Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Well, now we're going to the Bahamas to meet

    現在要請大家和我一起到巴哈馬

  • a remarkable group of dolphins that I've been working with

    認識一群相當優秀的野生海豚

  • in the wild for the last 28 years.

    我們已經相處了 28 年

  • Now I'm interested in dolphins because of their large brains

    我對海豚十分感興趣因為牠們的腦子大

  • and what they might be doing with all that brainpower

    我想知道牠們是如何在野外

  • in the wild.

    發揮智能的

  • And we know they use some of that brainpower

    我們知道海豚應用某部份的智能

  • for just living complicated lives,

    解決複雜生活上的難題

  • but what do we really know about dolphin intelligence?

    但對海豚的智力 我們到底知道多少?

  • Well, we know a few things.

    我們目前知道幾件事。

  • We know that their brain-to-body ratio,

    我們知道 如果用身體的質量衡量智力

  • which is a physical measure of intelligence,

    海豚的大腦和身體的比例

  • is second only to humans.

    僅次於人類

  • Cognitively, they can understand

    基本上,

  • artificially-created languages.

    牠們懂人造語言

  • And they pass self-awareness tests in mirrors.

    牠們可以在鏡子中認出自己

  • And in some parts of the world, they use tools,

    在某些地方 牠們還會使用工具

  • like sponges to hunt fish.

    例如用海綿捕魚

  • But there's one big question left:

    但還有個很重要的問題:

  • do they have a language, and if so,

    牠們有自己的語言嗎?

  • what are they talking about?

    如果有,那牠們都在說些什麼呢?

  • So decades ago, not years ago,

    所以幾十年前,不是幾年前而已

  • I set out to find a place in the world

    我下定決心要找個地方

  • where I could observe dolphins underwater

    讓我能在水底下觀察海豚

  • to try to crack the code of their communication system.

    解開牠們的溝通系統之謎

  • Now in most parts of the world, the water's pretty murky,

    現在大部分的海域都非常混濁

  • so it's very hard to observe animals underwater,

    因此要想在水底下觀察動物比登天還難

  • but I found a community of dolphins that live

    但我發現有一群海豚

  • in these beautiful, clear, shallow sandbanks of the Bahamas

    居住在這片美麗潔淨的巴哈馬沙灘

  • which are just east of Florida.

    剛好位在佛羅里達的東邊

  • And they spend their daytime resting and socializing

    白天時海豚在安全無虞的淺水區

  • in the safety of the shallows, but at night,

    社交休憩

  • they go off the edge and hunt in deep water.

    但到了晚上,他們會離開邊界到深水區狩獵

  • Now, it's not a bad place to be a researcher, either.

    這裡也是個不錯的研究地點

  • So we go out for about five months every summer

    我們每個夏天花五個月的時間

  • in a 20-meter catamaran, and we live, sleep and work

    在 20 米長的雙體船上生活、睡覺、工作

  • at sea for weeks at a time.

    每次在海上漂泊好幾個禮拜

  • My main tool is an underwater video with a hydrophone,

    主要工具是備有水聽器的水下攝影機

  • which is an underwater microphone, and this is so

    簡而言之 就是一個水下麥克風

  • I can correlate sound and behavior.

    讓我找出牠們聲音和行為的關聯

  • And most of our work's pretty non-invasive.

    大部分的研究作業不會造成任何傷害

  • We try to follow dolphin etiquette while we're in the water,

    我們小心翼翼的跟著海豚

  • since we're actually observing them physically in the water.

    因為我們只需要在水裡實際觀察就好

  • Now, Atlantic spotted dolphins are a really nice species

    我們發現大西洋斑海豚

  • to work with for a couple of reasons.

    是最棒的研究夥伴

  • They're born without spots, and they get spots with age,

    因為牠們出生時沒有斑點斑點隨著年歲增長而出現

  • and they go through pretty distinct developmental phases,

    而且牠們有明顯不同的成長階段

  • so that's fun to track their behavior.

    因此觀察牠們的行為變得十分有趣

  • And by about the age of 15, they're fully spotted black and white.

    在 15 歲的時候 牠們身上會布滿黑白斑點

  • Now the mother you see here is Mugsy.

    現在你看到的這位海豚媽媽叫瑪格西

  • She's 35 years old in this shot,

    這個時候她 35 歲

  • but dolphins can actually live into their early 50s.

    但其實海豚可以活到 50 多歲

  • And like all the dolphins in our community,

    就像族群裡的其他海豚

  • we photographed Mugsy and tracked her little spots

    我們拍照紀錄追蹤瑪格西身上的斑點

  • and nicks in her dorsal fin,

    在牠的背鰭上做記號

  • and also the unique spot patterns

    紀錄牠成長過程中

  • as she matured over time.

    身上特殊的斑點圖騰

  • Now, young dolphins learn a lot as they're growing up,

    海豚在長大期間不斷學習

  • and they use their teenage years to practice social skills,

    牠們在青少年時期磨練社交技巧

  • and at about the age of nine, the females

    9 歲上下,母海豚性機能發育成熟

  • become sexually mature, so they can get pregnant,

    可以懷孕了

  • and the males mature quite a bit later,

    而公海豚性成熟則較晚

  • at around 15 years of age.

    要等到 15 歲

  • And dolphins are very promiscuous,

    其實海豚很花心

  • and so we have to determine who the fathers are,

    因此我們要想知道哪位是父親

  • so we do paternity tests by collecting fecal material

    就需要採集他們的糞便

  • out of the water and extracting DNA.

    拿上岸做 DNA 親子鑑定

  • So what that means is, after 28 years,

    也就是說 28 年後

  • we are tracking three generations,

    我們會追到三代的海豚

  • including grandmothers and grandfathers.

    包含牠們的祖父祖母

  • Now, dolphins are natural acousticians.

    海豚是天生的聲學家

  • They make sounds 10 times as high

    牠們能發出並接收

  • and hear sounds 10 times as high as we do.

    高出人類十倍的聲音

  • But they have other communication signals they use.

    但海豚還有其他的溝通訊號

  • They have good vision, so they use body postures to communicate.

    牠們的視力非常良好因此能用肢體語言來對話

  • They have taste, not smell.

    牠們有味覺,但沒有嗅覺

  • And they have touch.

    牠們還有觸覺

  • And sound can actually be felt in the water,

    牠們在水裡能接收聲音

  • because the acoustic impedance of tissue and water's about the same.

    因為海豚身上的聲阻組織和水是一樣的

  • So dolphins can buzz and tickle each other at a distance.

    所以在很遠的地方就能發出聲響傳給對方

  • Now, we do know some things about how sounds are used

    我們發現聲音

  • with certain behaviors.

    和某些行為有關

  • Now, the signature whistle is a whistle

    主哨聲是一種海豚的獨特哨聲

  • that's specific to an individual dolphin, and it's like a name. (Dolphin whistling noises)

    海豚都有各自的聲音就像每個人有自己的名字一樣

  • And this is the best-studied sound,

    這是最容易研究的聲音

  • because it's easy to measure, really,

    因為特別容易測量

  • and you'd find this whistle when mothers and calves

    像在媽媽和寶寶相聚的時候

  • are reuniting, for example.

    就會聽到這種聲音

  • Another well studied sound are echolocation clicks.

    另一種較容易研究的是牠們進行回聲定位的聲音

  • This is the dolphin's sonar. (Dolphin echolocation noises)

    這是海豚聲納(海豚進行回聲定位的聲音)

  • And they use these clicks to hunt and feed.

    牠們用回聲定位來狩獵和餵食

  • But they can also tightly pack these clicks together

    也能把這些聲音聚集在一起

  • into buzzes and use them socially.

    用於社交

  • For example, males will stimulate a female

    舉個例子,公海豚在交配季節

  • during a courtship chase.

    會利用這些聲音訊號來追求母海豚

  • You know, I've been buzzed in the water.

    大家知道我已經在海裡發出訊號許久

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Don't tell anyone. It's a secret.

    這是秘密,不要跟別人說

  • And you can really feel the sound. That was my point with that.

    我是說,真的會被那些聲音電到

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So dolphins are also political animals,

    海豚是很政治化的動物

  • so they have to resolve conflicts.

    所以牠們必須解決衝突

  • (Dolphin noises)

    (海豚聲)

  • And they use these burst-pulsed sounds as well as

    牠們用急促脈衝聲

  • their head-to-head behaviors when they're fighting.

    和頭對頭的動作來打架

  • And these are very unstudied sounds

    這是還沒研究的聲音

  • because they're hard to measure.

    因為實在是太難測量了

  • Now this is some video of a typical dolphin fight.

    這是很經典的海豚打架影片

  • (Dolphin noises)

    (海豚聲)

  • So you're going to see two groups,

    你會看到兩組海豚

  • and you're going to see the head-to-head posturing,

    牠們頭碰頭的姿勢

  • some open mouths,

    有的會張開嘴巴

  • lots of squawking.

    發出嘈雜的聲音

  • There's a bubble.

    還有泡泡

  • And basically, one of these groups will kind of back off

    基本上,其中一組會稍作退縮

  • and everything will resolve fine,

    然後大家就會和好如初

  • and it doesn't really escalate into violence too much.

    這並不會演變成暴力事件

  • Now, in the Bahamas, we also have resident bottlenose

    巴哈馬還住著寬吻海豚

  • that interact socially with the spotted dolphins.

    和斑海豚相互幫忙

  • For example, they babysit each other's calves.

    舉個例子 寬吻海豚會幫忙照顧斑海豚的寶寶

  • The males have dominance displays that they use

    公海豚還會展現最好的一面

  • when they're chasing each other's females.

    來追求另一種的母海豚

  • And the two species actually form temporary alliances

    而兩種海豚會暫時結盟

  • when they're chasing sharks away.

    作戰趕跑鯊魚

  • And one of the mechanisms they use to communicate

    牠們用來溝通的其中一種機制

  • their coordination is synchrony.

    是同步

  • They synchronize their sounds and their body postures

    牠們將聲音和動作調整一致

  • to look bigger and sound stronger.

    這樣看起來聽起來都更強大

  • (Dolphins noises)

    (海豚聲)

  • Now, these are bottlenose dolphins,

    這是寬吻海豚

  • and you'll see them starting to synchronize

    你可以看到海豚正在

  • their behavior and their sounds.

    使動作和聲音同步

  • (Dolphin noises)

    (海豚聲)

  • You see, they're synchronizing with their partner

    你看,牠們正在和夥伴及其他成對的海豚

  • as well as the other dyad.

    同步發聲

  • I wish I was that coordinated.

    真希望我也能跟牠們一樣協調

  • Now, it's important to remember that you're only hearing

    你要記得 你聽到的只是

  • the human-audible parts of dolphin sounds,

    人類能聽到的海豚聲

  • and dolphins make ultrasonic sounds,

    牠們會發出超聲波

  • and we use special equipment in the water

    我們在水裡用特殊機器

  • to collect these sounds.

    來蒐集這些聲音

  • Now, researchers have actually measured whistle complexity

    科學家已經測出了複雜的哨音

  • using information theory,

    靠的是資訊理論

  • and whistles rate very high relative to even human languages.

    發現哨音和人類語言有相當高的關聯性

  • But burst-pulsed sounds is a bit of a mystery.

    但是急促脈衝聲更加神秘些

  • Now, these are three spectragrams.

    這裡有三張頻譜圖

  • Two are human words, and one is a dolphin vocalizing.

    其中兩個紀錄人類說話另一個紀錄海豚的聲音

  • So just take a guess in your mind which one is the dolphin.

    你們猜猜看哪一個是海豚的

  • Now, it turns out burst-pulsed sounds actually look

    結果證明急促脈衝聲和人類音位

  • a bit like human phonemes.

    真的有幾分相似

  • Now, one way to crack the code

    解碼的方法呢

  • is to interpret these signals and figure out what they mean,

    就是找出這些訊息代表的意思

  • but it's a difficult job, and we actually don't have a Rosetta Stone yet.

    但這十分艱難而且我們也還沒找到解鎖的那把金鑰

  • But a second way to crack the code

    但我們還有第二種方法來解鎖

  • is to develop some technology,

    就是發明新的技術

  • an interface to do two-way communication,

    做出可以雙向溝通的平台

  • and that's what we've been trying to do in the Bahamas

    這就是我們在巴哈馬一直在嘗試的方式

  • and in real time.

    而且是個即時系統

  • Now, scientists have used keyboard interfaces

    科學家已經開始用鍵盤式的系統

  • to try to bridge the gap with species

    把物種間的溝通串連起來

  • including chimpanzees and dolphins.

    包含猩猩和海豚

  • This underwater keyboard in Orlando, Florida,

    這個在水底下的按鍵板位於艾波卡特的中心

  • at the Epcot Center, was actually

    在佛羅里達的奧蘭多

  • the most sophisticated ever two-way interface designed

    是目前為止最精密的雙向設計

  • for humans and dolphins to work together under the water

    讓海豚和人類能在水下一起進行研究

  • and exchange information.

    並交換資訊

  • So we wanted to develop an interface like this

    我們想在巴哈馬發展的就是這樣的系統

  • in the Bahamas, but in a more natural setting.

    但是是用更自然的方法

  • And one of the reasons we thought we could do this

    我們自認能完成這件事的原因之一就是

  • is because the dolphins were starting to show us

    那些海豚和我們一樣

  • a lot of mutual curiosity.

    對人類有相同的好奇心

  • They were spontaneously mimicking our vocalizations

    牠們先是模仿我們的聲音

  • and our postures, and they were also inviting us

    再來是我們的動作 甚至會希望我們

  • into dolphin games.

    和牠們一起遊戲

  • Now, dolphins are social mammals, so they love to play,

    海豚是喜歡遊戲的社會性哺乳動物

  • and one of their favorite games is to drag seaweed,

    牠們的遊戲像把海草四處拖行

  • or sargassum in this case, around.

    或是這裡所看到的 馬尾藻

  • And they're very adept. They like to drag it

    牠們動作熟練

  • and drop it from appendage to appendage.

    喜歡拿起來丟左丟右

  • Now in this footage, the adult is Caroh.

    影片裡的成年海豚叫卡蘿

  • She's 25 years old here, and this is her newborn, Cobalt,

    這時候她只有 25 歲另一個是她的寶寶柯柏特

  • and he's just learning how to play this game.

    牠正在學著玩遊戲

  • (Dolphin noises)

    (海豚聲)

  • She's kind of teasing him and taunting him.

    比較像是卡蘿在戲弄牠

  • He really wants that sargassum.

    牠真的很想拿到馬尾藻

  • Now, when dolphins solicit humans for this game,

    當海豚希望我們加入遊戲時

  • they'll often sink vertically in the water,

    牠們通常會垂直潛入水裡

  • and they'll have a little sargassum on their flipper,

    把馬尾藻拿在鰭上

  • and they'll sort of nudge it and drop it sometimes

    然後牠們會輕推馬尾藻 有時候用拋的

  • on the bottom and let us go get it,

    讓我們去拿

  • and then we'll have a little seaweed keep away game.

    然後我們就會開始玩丟海草遊戲

  • But when we don't dive down and get it,

    但假如我們不潛下去拿

  • they'll bring it to the surface

    牠們會拿到水面上來

  • and they'll sort of wave it in front of us on their tail

    用尾巴在我們前面晃來晃去

  • and drop it for us like they do their calves,

    然後丟在我們前面,就像教寶寶一樣

  • and then we'll pick it up and have a game.

    然後他們會撿起來,開始玩遊戲

  • And so we started thinking, well, wouldn't it be neat

    我們想,是不是能用科技

  • to build some technology that would allow the dolphins

    讓海豚可以即時和我們要

  • to request these things in real time, their favorite toys?

    牠們最喜歡的玩具?

  • So the original vision was to have a keyboard

    最原始的版本是一個掛在船下

  • hanging from the boat attached to a computer,

    連結著電腦的按鍵板

  • and the divers and dolphins would activate the keys

    潛水員和海豚能用那塊板子

  • on the keypad and happily exchange information

    開心的互動、交換資訊

  • and request toys from each other.

    或要求對方一起玩

  • But we quickly found out that dolphins simply

    但我們很快的發現到海豚

  • were not going to hang around the boat using a keyboard.

    並不喜歡繞在船邊使用按鍵板

  • They've got better things to do in the wild.

    他們在野外有更多好玩的事可做

  • They might do it in captivity, but in the wild --

    在牢裡可能很有趣,但在野外......

  • So we built a portable keyboard that we could push through the water,

    因此我們做了個可放進水裡的移動式按鍵板

  • and we labeled four objects they like to play with,

    然後找了四種牠們特別喜歡玩的東西──

  • the scarf, rope, sargassum, and also had a bow ride,

    圍巾、繩子、馬尾藻和船首乘浪

  • which is a fun activity for a dolphin. (Whistle)

    對海豚來說是個很有趣的活動(哨音)

  • And that's the scarf whistle,

    那是圍巾的哨音

  • which is also associated with a visual symbol.

    同時也連結了一個視覺符號

  • And these are artificially created whistles.

    這些都是人造的哨音

  • They're outside the dolphin's normal repertoire,

    和海豚平常的聲音完全不同

  • but they're easily mimicked by the dolphins.

    但牠們很容易就能模仿

  • And I spent four years with my colleagues Adam Pack and Fabienne Delfour,

    我和同事 Adam Pack 及 Fabienne Delfour 花了四年時間

  • working out in the field with this keyboard

    研究這個按鍵板

  • using it with each other to do requests for toys

    用它來向對方要玩具

  • while the dolphins were watching.

    而海豚則在一旁看著

  • And the dolphins could get in on the game.

    海豚能夠學會這個遊戲

  • They could point at the visual object,

    牠們能找出正確的按鈕

  • or they could mimic the whistle.

    或是能模仿出聲音

  • Now this is video of a session.

    這是某次的影片

  • The diver here has a rope toy,

    潛水員有玩具繩子

  • and I'm on the keyboard on the left,

    而我在按鍵板的左邊

  • and I've just played the rope key,

    我正在按繩子的按鍵

  • and that's the request for the toy from the human.

    這可以向人類要玩具繩

  • So I've got the rope, I'm diving down,

    然後我拿到繩子,潛下去

  • and I'm basically trying to get the dolphin's attention,

    基本上我在想辦法吸引海豚的注意力

  • because they're kind of like little kids.

    因為牠們就像小小孩一樣

  • You have to keep their attention.

    你必須讓牠們專心

  • I'm going to drop the rope, see if they come over.

    我試著把繩子丟下 看看牠們會不會跑過來

  • Here they come,

    看,牠們來了

  • and then they're going to pick up the rope

    牠們把繩子撿起來

  • and drag it around as a toy.

    當成玩具拖來拖去

  • Now, I'm at the keyboard on the left,

    現在我在按鍵板的旁邊

  • and this is actually the first time that we tried this.

    其實這是我們第一次嘗試

  • I'm going to try to request this toy, the rope toy,

    我發出繩子的聲音

  • from the dolphins using the rope sound.

    想跟海豚要玩具繩子

  • Let's see if they might actually understand what that means.

    來看看牠們有沒有聽懂

  • (Whistle)

    (哨音)

  • That's the rope whistle.

    那是繩子的哨音

  • Up come the dolphins,

    海豚來了

  • and drop off the rope, yay. Wow.

    牠們把繩子丟下來,耶!看到沒!

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)