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  • So earlier this year,

    今年年初,

  • I was informed that I would be doing a TED Talk.

    我被告知要發表一場 TED 的演說。

  • So I was excited, then I panicked,

    一開始我很興奮,然後變成緊張,

  • then I was excited, then I panicked,

    然後又很興奮,然後又很緊張,

  • and in between the excitement and the panicking,

    就在興奮與緊張之間,

  • I started to do my research,

    我開始進行一些研究,

  • and my research primarily consisted of Googling how to give a great TED Talk.

    我的研究主要是用 Google 搜尋: 如何發表一場完美的 TED 演說。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And interspersed with that,

    在這個過程中,

  • I was Googling Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.

    我也查詢了 奇瑪曼達.恩格茲.阿迪契。

  • How many of you know who that is?

    有多少人知道她是誰嗎?

  • (Cheers)

    (鼓掌)

  • So I was Googling her because I always Google her

    我 Google了她 因為我經常 Google 她,

  • because I'm just a fan,

    因為我是她的粉絲,

  • but also because she always has important and interesting things to say.

    而且因為她總是講了 重要又有趣的事情。

  • And the combination of those searches

    所有搜尋到的結果,

  • kept leading me to her talk

    總是把我引導到她的演講,

  • on the dangers of a single story,

    關於只聽單一故事的危險性,

  • on what happens when we have a solitary lens

    關於當我們只用一種視角

  • through which to understand certain groups of people,

    去觀察某些特定群體的後果。

  • and it is the perfect talk.

    這是一場完美的演講。

  • It's the talk that I would have given if I had been famous first.

    如果當初是我先成名的話, 這就是我想進行的演講。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You know, and you know, like, she's African and I'm African,

    你知道,就像,她是非洲人, 而我也是非洲人;

  • and she's a feminist and I'm a feminist,

    她是女權主義者, 而我也是女權主義者;

  • and she's a storyteller and I'm a storyteller,

    她講故事,而我也講故事;

  • so I really felt like it's my talk.

    所以我真的認為那是我的演講。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So I decided that I was going to learn how to code,

    所以我決定學習寫程式,

  • and then I was going to hack the internet

    然後去入侵網際網路,

  • and I would take down all the copies of that talk that existed,

    把所有這場演講的影片全部刪除,

  • and then I would memorize it,

    然後我會把演講內容背熟,

  • and then I would come here and deliver it as if it was my own speech.

    然後就把它當成自己的演講說出來。

  • So that plan was going really well, except the coding part,

    整個計劃進行得非常成功, 除了寫程式的部分之外;

  • and then one morning a few months ago,

    直到在幾個月前的一個早上,

  • I woke up

    當我醒來時,

  • to the news that the wife of a certain presidential candidate

    看到一則新聞當中, 某位總統候選人的太太

  • had given a speech that --

    發表了一場演說──

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • that sounded eerily like a speech given by one of my other faves,

    感覺很詭異,聽起來像是 另一個我喜歡的人在演講,

  • Michelle Obama.

    蜜雪兒.歐巴馬。

  • (Cheers)

    (歡呼)

  • And so I decided that I should probably write my own TED Talk,

    於是我決定應該寫一篇 自己的 TED 演講稿,

  • and so that is what I am here to do.

    這就是我現在要做的。

  • I'm here to talk about my own observations about storytelling.

    我要說的是自己對於 「說故事」的觀察。

  • I want to talk to you about the power of stories, of course,

    當然,我會告訴你故事的力量,

  • but I also want to talk about their limitations,

    但是我也想談它的侷限性,

  • particularly for those of us who are interested in social justice.

    特別是對於我們之中, 某些關注社會正義的人。

  • So since Adichie gave that talk seven years ago,

    自從七年前阿迪契的演講之後,

  • there has been a boom in storytelling.

    說故事形成一股風潮。

  • Stories are everywhere,

    到處都是故事,

  • and if there was a danger in the telling of one tired old tale,

    雖然這可能是老生常談,

  • then I think there has got to be lots to celebrate about the flourishing

    但我還是認爲能有這麼多的故事,

  • of so many stories and so many voices.

    能有這麼多的聲音出現, 是很值得慶祝的事。

  • Stories are the antidote to bias.

    故事是偏見的解藥。

  • In fact, today, if you are middle class and connected via the internet,

    實際上,如今,如果你屬於中產階級, 而且能連上網際網路,

  • you can download stories at the touch of a button

    你可以下載很多故事, 只需要按下滑鼠按鈕,

  • or the swipe of a screen.

    或是滑動觸控螢幕。

  • You can listen to a podcast

    你可以藉由收聼 Podcast,

  • about what it's like to grow up Dalit in Kolkata.

    瞭解加爾各答地區的 賤民階層如何生活。

  • You can hear an indigenous man in Australia

    你可以聽到澳洲的原住民

  • talk about the trials and triumphs of raising his children in dignity

    談論關於教育出端莊、 具有自尊的孩子,

  • and in pride.

    所需要進行的嘗試與成功經驗。

  • Stories make us fall in love.

    故事讓我們相愛。

  • They heal rifts and they bridge divides.

    故事能治癒裂痕,弭平分歧。

  • Stories can even make it easier for us

    故事甚至能讓我們更容易

  • to talk about the deaths of people in our societies

    談論社會上某些市井小民的死亡,

  • who don't matter, because they make us care.

    因爲故事讓我們關注這些事。

  • Right?

    對嗎?

  • I'm not so sure,

    我不是很確定,

  • and I actually work for a place called the Centre for Stories.

    事實上我在一個叫 「故事中心」的地方工作。

  • And my job is to help to tell stories

    我的工作是幫助人們

  • that challenge mainstream narratives about what it means to be black

    說出一些挑戰主流論述的故事, 例如我們經常討論的議題:

  • or a Muslim or a refugee or any of those other categories

    身爲黑人,穆斯林,難民

  • that we talk about all the time.

    以及其他族群,背後所代表的含意。

  • But I come to this work

    但是我接手這份工作,

  • after a long history as a social justice activist,

    是在我長期從事社會正義行動之後,

  • and so I'm really interested in the ways

    而且讓我非常感興趣的,

  • that people talk about nonfiction storytelling

    是人們在談論「紀實故事」時 所持的態度和方式,

  • as though it's about more than entertainment,

    認為它不只是娛樂,

  • as though it's about being a catalyst for social action.

    認為它是社會行動的催化劑。

  • It's not uncommon to hear people say

    我們常聽到人們說:

  • that stories make the world a better place.

    故事能讓世界更美好。

  • Increasingly, though, I worry that even the most poignant stories,

    不過我開始擔心: 即使是最讓人感動的故事,

  • particularly the stories about people who no one seems to care about,

    特別是那些市井小民的故事,

  • can often get in the way of action towards social justice.

    也經常會妨礙到社會正義的進行。

  • Now, this is not because storytellers mean any harm.

    這不是因爲說故事的人 故意要造成傷害。

  • Quite the contrary.

    恰恰相反,

  • Storytellers are often do-gooders like me and, I suspect, yourselves.

    說故事的人通常是想要做好事的人, 例如我,以及在座的你們。

  • And the audiences of storytellers

    而聼故事的人

  • are often deeply compassionate and empathetic people.

    通常也是充滿熱情和同情心的人。

  • Still, good intentions can have unintended consequences,

    但是,好的動機也會導致 意想不到的後果,

  • and so I want to propose that stories are not as magical as they seem.

    所以我想強調的是, 說故事並不像看起來那麽神奇。

  • So three -- because it's always got to be three --

    有三個原因,總是要有三個──

  • three reasons why I think

    我認爲有三個原因,

  • that stories don't necessarily make the world a better place.

    故事不一定會讓世界變得更好。

  • Firstly, stories can create an illusion of solidarity.

    首先,故事能產生一種 「共同一致」的幻覺。

  • There is nothing like that feel-good factor you get

    沒有其他東西能夠像 聽了奇幻故事一樣,

  • from listening to a fantastic story

    能帶給你更好的感覺了;

  • where you feel like you climbed that mountain, right,

    就彷彿是你自己征服了那座山,是的。

  • or that you befriended that death row inmate.

    或者是你和一位死刑犯成為朋友。

  • But you didn't.

    但是你並沒有真的去做。

  • You haven't done anything.

    你沒有完成任何事。

  • Listening is an important

    傾聽故事是很重要的一步,

  • but insufficient step towards social action.

    但對於社會行動來説,仍然不足夠。

  • Secondly, I think often we are drawn

    第二,我認爲人們經常會被

  • towards characters and protagonists

    那些令人喜愛、具有人性化的

  • who are likable and human.

    角色和主人公所吸引。

  • And this makes sense, of course, right?

    而且這也符合常理,是不是?

  • Because if you like someone, then you care about them.

    因爲如果你喜歡他們, 你自然就會關心他們。

  • But the inverse is also true.

    但反之亦然。

  • If you don't like someone,

    如果你不喜歡他們,

  • then you don't care about them.

    你自然也不會關心他們。

  • And if you don't care about them,

    如果你不關心他們,

  • you don't have to see yourself as having a moral obligation

    你自然也不會認爲 自己負有道義責任,

  • to think about the circumstances that shaped their lives.

    去思考那些人周遭的生活環境。

  • I learned this lesson when I was 14 years old.

    我在 14 嵗時學到了這一點。

  • I learned that actually, you don't have to like someone

    我學到的是,實際上 你不一定要喜歡某個人,

  • to recognize their wisdom,

    才能認可他的智慧;

  • and you certainly don't have to like someone

    而且你也不需要喜歡某個人,

  • to take a stand by their side.

    才能和他站在同一陣線。

  • So my bike was stolen

    我的脚踏車被偷了,

  • while I was riding it --

    在我騎著它的的時候──

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • which is possible if you're riding slowly enough, which I was.

    這是可能的,如果你騎得夠慢, 我當時就是這樣。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So one minute I'm cutting across this field

    就在我正要穿過一片田地的時候,

  • in the Nairobi neighborhood where I grew up,

    就在奈洛比附近,我生長的地方,

  • and it's like a very bumpy path,

    因為路非常崎嶇不平,

  • and so when you're riding a bike,

    所以當你騎車時,

  • you don't want to be like, you know --

    你不會想要......你知道的──

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And so I'm going like this, slowly pedaling,

    所以我就騎得很慢。

  • and all of a sudden, I'm on the floor.

    突然間,我摔倒在地上。

  • I'm on the ground, and I look up,

    當我躺在地上時,抬頭一看,

  • and there's this kid peddling away in the getaway vehicle,

    有個小孩正騎著車逃跑,

  • which is my bike,

    他騎著我的脚踏車。

  • and he's about 11 or 12 years old, and I'm on the floor,

    他大概 11 或 12 嵗, 我還倒在地上,

  • and I'm crying because I saved a lot of money for that bike,

    然後我大哭,因為我存了很久的錢 才買了這輛脚踏車,

  • and I'm crying and I stand up and I start screaming.

    於是我一邊哭,一邊站起來大喊。

  • Instinct steps in, and I start screaming, "Mwizi, mwizi!"

    出於本能,我開始大喊: "Mwizi, mwizi! "

  • which means "thief" in Swahili.

    這在斯瓦希里語中 代表「小偷」的意思。

  • And out of the woodworks, all of these people come out

    這時候許多人從伐木場跑出來,

  • and they start to give chase.

    他們開始追趕。

  • This is Africa, so mob justice in action.

    這是在非洲,當時暴民政治 正在興起。是吧?

  • Right?

    (笑聲)

  • And I round the corner, and they've captured him,

    當我走到轉角時, 他們已經抓住了小偷。

  • they've caught him.

    他們已經抓住了他。

  • The suspect has been apprehended,

    嫌犯已被逮捕,

  • and they make him give me my bike back,

    他們要他把脚踏車還給我,

  • and they also make him apologize.

    而且他們還要他道歉。

  • Again, you know, typical African justice, right?

    你知道,這是典型的非洲正義,是吧?

  • And so they make him say sorry.

    所以他們要他說:對不起。

  • And so we stand there facing each other,

    我們當時就面對面站著,

  • and he looks at me, and he says sorry,

    他看著我,說了對不起。

  • but he looks at me with this unbridled fury.

    但是他用非常憤怒的表情看著我,

  • He is very, very angry.

    他非常,非常生氣。

  • And it is the first time that I have been confronted with someone

    這是我第一次直接面對著,

  • who doesn't like me simply because of what I represent.

    一個只是因爲我的身份 而不喜歡我的人。

  • He looks at me with this look as if to say,

    他帶著那種神情看著我,彷彿在説:

  • "You, with your shiny skin and your bike, you're angry at me?"

    「你,你有光滑的皮膚, 還有一輛脚踏車,你對我生氣?」

  • So it was a hard lesson that he didn't like me,

    我知道他不喜歡我,這的確不好受,

  • but you know what, he was right.

    但是你知道嗎,他這樣想是正常的。

  • I was a middle-class kid living in a poor country.

    在這個貧窮的國家, 我是一個生長在中產階層的小孩。

  • I had a bike, and he barely had food.

    我擁有一輛脚踏車, 而他幾乎連食物都沒有。

  • Sometimes, it's the messages that we don't want to hear,

    有時候,有些訊息是我們不想聼的;

  • the ones that make us want to crawl out of ourselves,

    但是那些讓我們坐立難安的訊息,

  • that we need to hear the most.

    卻正是我們最需要聼的。

  • For every lovable storyteller who steals your heart,

    在每一位我們所喜愛的 故事演說者背後,

  • there are hundreds more whose voices are slurred and ragged,

    有成百上千個被忽略、 疲憊不堪的聲音,

  • who don't get to stand up on a stage dressed in fine clothes like this.

    他們沒有機會穿上這麽好的衣服, 站在這個講臺上。

  • There are a million angry-boy-on-a-bike stories

    有數百萬則像是 脚踏車上生氣男孩的故事,

  • and we can't afford to ignore them

    我們不應該忽視他們,

  • simply because we don't like their protagonists

    只是因爲我們不喜歡 那些故事裏的主角,

  • or because that's not the kid that we would bring home with us

    或者只是因爲,

  • from the orphanage.

    他不是我們在孤兒院 想領養的那個小孩。

  • The third reason that I think

    而第三個原因,

  • that stories don't necessarily make the world a better place

    我認爲故事不一定能讓世界更美好,

  • is that too often we are so invested in the personal narrative

    是因爲我們經常 過於投入在個人敘事中,

  • that we forget to look at the bigger picture.

    而讓我們忘記去綜觀全局。

  • And so we applaud someone

    當某些人告訴我們 他們感覺到羞辱時,

  • when they tell us about their feelings of shame,

    我們會為他們鼓掌,

  • but we don't necessarily link that to oppression.

    但這時我們不一定會聯想到壓迫。

  • We nod understandingly when someone says they felt small,

    當有人說他們覺得自己渺小, 我們會理解地點點頭,

  • but we don't link that to discrimination.

    但是我們不會聯想到這是歧視。

  • The most important stories, especially for social justice,

    那些最重要的故事, 特別是有關社會正義的,

  • are those that do both,

    是那些能夠兼顧兩方面的故事,

  • that are both personal and allow us to explore and understand the political.

    不僅能讓我們心有所感, 又能讓我們去探究和理解它背後的政治。

  • But it's not just about the stories we like

    但這不僅僅是關於 我們所喜歡的故事,

  • versus the stories we choose to ignore.

    以及我們所選擇忽視的故事 兩者間的比較。

  • Increasingly, we are living in a society where there are larger forces at play,

    逐漸的,我們生活的社會裏 出現了一股愈來愈大的力量。

  • where stories are actually for many people beginning to replace the news.

    事實上,許多人開始 用故事來取代新聞。

  • Yeah?

    沒錯吧?

  • We live in a time where we are witnessing the decline of facts,

    我們所處的時代,正在見證著: 事實開始不被重視,

  • when emotions rule

    情感開始主導一切,

  • and analysis, it's kind of boring, right?

    而理性的分析,令人感覺枯燥,對吧?

  • Where we value what we feel more than what we actually know.

    我們重視自己的感覺 遠勝過我們實際知道的真相。

  • A recent report by the Pew Center on trends in America

    探討美國趨勢的皮尤研究中心 最近有一份報告,

  • indicates that only 10 percent of young adults under the age of 30

    顯示在 30 歲以下的年輕人當中,

  • "place a lot of trust in the media."

    衹有 10% 的人 「非常信任傳播媒體」。

  • Now, this is significant.

    這是很重要的警訊。

  • It means that storytellers are gaining trust

    這意味著,在講述故事的人

  • at precisely the same moment

    贏得信任的同時,

  • that many in the media are losing the confidence in the public.

    傳播媒體正在失去大眾的信心。

  • This is not a good thing,

    這不是件好事。

  • because while stories are important

    因爲故事雖然很重要,

  • and they help us to have insights in many ways,

    它能幫助我們在很多方面獲得領悟,

  • we need the media.

    但是我們仍然需要傳播媒體。

  • From my years as a social justice activist,

    在我從事社會正義行動的時期,

  • I know very well that we need credible facts from media institutions

    我很清楚的知道,我們需要 結合傳媒機構提供的可靠事實,

  • combined with the powerful voices of storytellers.

    以及講述故事者,强而有力的聲音。

  • That's what pushes the needle forward in terms of social justice.

    這才能推動社會正義的前進。

  • In the final analysis, of course,

    最後的分析,當然,

  • it is justice

    衹有正義

  • that makes the world a better place,

    才能讓這個世界更美好。

  • not stories. Right?

    而不是故事本身,對吧?

  • And so if it is justice that we are after,

    所以說如果我們追求的是正義,

  • then I think we mustn't focus on the media or on storytellers.

    我認爲我們不應該聚焦在 媒體或是講故事的人身上。

  • We must focus on audiences,

    我們必須關注聽眾,

  • on anyone who has ever turned on a radio

    關注那些打開收音機

  • or listened to a podcast,

    或收聼 podcast 的人,

  • and that means all of us.

    這就意味著我們每一個人。

  • So a few concluding thoughts

    最後我有一些想法,

  • on what audiences can do to make the world a better place.

    關於聽眾能做些什麽, 讓這個世界更美好。

  • So firstly, the world would be a better place, I think,

    首先,我認爲這個世界會變得更好,

  • if audiences were more curious and more skeptical

    如果聽眾能夠更加好奇、更加質疑,

  • and asked more questions about the social context

    並且對於他們喜愛的故事 背後的社會脈絡,

  • that created those stories that they love so much.

    提出更多問題。

  • Secondly, the world would be a better place

    其次,這個世界會更加美好,

  • if audiences recognized that storytelling is intellectual work.

    如果大家能意識到 說故事是耗費腦力的工作。

  • And I think it would be important for audiences

    另外我認為有件事 對聽眾來說是非常重要的,

  • to demand more buttons on their favorite websites,

    就是要求他們喜愛的網站 增加更多的按鈕,

  • buttons for example that say,

    比如說,像這樣的一個按鈕:

  • "If you liked this story,

    「如果你喜歡這個故事,請點擊這裏,

  • click here to support a cause your storyteller believes in."

    支持講故事那人所捍衛的信念。」

  • Or "click here to contribute to your storyteller's next big idea."

    或者是「點擊這裏 來捐贈她下一個大理念」。

  • Often, we are committed to the platforms,

    我們一般總是忠於某個網路平台,

  • but not necessarily to the storytellers themselves.

    而不是在故事人的本身。

  • And then lastly, I think that audiences can make the world a better place

    最後,我想大家可以讓世界更美好,

  • by switching off their phones,

    我們可以關掉手機,

  • by stepping away from their screens

    遠離各種電子螢幕,

  • and stepping out into the real world beyond what feels safe.

    走進這個真實, 但感覺不太安全的世界。

  • Alice Walker has said,

    愛麗絲.華克曾經説過,

  • "Look closely at the present you are constructing.

    「仔細看著你正在建造的當下,

  • It should look like the future you are dreaming."

    那應該是你夢想中的未來。」