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  • This is a quadrotor

    這是個四旋翼飛行器

  • It's called a quadrotor because it has four propellars that spin & generate thrust

    它之所以叫四旋翼,是因為它有四個螺旋槳,可以旋轉&產生推力。

  • This is the pilot controlling a vehicle with a radio transmitter

    這就是飛行員用無線電發射器控制車輛。

  • That's pretty neat.But if we take a short trip across the street

    那是相當整潔的,但如果我們走一小段路到街對面去的話

  • Of course looking both ways before we cross

    當然是先看兩邊再過

  • We come to this place for this quadrotor can fly by itself

    我們來這裡是為了這個四旋翼飛行器能自己飛起來

  • without any human help at all

    徒手

  • We don't even need a pilot

    我們甚至不需要一個飛行員。

  • This flying robot can operate with extreme precision

    這款飛行機器人的操作精度極高

  • in tight indoor spaces

    在狹窄的室內空間

  • It can do some other pretty neat stuff as well

    它還可以做一些其他漂亮的東西。

  • So if you're wondering how to make robots fly

    所以如果你想知道如何讓機器人飛起來的話

  • You've come to the right place

    你來對地方了。

  • Indoor Flying Robots!

    室內飛行機器人!

  • A crash course

    速成班

  • Maybe crash course isn't the right term

    也許速成班並不是正確的術語。

  • Indoor Flying Robots!

    室內飛行機器人!

  • An expedited learning experience

    快速的學習體驗

  • To figure how to make robots fly

    要想知道如何讓機器人飛起來

  • we'll need to understand the basic physics of quadrotors

    我們需要了解四旋翼飛行器的基本物理原理。

  • How humans pilot them

    人類如何駕駛它們

  • How we can use a computer to achieve the same task

    我們如何使用計算機來完成同樣的任務?

  • And why the resulting flying robots can do more complex things

    以及為什麼由此產生的飛行機器人可以做更復雜的事情。

  • First let's take a quick look at the physics behind

    首先,讓我們快速看看背後的物理學原理

  • how the quadrotors fly

    四旋翼飛行器如何飛行

  • When the propellers spin they push downward on the air around

    當螺旋槳旋轉時,它們會向下推動周圍的空氣。

  • Newton's third law tells us that the air applies in an equal & opposite

    牛頓'第三定律告訴我們,空氣的適用範圍是相等&相反的。

  • reaction force on the propeller.When this lifting force

    當這個提升力作用在螺旋槳上時,螺旋槳就會受到反作用力。

  • equals that of gravity the quadrotor achieves hoverfly

    等於重力的四旋翼飛行器實現了懸停飛行

  • In order to bank one propeller spins slightly faster

    為了使一個螺旋槳旋轉得更快,一個螺旋槳旋轉得更快。

  • than the opposite one

    反之

  • This introduces a horizontal force in addition to the one opposing gravity

    這就引入了一個與重力相反的水準力。

  • And the vehicle moves sideways

    車子也會橫向移動

  • That's great, but it didn't tell us how the quadrotor

    這很好,但它沒有告訴我們四旋翼飛行器是怎樣的

  • can rotate about it's vertical axis

    可以圍繞它的垂直軸旋轉。

  • It turns out that newton's third law also applies to rotational force

    原來,牛頓第三定律也適用於旋轉力

  • called 'Torque'

    稱為'Torque&#39。

  • When this two propellers spin they apply a torque to the air

    當這兩個螺旋槳旋轉時,它們會對空氣施加一個扭矩。

  • in the clockwise direction. The air applies in equal and opposite reaction torque

    順時針方向。空氣中的反作用力矩相等且相反。

  • pushing the vehicle in a counterclock direction meanwhile the other two

    將車輛向逆時針方向推進,同時另外兩個

  • motors spin in the other direction plus the reaction torque

    電機向另一方向旋轉,加上反作用力矩。

  • pushes the vehicle clockwise

    順時針推送車輛

  • When all four motors are turned on the rotational force

    當四臺電機全部開啟時,旋轉力為

  • remember they are called 'Torque' s -balance each other

    請記住,他們被稱為'扭矩's-相互平衡。

  • In flight the vehicle turns by spinning two motors even so

    在飛行中,飛行器通過旋轉兩個電機來轉動,即使如此。

  • slightly faster than the other two

    比其他兩個稍快

  • That went on the basic physics of how quadrotor flies

    那是四旋翼飛行器飛行的基本物理原理

  • But before we can fly it robotically we need to know

    但在我們能用機器人飛行之前,我們需要知道:

  • how to control it. First let's figure out how a human would do that

    如何控制它。首先讓我們來看看人類是如何做到這一點的吧

  • The task can be broken down into four keysteps

    該任務可分解為四個關鍵步驟

  • First, the pilot uses his eyes to observe the vehicle

    首先,飛行員用眼睛觀察車輛的情況

  • and figure out where it is and in which direction it's pointing

    並找出它的位置和它的指向方向

  • In this example let's say the pilot see is the quadrotor is sinking

    在這個例子中,讓我們說飛行員看到的是四旋翼飛行器正在下沉。

  • Next, the pilot has to decide what control commands to give the vehicle

    接下來,飛行員要決定給車輛下達什麼控制指令。

  • In this case, the pilot has to stop the vehicle from sinking

    在這種情況下,飛行員必須阻止車輛下沉。

  • And thus decides to increase the speed of all four propellars

    是以決定提高四個推進器的速度。

  • To tell the quadrotor what is decided on the pilot uses a radio transmitter

    為了告訴四旋翼飛行器什麼是決定的,飛行員使用無線電發射器

  • which is basically a fancy remote control

    基本上是一個花哨的遙控器

  • Finally the quadrotor listens for the radio commands

    最後,四旋翼飛行器聽從無線電指令。

  • and adjust the speed of each motor accordingly.

    並相應調整各電機的轉速。

  • Now let's see how each of these forces have to change in order to

    現在讓我們來看看這些力量中的每一個都要如何改變才能

  • fly the quadrotor robotically

    四旋翼飛行器

  • In the first step, we use specialized cameras for vision

    第一步,我們使用專門的相機進行視覺處理。

  • and set up the pilot's eyes. The camera shine infrared light

    並設置了飛行員'的眼睛。攝影機用紅外線照射

  • which bounces off of more reflective markers on the vehicle

    它從車輛上更多的反光標記上反射出來。

  • and go back to the camera

    並返回到相機

  • A camera from the side point of view can tell how far the marker is

    從側面的角度看,攝影機可以知道標記的距離。

  • in the vertical direction and one horizontal direction

    在垂直方向和一個水準方向

  • And a camera from the top point of view can tell how far the marker is in both

    而從俯視角度看,攝像頭可以判斷出標記在兩個方面的距離。

  • horizontal directions. Using some slightly more complicated mathematcs

    水準方向。使用一些稍微複雜的數學

  • we can use the points of view from 12 different cameras

    我們可以使用12個不同的攝像頭的視角。

  • To determine the exact three dimensional position of the markers

    為了確定標記的準確三維位置。

  • This process is executed many times for second to track the position

    這個過程被多次執行,以秒為組織、部門跟蹤位置。

  • of the markers and pass the quadrotor in real time

    的標記,並實時傳遞給四旋翼飛行器。

  • In step two, we use a computer to handle the control commands

    第二步,我們用計算機來處理控制命令

  • in stead of the pilots brain. The computer program consists of a

    以代替飛行員的大腦。計算機程序由一個

  • couple hundred lines of C++ code written by grad students

    幾百行研究所學生寫的C++代碼。

  • who really don't get out much. It does essentially the same thing

    誰真的不怎麼出去。它基本上做同樣的事情

  • as the pilot using the observed position of the quadrotor to evaluate

    作為飛行員,利用觀察到的四旋翼的位置來評估。

  • control commands. Only it does so in a much faster and less dramatic fshion

    控制命令。只不過它的速度更快,也不那麼戲劇化。

  • In step three, the system uses a similar radio transmitter except a smaller one

    第三步,系統使用類似的無線電發射器,只是發射器較小。

  • without any switches or control sticks.

    沒有任何開關或控制桿。

  • Step four is exactly as the same as before. The quadrotor listens for

    第四步和之前完全一樣。四旋翼飛行器監聽

  • radio commands and adjust the speed of each motor accordingly.

    無線電指令,並相應調整各電機的速度。

  • So we've updated all four steps in order to make the quadrotor

    所以我們更新了所有四個步驟,以使四旋翼飛行器

  • fly entirely by itself. Now all we need is for our grad students

    完全是自己飛。現在我們需要的是我們的研究所學生

  • to press the go button and voila. One of the reasons the robot

    按一下 "開始 "按鈕,就可以了。機器人的原因之一

  • fly more precisely than the human pilot is because this loop of information

    比人類飛行員飛得更精確,就是因為這個資訊循環。

  • called a 'Feedback Control Loop' can be executed much more quickly by computers

    稱為'反饋控制環路',可由計算機更快速地執行。

  • In this case 200 times per second. This allows the researchers

    在這種情況下,每秒200次。這使得研究人員

  • to do cool things with these indoor flying robots. For instance,

    用這些室內飛行機器人來做很酷的事情。例如:

  • fly six of them at once but why not ten

    一飛沖天

  • They can teach the vehicles how to switch out their old batteries

    他們可以教車輛如何更換舊電池。

  • for new ones automically or stop propeller for swing

    自動更換新的或停止螺旋槳的擺動

  • They can even do flips like this one or this one or this one

    他們甚至可以做這樣的翻轉,這個,這個,或者這個

  • And the fun doesn't stop with quadrotors. The same technology

    而樂趣並不止於四旋翼飛行器。同樣的技術

  • can be applied to rig the shape into three wing aircraft. One more

    可以應用到三翼飛機的操縱形狀中。還有一個

  • conventional fixed wing vehicles like this one, this one and this one

    傳統的固定翼飛行器,如這個,這個和這個。

  • that can even fly in loops. Well hopefully you've learn the basics of how to make

    甚至可以循環飛行。好吧,希望你'已經學會了如何使的基礎知識。

  • robots fly. This concludes the crash course--I, I mean the expedited learning experience

    機器人飛。速成課程到此結束,我是說快速學習的經驗。

This is a quadrotor

這是個四旋翼飛行器

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Indoor Flying Robots

  • 338 9
    李應振 發佈於 2013 年 02 月 02 日
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