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  • Imagine you're asked to invent something new.

    想像一下,如果別人請你發明新東西

  • It could be whatever you want

    可以是任何你想要的發明

  • made from anything you choose

    用你想要的東西製作

  • in any shape or size.

    做成任何形狀和尺寸

  • That kind of creative freedom sounds so liberating, doesn't it?

    這樣的創造聽起來很自由,不是嗎?

  • Or does it?

    真的自由嗎?

  • If you're like most people, you'd probably be paralyzed by this task.

    如果你和大多數人相同,你可能會被這個任務嚇得目瞪口呆

  • Without more guidance, where would you even begin?

    沒有任何的指引,你要如何開始呢?

  • As it turns out, boundless freedom isn't always helpful.

    結果顯示,無限的自由不一定是好事

  • In reality, any project is restricted by many factors,

    實際上,任何的計畫都被許多因素所限制

  • such as the cost,

    像是成本

  • what materials you have at your disposal,

    能讓你任意使用的材料

  • and unbreakable laws of physics.

    以及不可變的物理定律

  • These factors are called creative constraints,

    這些因素稱為創作限制

  • and they're the requirements and limitations

    這些是我們必須面對的需求和限制

  • we have to address in order to accomplish a goal.

    如此才能達成目標

  • Creative constraints apply across professions,

    創作限制適用於各領域

  • to architects and artists,

    像是建築師、藝術家

  • writers,

    作家

  • engineers,

    工程師

  • and scientists.

    以及科學家

  • In many fields, constraints play a special role

    在許多領域中,限制扮演著特別的角色

  • as drivers of discovery and invention.

    它是發現和發明的先驅

  • During the scientific process in particular,

    尤其在科學的過程中

  • constraints are an essential part of experimental design.

    限制是實驗設計重要的一環

  • For instance, a scientist studying a new virus would consider,

    舉例來說,科學家研究新病毒時,會考慮到

  • "How can I use the tools and techniques at hand

    「我要如何使用工具和技術

  • to create an experiment that tells me how this virus infects the body's cells?

    來創造一個演示病毒如何感染體內細胞的實驗?

  • And what are the limits of my knowledge that prevent me

    以及什麼是我的有限知識會阻礙我

  • from understanding this new viral pathway?"

    了解新病毒的路徑?」

  • In engineering, constraints have us apply our scientific discoveries

    在工程學上,限制讓我們運用在科學發現上

  • to invent something new and useful.

    以發明全新且實用的東西

  • Take, for example, the landers Viking 1 and 2,

    舉例來說,軌道衛星海盜一號及二號

  • which relied on thrusters to arrive safely on the surface of Mars.

    是仰賴推進器才得以在火星表面安全著陸

  • The problem?

    問題是?

  • Those thrusters left foreign chemicals on the ground,

    推進器化學藥劑留在火星表面上

  • contaminating soil samples.

    因而汙染了土壤樣品

  • So a new constraint was introduced.

    因此一個新的限制產生了

  • How can we land a probe on Mars

    我們要如何將探測器著陸在火星上

  • without introducing chemicals from Earth?

    卻不引入地球的化學藥劑呢?

  • The next Pathfinder mission used an airbag system

    下一個開拓者任務使用的是安全氣囊系統

  • to allow the rover to bounce and roll to a halt

    能讓探測車走動和停止

  • without burning contaminating fuel.

    而這些動作都不需要燃燒會造成污染的燃料

  • Years later, we wanted to send a much larger rover: Curiosity.

    幾年後,我們想著陸更大台的探測車:好奇號

  • However, it was too large for the airbag design,

    然而,好奇號大到無法使用安全氣囊裝置

  • so another constraint was defined.

    因此又出現另一個限制

  • How can we land a large rover while still keeping rocket fuel

    我們要如何在使用大型探測車的同時,

  • away from the Martian soil?

    但不讓火箭燃料汙染火星土壤呢?

  • In response, engineers had a wild idea.

    為了回應問題,工程師想出一個好點子

  • They designed a skycrane.

    他們設計了空中起重機

  • Similar to the claw machine at toy stores,

    類似玩具店的夾娃娃機

  • it would lower the rover from high above the surface.

    可以將探測車從高處降落到火星表面

  • With each invention, the engineers demonstrated an essential habit

    透過各種發明,工程師證明了科學思考

  • of scientific thinking -

    的一個特性 -

  • that solutions must recognize the limitations of current technology

    解決辦法必須承認現有科技的限制

  • in order to advance it.

    如此才能更進步

  • Sometimes this progress is iterative,

    有時,這樣的進步很反覆

  • as in, "How can I make a better parachute to land my rover?"

    像是,「我要如何讓探測車著陸得更好?」

  • And sometimes, it's innovative,

    而有時候,這像是革新

  • like how to reach our goal

    像是要如何達到我們的目標

  • when the best possible parachute isn't going to work.

    在最好的降落辦法行不通時

  • In both cases, the constraints guide decision-making

    在以上兩個例子中,限制引導了決策

  • to ensure we reach each objective.

    以確保我們達到目的

  • Here's another Mars problem yet to be solved.

    還有另一個火星的問題還沒解決

  • Say we want to send astronauts who will need water.

    我們想送太空人上去,但他們需要喝水

  • They'd rely on a filtration system that keeps the water very clean

    他們必須仰賴過濾系統,以確保乾淨水質

  • and enables 100% recovery.

    以及 100% 回收

  • Those are some pretty tough constraints,

    這些是非常棘手的限制

  • and we may not have the technology for it now.

    我們也還沒有這樣的技術

  • But in the process of trying to meet these objectives,

    但是為了要達到目的

  • we might discover other applications of any inventions that result.

    我們會發現其他發明裝置所產生的結果

  • Building an innovative water filtration system

    建立創新的過濾水系統

  • could provide a solution for farmers working in drought-stricken regions,

    可以提供解決辦法給嚴重乾旱地區的農夫

  • or a way to clean municipal water in polluted cities.

    也能淨化受汙染城市的汙水

  • In fact, many scientific advances

    事實上,許多科學的發展

  • have occurred when serendipitous failures in one field

    是一個領域上失敗後的意外收穫

  • address the constraints of another.

    然後產生其他的限制

  • When scientist Alexander Fleming mistakenly contaminated

    科學家亞歷山大·弗萊明不慎汙染

  • a Petri dish in the lab,

    實驗室的培養皿

  • it led to the discovery of the first antibiotic: penicillin.

    卻因而發現第一個抗生素,盤尼西林

  • The same is true of synthetic dye,

    同樣的情況下也發明出合成染料

  • plastic,

    塑膠

  • and gunpowder.

    以及火藥

  • All were created mistakenly,

    全部都是因錯誤而創造出來

  • but went on to address the constraints of other problems.

    但又會有其他問題的限制需要處理

  • Understanding constraints guides scientific progress,

    我們了解限制帶領著科學的進步

  • and what's true in science is also true in many other fields.

    科學中是如此,在其他領域也是如此

  • Constraints aren't the boundaries of creativity, but the foundation of it.

    限制並非創意的阻礙,而是基礎

Imagine you're asked to invent something new.

想像一下,如果別人請你發明新東西

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 限制 火星 發明 汙染 科學

【TED-Ed】「創作限制」的力量 (The power of creative constraints - Brandon Rodriguez)

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    luca3466 發佈於 2018 年 01 月 31 日
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