was unenlightened, and then it was re-enlightened, and ever since

    歐洲受到啟迪,而後顯得沒落,後來又重新被啟蒙。從那時起

  • it's been the center of art and commerce and history.

    歐洲就成為藝術、商業、歷史的中心

  • You see that cycle of life, death, and rebirth a lot in historical recollection, but it just

    看看歷史上一再地循環著存在、消逝與重生,但這麼說

  • isn't accurate.

    不太準確

  • So it's true that many of the ideas introduced to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries became

    誠然,不少15、16世紀傳入歐洲的思想變得

  • very important.

    十分重要

  • But remember, when we talk about the Renaissance, we're talking about hundreds of years. I

    但記住:我們提到文藝復興時期,它可是囊括了數百年

  • mean, although they share ninja turtledom, Donatello and Raphael were born 97 years apart.

    雖然忍者龜裡一樣有多那太羅和拉斐爾,但他們實際出生前後相差了97年

  • And the Renaissance humanist Petrarch was born in 1304, 229 years before the Renaissance

    文藝復興時期的人文主義者佩脫拉克,誕生於1304年,229年後另一位

  • humanist Montaigne.

    人文主義者蒙田出生

  • That is almost as long as the United States has existed. So was the Renaissance a thing?

    這快跟美國建國一樣老了。所以,真有文藝復興這麼一回事嗎?

  • Not really. It was a lot of mutually interdependent things that occurred over centuries. Stupid

    不見得,它是數世紀以來環環相扣的種種事件。無趣的

  • truth always resisting simplicity. Thanks for watching. I'll see you next week.

    真理永遠抵過無知。感謝收看,我們下周見

Hi, I'm John Green, This is Crash Course: World History and today we're going to talk

嗨!我是約翰格里,你正在觀看世界史速成班。今天我要來談談

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 文藝復興 歐洲 貿易 義大利 學者

真的有文藝復興這回事嗎?(The Renaissance: Was it a Thing? - Crash Course World History #22)

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    Aurora Yang 發佈於 2015 年 08 月 12 日
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