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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    能夠當分子生物學家實在太讚了! (笑)

  • It's a great time to be a molecular biologist. (Laughter)

    解讀和排列DNA密碼越來越簡單

  • Reading and writing DNA code is getting easier

    又便宜

  • and cheaper.

    今年年底前,我們將能排列出

  • By the end of this year, we'll be able to sequence

    在你的基因組裡的

  • the three million bits of information

    三百萬個片段訊息, 用不到一天的時間

  • in your genome in less than a day

    成本不到於一千歐元

  • and for less than 1,000 euros.

    生物科技大概是目前最強大

  • Biotech is probably the most powerful

    成長最快速的科技領域

  • and the fastest-growing technology sector.

    它很可能會

  • It has the power, potentially,

    代替石化燃料

  • to replace our fossil fuels,

    興起藥物革命

  • to revolutionize medicine,

    也可以影響我們的日常生活

  • and to touch every aspect of our daily lives.

    那誰能參與行動?

  • So who gets to do it?

    我想大家對於這個人參與生物科技

  • I think we'd all be pretty comfortable with

    習以為常

  • this guy doing it.

    但這個人呢?

  • But what about

    (笑)

  • that guy? (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    2009年我頭一次聽到"生物科技DIY"

  • In 2009, I first heard about DIYbio.

    它提倡讓每個人都可以接觸,運用到生物科技

  • It's a movement that -- it advocates making biotechnology

    它提倡讓每個人都可以接觸,運用到生物科技

  • accessible to everyone,

    而不是侷限於科學家或國家研究院的員工

  • not just scientists and people in government labs.

    如果你開放科學界的大門

  • The idea is that if you open up the science

    讓各行各業的人們參與的話

  • and you allow diverse groups to participate,

    便可以激發出創新的思維

  • it could really stimulate innovation.

    把科技交給最終使用者

  • Putting technology in the hands of the end user

    通常都是不錯的想法, 因為他們

  • is usually a good idea because they've got the best idea

    最了解自己(使用者)的需求

  • of what their needs are.

    像生物科技這麼複雜的東西

  • And here's this really sophisticated technology

    會伴隨著許多疑問

  • coming down the road, all these associated

    像是有關社會、道德及倫理方面的問題

  • social, moral, ethical questions,

    我們這些科學家卻懶得為大眾解釋

  • and we scientists are just lousy at explaining to the public

    我們到底在實驗室裡做什麼

  • just exactly what it is we're doing in those labs.

    如果在你家附近

  • So wouldn't it be nice

    有個地方歡迎你去了解生物科技

  • if there was a place in your local neighborhood

    並親自體驗的話

  • where you could go and learn about this stuff,

    那不是很棒嗎?

  • do it hands-on?

    我是這麼認為的

  • I thought so.

    於是 3 年前我找了一些

  • So, three years ago, I got together

    志同道合的夥伴們

  • with some friends of mine who had similar aspirations

    一起創立了 "Genspace" (基因體驗工廠)

  • and we founded Genspace.

    它是一間非營利的社區型生科實驗室

  • It's a nonprofit, a community biotech lab

    位於紐約的布魯克林區

  • in Brooklyn, New York,

    人們可以到那裏去

  • and the idea was people could come,

    在那上課或到處閒逛

  • they could take classes and putter around in the lab

    充滿開放又愜意的氛圍

  • in a very open, friendly atmosphere.

    我以往的經驗都沒有過

  • None of my previous experience prepared me

    這樣驚人的結果,你猜結果如何?

  • for what came next. Can you guess?

    媒體致電找我們

  • The press started calling us.

    我們越是跟他們強調增加科學素養的重要性

  • And the more we talked about how great it was to increase

    他們就越想報導

  • science literacy, the more they wanted to talk

    我們創造了下一代的科學怪人

  • about us creating the next Frankenstein,

    所以囉 接下來的半年裡

  • and as a result, for the next six months,

    你上網搜尋我的名字的話

  • when you Googled my name,

    你找不到我的研究論文,反而會看到

  • instead of getting my scientific papers, you got this.

    這篇報導(我帶來生化危機?)

  • ["Am I a biohazard?"]

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    我實在是很難過

  • It was pretty depressing.

    我們熬過這段過渡期的唯一動力

  • The only thing that got us through that period

    就是我們知道世界各地

  • was that we knew that all over the world,

    也有其他人正在試著

  • there were other people that were trying to do

    做一樣的事情

  • the same thing that we were.

    他們設立生物駭客的實驗室,有一些人

  • They were opening biohacker spaces, and some of them

    遇到比我們還大許多的挑戰

  • were facing much greater challenges than we did,

    更多的法規、更少的資源

  • more regulations, less resources.

    但三年後的現在,我們有這麼多的分部

  • But now, three years later, here's where we stand.

    這是個充滿活力、國際型的交流實驗室(又稱駭客空間)

  • It's a vibrant, global community of hackerspaces,

    這一切才正開始而已

  • and this is just the beginning.

    這些是全球主要的駭客空間

  • These are some of the biggest ones,

    每天也都有新的實驗室成立

  • and there are others opening every day.

    以後,大概在莫斯科會有新的實驗室

  • There's one probably going to open up in Moscow,

    南韓也會有

  • one in South Korea,

    最酷的是,他們都有各自的特色

  • and the cool thing is they each have their own

    最酷的是,他們都有各自的特色

  • individual flavor

    這是從他們的社區裡發展出來的

  • that grew out of the community they came out of.

    我們來見識一下吧

  • Let me take you on a little tour.

    生物駭客會獨立作業(圖)

  • Biohackers work alone.

    也會彼此合作

  • We work in groups,

    會在大城市裡工作(笑,如圖)

  • in big cities — (Laughter) —

    在小村莊裡工作

  • and in small villages.

    我們重組實驗室的工程設備

  • We reverse engineer lab equipment.

    用基因工程改造細菌

  • We genetically engineer bacteria.

    駭進硬體

  • We hack hardware,

    軟體

  • software,

    濕體(仿生物軟體)

  • wetware,

    當然 還有生命密碼

  • and, of course, the code of life.

    我們喜歡組合新東西

  • We like to build things.

    也喜歡拆解東西

  • Then we like to take things apart.

    我們讓生物成長

  • We make things grow.

    讓東西發亮

  • We make things glow.

    甚至讓細胞舞動

  • And we make cells dance.

    這些實驗室的主要精神是開放、正向的風氣

  • The spirit of these labs, it's open, it's positive,

    但可想而知,有些人看到我們

  • but, you know, sometimes when people think of us,

    就會聯想到生物安全那些

  • the first thing that comes to mind is bio-safety,

    全都是負面的想法

  • bio-security, all the dark side stuff.

    我不會試著把這些疑慮降到最低

  • I'm not going to minimize those concerns.

    基本上,所有具影響力的科技都是一體兩面的

  • Any powerful technology is inherently dual use,

    你也知道,像是

  • and, you know, you get something like

    合成生物學、奈米生物科技

  • synthetic biology, nanobiotechnology,

    不得不承認,你不只要看重

  • it really compels you, you have to look at both

    業餘團體,也要重視專業的科學團隊

  • the amateur groups but also the professional groups,

    畢竟他們有比較好的基礎建設

  • because they have better infrastructure,

    設備較齊全

  • they have better facilities,

    也有取得病原體的管道

  • and they have access to pathogens.

    所以,聯合國就這麼做

  • So the United Nations did just that, and they recently

    最近聯合國發表了該領域的報告

  • issued a report on this whole area,

    結論是,這項科技(生科)的

  • and what they concluded was the power of this technology

    正面用途比負面風險高出許多

  • for positive was much greater than the risk for negative,

    聯合國甚至特別於DIY生科實驗社區做調查

  • and they even looked specifically at the DIYbio community,

    一點也不意外地發現

  • and they noted, not surprisingly, that the press

    媒體總是高估我們的能力

  • had a tendency to consistently overestimate our capabilities

    低估了我們的道德意識

  • and underestimate our ethics.

    事實上,DIY實驗室的人來自世界各地

  • As a matter of fact, DIY people from all over the world,

    從美國或歐洲等地的人,去年齊聚一堂

  • America, Europe, got together last year,

    在道德這議題上達成共識。在這方面

  • and we hammered out a common code of ethics.

    一般科學家和我們比起來根本是小巫見大巫

  • That's a lot more than conventional science has done.

    我們遵守國家與地方法規

  • Now, we follow state and local regulations.

    正確地處理實驗廢物

  • We dispose of our waste properly, we follow

    遵守安全程序,且不做病原體相關實驗

  • safety procedures, we don't work with pathogens.

    如果你做了病原體的實驗

  • You know, if you're working with a pathogen,

    你就不是生物駭客的一分子了

  • you're not part of the biohacker community,

    真是遺憾 大家會把你視為生物恐怖份子

  • you're part of the bioterrorist community, I'm sorry.

    那麼,有時候會有人問:

  • And sometimes people ask me,

    「做這個會不會發生意外啊?」

  • "Well, what about an accident?"

    老實説,我們平常都是做安全生物體的實驗

  • Well, working with the safe organisms that we normally

    發生意外的機率

  • work with, the chance of an accident happening

    就像是有人意外地創造了

  • with somebody accidentally creating, like,

    某種超級細菌

  • some sort of superbug,

    差不多跟薩哈拉沙漠發生暴風雪

  • that's literally about as probable as a snowstorm

    的機率一樣

  • in the middle of the Sahara Desert.

    有可能發生

  • Now, it could happen,

    但我不會用一輩子的精力去擔心這問題

  • but I'm not going to plan my life around it.

    實際上,我決定承擔另外一種風險

  • I've actually chosen to take a different kind of risk.

    我加入「個人基因組計畫」

  • I signed up for something called the Personal Genome Project.

    這是哈佛的研究。在這研究的最後階段

  • It's a study at Harvard where, at the end of the study,

    他們會取得我的基因序列

  • they're going to take my entire genomic sequence,

    我所有的病歷史,還有我的個人資料

  • all of my medical information, and my identity,

    接下來,把我的資料公開在網路上

  • and they're going to post it online for everyone to see.

    其中風險重重。在他們的同意書裡

  • There were a lot of risks involved that they talked about

    都有提到

  • during the informed consent portion.

    我最愛的一項風險是

  • The one I liked the best is,

    別人可能下載我的基因序列,拿到實驗室

  • someone could download my sequence, go back to the lab,

    重組成我的冒牌DNA

  • synthesize some fake Ellen DNA,

    並製造假的犯罪現場脫罪(笑)

  • and plant it at a crime scene. (Laughter)

    就跟DIY生物物實驗一樣,這項研究所帶來

  • But like DIYbio, the positive outcomes and

    好的結果及正面用途的可能性

  • the potential for good for a study like that

    大大超過風險

  • far outweighs the risk.

    好了 你或許會有疑問

  • Now, you might be asking yourself,

    「我能在生物實驗室裡幹甚麼?」

  • "Well, you know, what would I do in a biolab?"

    這跟以前我們會懷疑説

  • Well, it wasn't that long ago we were asking, "Well,

    「電腦到底可以做什麼?」一樣

  • what would anyone do with a personal computer?"

    這才剛開始而已

  • So this stuff is just beginning.

    我們看到的只是DNA的冰山一角

  • We're only seeing just the tip of the DNA iceberg.

    讓我吿訴你現在可以做什麼

  • Let me show you what you could do right now.

    一名德國的生物駭客,他是記者,他想知道

  • A biohacker in Germany, a journalist, wanted to know

    誰家的狗狗留下「黃金」在他家門前的街上

  • whose dog was leaving little presents on his street?

    (笑)

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    沒錯,你猜對了。他跟所有社區的狗狗

  • Yep, you guessed it. He threw tennis balls

    玩網球,分析唾液樣本

  • to all the neighborhood dogs, analyzed the saliva,

    找出兇手,並找主人理論

  • identified the dog, and confronted the dog owner.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    我發現有外來種生物入侵我家後院

  • I discovered an invasive species in my own backyard.

    長的很像瓢蟲 對吧

  • Looked like a ladybug, right?

    它其實是日本甲蟲

  • It actually is a Japanese beetle.

    還有相同技術

  • And the same kind of technology --

    叫「DNA條碼」 它很酷

  • it's called DNA barcoding, it's really cool --

    它可以用來檢驗你的魚子醬是否真的是鱘魚做的

  • You can use it to check if your caviar is really beluga,

    壽司上的鮪魚是不是真的鮪魚,或找出你花大錢買來的

  • if that sushi is really tuna, or if that goat cheese

    羊奶起司是不是真的用山羊奶做的

  • that you paid so much for is really goat's.

    在生物駭客實驗室裡,你可以分析自己的基因組

  • In a biohacker space, you can analyze your genome

    找出突變

  • for mutations.

    分析早餐的麥片,看有無含基因改造作物

  • You can analyze your breakfast cereal for GMO's,

    你也可以追溯你的祖先

  • and you can explore your ancestry.

    你可以把氣象球送到平流層

  • You can send weather balloons up into the stratosphere,

    蒐集微生物,看看那裡到底有什麼

  • collect microbes, see what's up there.

    可以用酵母做成生物感測器

  • You can make a biocensor out of yeast

    找出水裡的污染物質

  • to detect pollutants in water.

    你可以做出生質燃料電池

  • You can make some sort of a biofuel cell.

    你可以做一大堆事情

  • You can do a lot of things.

    還可以利用它來做出藝術與科學結合的設計

  • You can also do an art science project. Some of these

    有些作品真的很棒,它們用完全不同的觀點

  • are really spectacular, and they look at social,

    來看待社會與環境問題

  • ecological problems from a completely different perspective.

    真的很酷

  • It's really cool.

    有些人問我,為什麼要參與業餘生科計劃

  • Some people ask me, well, why am I involved?

    我大可在主流科學上發光發熱

  • I could have a perfectly good career in mainstream science.

    原因是在 DIY 實驗室裡

  • The thing is, there's something in these labs

    有些能貢獻給社會的東西,其他地方都找不到

  • that they have to offer society that you can't find

    有些能貢獻給社會的東西,其他地方都找不到

  • anywhere else.

    在這環境,有一點是神聖的

  • There's something sacred about a space where

    你可以做任何研究計劃,無須向別人證明

  • you can work on a project, and you don't have to justify

    這項研究是棵搖錢樹

  • to anyone that it's going to make a lot of money,

    或能夠拯救人類,甚至是否可行

  • that it's going to save mankind, or even that it's feasible.

    只要遵守安全規範即可

  • It just has to follow safety guidelines.

    如果世界各地都有生物駭客的實驗室

  • If you had spaces like this all over the world,

    就可以改變固有的想法

  • it could really change the perception

    沒人規定誰才能從事生科實驗

  • of who's allowed to do biotech.

    DIY空間就跟個人電腦獨領風潮一樣

  • It's spaces like these that spawned personal computing.

    何不試試個人生物科技

  • Why not personal biotech?

    如果在場的每個人都能加入

  • If everyone in this room got involved,

    天曉得我們能做什麼

  • who knows what we could do?

    這是個全新的領域,如同我們布魯克林人說的

  • This is such a new area, and as we say back in Brooklyn,

    好戲還在後頭呢!(笑)

  • you ain't seen nothin' yet. (Laughter)

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

能夠當分子生物學家實在太讚了! (笑)

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B1 中級 中文 TED 生物 實驗室 駭客 科技 基因

【TED】Ellen Jorgensen:Biohacking--你也能做到(Ellen Jorgensen:Biohacking--你也能做到)。 (【TED】Ellen Jorgensen: Biohacking -- you can do it, too (Ellen Jorgensen: Biohacking -- you can do it, too))

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    BH 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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