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  • Good afternoon, Bonjour, Tansi. [English, French, Cree]

    下午好,Bonjour,Tansi.[英語、法語、克里語]

  • I'm with the Faculty of Social Work,

    我'是社會工作系的。

  • and I'm here to talk to you about an idea I'm very excited about.

    而我在這裡和你談談我很興奮的一個想法。

  • I think, as the host mentioned,

    我想,正如主持人提到的。

  • something we've talked about in Canada for a long time,

    我們在加拿大已經談論了很久的事情。

  • but it's really been coming to the forefront very recently.

    但它'真的是最近才出現的。

  • It's called basic income,

    這叫基本收入。

  • and the place to start is with the definition.

    而這個地方要從定義開始。

  • It's an income unconditionally granted to each individual

    這是一種無條件給予每個人的收入。

  • without a means test or other conditions.

    無經濟能力測試或其他條件。

  • And it actually differs in very substantial ways,

    而實際上,它的差別非常大。

  • very important ways, from existing income security programs.

    非常重要的方式,從現有的收入保障計劃。

  • It's paid to individuals, rather than households.

    它'的支付給個人,而不是家庭。

  • It's paid irrespective of any income from other sources.

    它'的支付,無論從其他來源的任何收入。

  • So people will, in the vast majority of cases,

    所以人們會,在絕大多數情況下。

  • continue to work for wages and salaries, will start small businesses, will farm.

    繼續打工掙工資和薪水,會做小生意,會種田。

  • But it provides a floor for everyone

    但它為大家提供了一個底線

  • for a very important form of economic security.

    為一種非常重要的經濟保障形式。

  • And it's paid without regard to performance of any paid work.

    而且它'的報酬不考慮任何有償工作的表現。

  • It differs very greatly

    它的差異非常大

  • from the kind of workfare, and punitive, income security programs,

    從那種工作福利,和懲罰性的收入保障計劃。

  • which have come into place in recent years.

    近年來出臺的,。

  • There's two delivery mechanisms for basic income,

    有'的兩種基本收入交付機制。

  • two general ways in which it can be paid out,

    一般有兩種支付方式。

  • and gotten into the hands of all the people in society.

    並被社會上所有的人所掌握。

  • The first one's called "a demogrant".

    第一個'的叫"demogrant"。

  • This is where a certain amount of money

    這是一定金額的地方

  • is paid on a regular basis to everybody in society.

    是定期支付給社會上每個人的。

  • It could be a check in the mail,

    可能是一張郵寄的支票。

  • it could be deposited in your bank account

    可以存入你的銀行賬戶

  • or credit union account,

    或信用社賬戶。

  • it can be, if it's designed in this way, taxed back from high-incomers

    可以,如果這樣設計的話,從高收入者那裡徵稅回來。

  • who perhaps need it less.

    誰也許更需要它。

  • But it does go to everyone in society.

    但它確實是給社會上的每一個人。

  • The second general way to deliver it is called "the negative income tax",

    第二種一般的交付方式叫做"負所得稅"。

  • also called "a refundable tax credit".

    也叫"可退稅額度"。

  • And in this case, a threshold of adequacy is set,

    而在這種情況下,設置了一個足夠的門檻。

  • an income that everybody needs

    人人有份的收入

  • in order to live a comfortable and dignified life.

    以便過上舒適而有尊嚴的生活。

  • If you fall below that threshold, then your benefit kicks in.

    如果你低於這個門檻,那麼你的福利就會生效。

  • The further you're below the threshold,

    你越是在門檻之下。

  • the more benefit you get to bring you up to the threshold.

    你得到的好處就越多,讓你達到門檻。

  • In that sense it's targeted to those most in need, and it's also perhaps

    從這個意義上說,它的目標是那些最需要的人,而且它'也可能是'的。

  • a cheaper way in which to deliver it.

    以更便宜的方式交付。

  • We actually have examples of both of these mechanisms still in place,

    其實我們現在還有這兩種機制的例子。

  • in relation to current benefits for children.

    與當前的兒童福利有關的;

  • Those of you who are old enough to remember the old family benefits,

    那些上了年紀的人,還記得以前的家庭福利。

  • - the baby bonus, in 1995, and previous -

    - 1995年的嬰兒獎金,以及以前的-----------------------------------------------。

  • it was a demogrant.

    它是一個demogrant。

  • The current child tax benefit is delivered

    目前的兒童稅收福利的提供

  • as a refundable tax credit, or a negative income tax.

    作為可退還的稅收抵免,或負所得稅。

  • What I'm going to do for the rest of my talk

    我接下來要做的是什麼?

  • is give an overview of what I think are the five key reasons we need to implement

    是概述我認為我們需要實施的五個關鍵原因。

  • an effective basic income program in this country.

    在這個國家實施有效的基本收入方案;

  • I'll go through each one individually.

    我'會逐一去看。

  • First of all,

    首先是:

  • it's really important in Canada

    在加拿大,它真的很重要

  • that we address, reduce,

    我們解決的,減少。

  • and, one would hope, eventually eliminate poverty.

    並希望最終消除貧困。

  • This is an important reason on two counts.

    這有兩個重要原因。

  • First of all, in a wealthy country like Canada, with bountiful resources

    首先,在加拿大這樣一個富裕的國家,資源豐富的國家

  • and one of the highest qualities of life in the world,

    也是世界上最高的生命品質之一。

  • it's a moral obscenity that we have the high rates of poverty that we have.

    它'是一個道德的淫穢,我們有高貧困率,我們有。

  • So there's a moral imperative.

    所以有'的道德要求。

  • The second reason we need to reduce poverty in this country

    我們需要在這個國家減少貧困的第二個原因是:

  • is because it's the smart thing to do.

    是因為它'是明智之舉。

  • I'll talk briefly about both.

    我'就簡單說說這兩件事。

  • First of all, on the moral side, why we need to address poverty.

    首先,在道德方面,我們為什麼要解決貧困問題。

  • These are some quick statistics.

    這是一些快速的統計數據。

  • One in seven, 4.9 million, Canadians live in a state of poverty.

    每七人中就有一人,即490萬加拿大人生活在貧困之中。

  • So it's a general problem.

    所以這是一個普遍的問題。

  • It hits certain vulnerable groups particularly hard.

    它對某些弱勢群體的打擊特別大。

  • Racialized families, single mothers.

    種族化家庭、單身母親;

  • The two shocking statistics for me here

    這裡有兩個讓我震驚的數據

  • are 50 percent of status first nations' children live in poverty.

    是50%的地位第一民族'兒童生活在貧困中。

  • Almost 60 percent of women with disabilities.

    近60%的殘疾婦女。

  • So it's a general problem

    所以這是一個普遍的問題

  • and it hits particular groups in very hard ways.

    而且它以非常嚴厲的方式打擊特定群體。

  • The second reason we need to reduce poverty,

    我們需要減少貧困的第二個原因。

  • and basic income is a means to do this, I would argue,

    而我認為,基本收入是實現這一目標的一種手段。

  • is that poverty costs us.

    是,貧窮讓我們付出了代價。

  • The combined public and private costs of alleviating poverty

    減輕貧困的公共和私人成本的總和。

  • or addressing the problems that result from poverty,

    或解決因貧窮而產生的問題;

  • we get into staggering figures in the 70 and 80 billion dollar range.

    我們進入700億和800億美元的驚人數字。

  • Remedial cost, this means there's a tremendous relationship

    補救成本,這意味著有巨大的關係'。

  • between living in poverty and bad health outcomes;

    生活貧困和健康狀況不佳之間的關係;

  • disease, hospitalization, heavy reliance on the healthcare system.

    疾病、住院、對醫療系統的嚴重依賴。

  • So if we can reduce poverty,

    所以如果我們能減少貧困。

  • it make sense that we could also reduce costs in the healthcare system.

    我們也可以降低醫療系統的成本,這是有道理的。

  • There's other negative effects of poverty that cost us,

    還有'貧困的其他負面影響,讓我們付出了代價。

  • including children that don't do well in school

    包括那些在學校表現不佳的孩子們

  • and need more help,

    並需要更多的幫助。

  • child welfare costs, cost in the criminal justice system.

    兒童福利費用,刑事司法系統的費用。

  • All of these problems are related with high rates of poverty.

    所有這些問題都與高貧困率有關。

  • The second point here relates with poverty,

    這裡的第二點與貧困有關。

  • there are costs related to loss of revenues.

    有與收入損失有關的費用。

  • When you're living in poverty

    當你生活在貧困中

  • you have many barriers to surmount

    壁壘森嚴

  • in order to join the labor market and have a good job.

    為了加入勞動力市場,擁有一份好工作。

  • For instance, if you talk to people who live in poverty

    例如,如果你與生活在貧困中的人交談時

  • and have to navigate the labyrinth, the maze,

    並要在迷宮中穿行,迷宮。

  • of benefits, conditions, and eligibility criteria,

    福利、條件和資格標準;

  • people in poverty often say,

    貧困人口常說:

  • "It's a full-time job, trying to be a poor person

    "這是一份全職工作,想做一個窮人。

  • and trying to get enough money to live."

    並試圖獲得足夠的錢來生活.&quot。

  • Even if you get some benefits,

    即使你得到一些好處。

  • you're still below any degree of adequacy.

    你'仍然低於任何程度的充足。

  • So if we had a basic income to eliminate that bureaucracy, that maze,

    所以,如果我們有一個基本的收入,以消除這種官僚主義,迷宮。

  • people that are currently living in poverty

    貧困人口

  • might actually have the opportunity

    可能有機會

  • to get job training, to reorganize their lives, to get a job,

    接受就業培訓,重新安排自己的生活,找到一份工作。

  • and become taxpaying citizens in the labor force.

    併成為勞動力中的納稅公民。

  • I'd like to move on to the second reason

    我想說說第二個原因。

  • that we need to implement

    我們需要實施

  • an effective basic income program in Canada.

    加拿大的有效基本收入方案;

  • And that relates to equality.

    這就涉及到平等問題。

  • There's a relationship between equality and poverty,

    平等和貧窮之間有關係。

  • but they're also distinct reasons,

    但它們也是不同的原因。

  • and give us different reasons to think about implementing basic income.

    並給我們提供不同的理由來考慮實施基本收入。

  • This chart here, just to orient you for a minute,

    這張圖,只是為了給你定位一下。

  • this comes from the work of Wilkinson and Pickett,

    這來自於威爾金森和皮克特的工作。

  • and the Equality Trust in Britain,

    和英國的平等信託基金。

  • which has done great work over the years

    多年來做了大量工作的

  • on talking about the effects of inequality in society.

    關於談論社會中不平等的影響;

  • Just to explain this chart,

    只是為了解釋這張圖。

  • the axis on the bottom, going from left to right,

    底部的軸,從左到右。

  • tracks increasing levels of income inequality

    跟蹤收入不平等程度的增加

  • in various societies.

    在各種社會中。

  • Those dots are specific countries.

    這些點是具體的國家。

  • The axis going up and down relates to health and social problems

    上升和下降的軸線與健康和社會問題有關。

  • that are related to measures of different health and social problems

    與不同的健康和社會問題的措施有關的問題。

  • such as infant mortality, low life expectancy, health problems,

    如嬰兒死亡率、低預期壽命、健康問題等。

  • rates of imprisonment, etc.

    監禁率等。

  • You'll see on the scattergram here

    你會看到這裡的散點圖。

  • that it's good to live in a country that's on the lower left of the diagram.

    那就是生活在圖中左下角的國家好'。

  • And it's not so good to live in a country that's in the upper right.

    而生活在一個右上角的國家,就不太好了'。

  • I don't know how clearly you can see it,

    我不知道你能看得多清楚。

  • but far in the upper-right is the United States,

    但遠在右上方的是美國。

  • which has high levels of income inequality,

    其中收入不平等程度很高,

  • and comes out poorly on all these measures of social problems.

    並在所有這些衡量社會問題的標準上表現不佳。

  • Down on the lower left

    在左下角

  • are countries where there's a large redistribution of income:

    是有大量收入再分配的國家。

  • Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Nordic countries, and some others.

    挪威、瑞典、芬蘭、北歐國家和其他一些國家。

  • Canada's about in the middle.

    加拿大'約在中間。

  • But what this chart demonstrates, I think,

    但這張圖所展示的,我想。

  • is that the more inequality you have

    是你越是不平等

  • the poorer the quality of life is in a given society.

    在特定社會中,生活品質越差。

  • I would argue that basic income can increase equality

    我認為,基本收入可以提高平等性。

  • and lower those kinds of poor social outcomes.

    並降低那類不良社會結果。

  • The third reason to think about implementing basic income in Canada

    思考在加拿大實施基本收入的第三個理由。

  • has to do with enabling human freedom and individual choices.

    與促進人類自由和個人選擇有關。

  • Sometimes basic income is called "a left libertarian idea".

    有時,基本收入被稱為"左派自由主義思想"。

  • It borrows from left political thinking,

    它借鏡了左派政治思想。

  • because it's about looking after one another,

    因為它'是關於互相照顧。

  • and collective responsibility, and helping each other out.

    和集體責任感,互幫互助。

  • But it's libertarian, or relates to freedom,

    但它'的自由主義,或與自由有關。

  • because it also looks

    因為它看起來也

  • at what individuals want to do with their lives,

    在個人想做的事情上。

  • and how they want to chart their course.

    以及他們想如何規劃自己的路線。

  • And one thing that basic income can do

    而基本收入能做的一件事

  • is first of all, in a negative sense,

    首先是消極意義上的。

  • it give us an exit option.

    它給了我們一個退出的選擇。

  • If we have a bad job with a bad boss,

    如果我們的工作不好,有一個不好的老闆。

  • we live with an abusive spouse, or we live in an oppressive community,

    我們與虐待我們的配偶生活在一起,或者我們生活在一個壓迫性的社會中。

  • having an economic floor,

    有一個經濟底線。

  • a regular income upon which we can depend,

    我們可以依賴的固定收入;

  • it gives us a chance to leave those bad situations

    它給了我們一個機會,離開那些糟糕的局面

  • and start a new life for ourself.

    併為我們自己開始新的生活。

  • On the more positive side,

    從更積極的方面來看。

  • basic income can enable us to pursue an education,

    基本收入可以讓我們接受教育。

  • spend more time with our families, take a career sabbatical.

    多陪陪我們的家人,在事業上休假。

  • Those kinds of choices.

    那種選擇。

  • The fourth reason that we need basic income in Canada

    我們需要加拿大基本收入的第四個原因。

  • relates to recognizing and supporting all the work that we do,

    與承認和支持我們所做的所有工作有關。

  • both paid work and unpaid work.

    有償工作和無償工作;

  • First of all, in our society today

    首先,在當今社會

  • we have a tremendous problem with precarious employment,

    我們有一個巨大的問題與不穩定的就業。

  • increasing numbers of people who work part-time,

    越來越多的人從事兼職工作;

  • work on short-term contracts,

    按短期合同工作;

  • don't have security of tenure in their jobs.

    不'在他們的工作中沒有保障的任期。

  • And this is particularly affecting young people.

    而這對年輕人的影響尤其大。

  • Basic income provides those folks with, once again, a floor

    基本收入再次為這些人提供了一個底線。

  • upon which to pursue opportunities in the labor market

    據此在勞動力市場上尋求機會

  • without worry that they're going to...

    而不用擔心他們會... ...

  • First of all, gives them chances

    首先,給他們機會

  • to think about the long term, think about retirement, buying a home,

    要考慮長遠,考慮養老、買房。

  • but also gets them out of the day-to-day grind

    但也讓他們從日常的工作中解脫出來。

  • of just trying to make ends meet.

    的只是試圖維持生計。

  • There's also increasing attention to changes in the labor market,

    還有'對勞動力市場的變化也越來越關注。

  • with information technology

    具備信息技術

  • and what I would call the relatively jobless future.

    以及我所說的相對沒有工作的未來。

  • I don't think paid work is going to disappear.

    我不'認為帶薪工作不會消失。

  • But on the other hand,

    但另一方面。

  • we can think about automobile assembly line workers.

    我們可以想想汽車裝配線的工人。

  • Their work is now done by robots.

    他們的工作現在由機器人完成。

  • We can think about bank employees who are increasingly displaced

    我們可以想一想,銀行的員工越來越多,他們的流失率越來越高

  • by online banking and automatic teller machines.

    由網上銀行和自動櫃員機。

  • I was reading recently that even highly skilled occupations

    我最近讀到,即使是高技能的職業

  • like anesthesiology,

    如麻醉學。

  • doctors that work in operating rooms to keep people sedated,

    在手術室工作的醫生,讓人們保持鎮靜;

  • they now have machines that can handle all that.

    他們現在有機器可以處理所有這些。

  • So I think the reality is,

    所以我認為現實是。

  • looking into the years ahead there's going to be fewer good jobs,

    展望未來幾年,會有更少的好工作。

  • so we have to think about how everybody's going to have

    所以,我們必須考慮如何每個人'的將有

  • enough money to live on.

    足夠的錢來生活。

  • And lastly, what basic income does

    最後,基本收入是什麼?

  • is recognize unpaid work, caring work in the home,

    是承認無償工作,在家裡做護理工作。

  • and work that people do in the community,

    和人們在社區所做的工作。

  • and expands their definition of work.

    並擴大了他們對工作的定義。

  • The last and fifth reason on the list

    名單上的最後和第五個原因

  • is that I think basic income will move us

    是我認為基本收入將推動我們

  • towards a more sustainable economy and society.

    爭取實現更可持續的經濟和社會。

  • I would argue that basic income is necessary:

    我認為,基本收入是必要的。

  • it's not sufficient by itself. it's not going to do the job.

    它本身是不夠的。 它不會做的工作。

  • We need to think about other things like carbon taxes,

    我們需要考慮其他事情,比如碳稅。

  • lowering consumption, and clean technologies, and so on.

    降耗、清潔技術等。

  • But basic income is one necessary ingredient

    但基本收入是一個必要的因素

  • in leaving a habitable planet, an environmentally sustainable planet,

    在留下一個適合居住的星球,一個環境可持續的星球。

  • for our children and our grandchildren.

    為我們的子孫後代。

  • It talks about redistribution; it's not premised on economic growth.

    它談的是再分配,它'不是以經濟增長為前提的。

  • Our welfare state programs as they've developed

    我們的福利國家計劃,因為他們已經開發了

  • have really been premised on a growing economy,

    已經真正建立在經濟增長的前提下。

  • where everybody gets a slightly bigger piece of the pie.

    在那裡,每個人都得到了一個稍大的餡餅。

  • Those days are over.

    那些日子已經過去了。

  • We have to think about steady state economics,

    我們要思考穩態經濟。

  • and we have to think about redistribution of wealth and society.

    而我們必須思考財富和社會的再分配問題。

  • I think basic income gets us partway towards that goal.

    我認為基本收入讓我們朝著這個目標前進了一部分。

  • And I think basic income

    而且我認為基本收入

  • can be one of these ingredients in an environmentally sustainable future,

    可以成為環境可持續未來的要素之一。

  • that helps us focus more

    幫助我們更專注

  • on human relationships and local community life,

    關於人際關係和當地社區生活。

  • and really connects us with those around us.

    並真正將我們與身邊的人聯繫起來。

  • It's not about more stuff,

    這'不是為了更多的東西。

  • it's not about greater levels of consumption;

    它'不是關於更大的消費水平。

  • it's about quality of life, and working and living in a communal setting.

    它'是關於生活品質,以及工作和生活在一個公共環境。

  • There's different examples of basic income-like programs

    有類似於基本收入計劃的不同例子。

  • that exist in other parts of the world.

    世界其他地區存在的。

  • In the country of Brazil there is a program called "Bolsa Familia".

    在巴西,有一個名為 "家庭補助 "的方案。

  • It resembles closely a basic income.

    它與基本收入非常相似。

  • It's been in place for years.

    它'已經存在多年了。

  • It's reached millions of Brazilians, and has had a tremendous impact

    它覆蓋了數以百萬計的巴西人,併產生了巨大的影響。

  • on lowering the depth and breadth of poverty in the country.

    降低國內貧困的深度和廣度;

  • There's a partial basic income paid out in all places,

    各地都有一部分基本收入發放。