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  • So today I'm going to talk to you

    我今天要跟各位談的是

  • about the rise of collaborative consumption.

    合作消費的興起

  • I'm going to explain what it is

    我會先解釋這個詞

  • and try and convince you -- in just 15 minutes --

    並用15分鐘時間,試著說服你們

  • that this isn't a flimsy idea,

    這個想法是可行的、

  • or a short-term trend,

    長期的

  • but a powerful cultural and economic force

    我們現有的文化、經濟力量

  • reinventing not just what we consume,

    讓我們消費的東西、如何消費

  • but how we consume.

    展現出新樣貌

  • Now I'm going to start with a deceptively simple example.

    先用個簡單的例子

  • Hands up -- how many of you

    是的話請舉手,在座各位

  • have books, CDs, DVDs, or videos

    你們有沒有書、CD、DVD、光碟

  • lying around your house

    就擺在家中

  • that you probably won't use again,

    很可能不會再用到

  • but you can't quite bring yourself to throw away?

    但卻捨不得丟掉?

  • Can't see all the hands,

    看不清楚每隻手

  • but it looks like all of you, right?

    但似乎大家都舉手了

  • On our shelves at home,

    我家中的櫃子上

  • we have a box set of the DVD series "24,"

    放了一套影集"24"的DVD

  • season six to be precise.

    精確來說是第六季

  • I think it was bought for us around three years ago for a Christmas present.

    記得是三年前別人送的耶誕禮物

  • Now my husband, Chris, and I

    我和我老公Chris

  • love this show.

    都超愛這影集

  • But let's face it, when you've watched it once maybe, or twice,

    但說實在的,當你看過一次,或兩次

  • you don't really want to watch it again,

    你就不會再拿出來看了

  • because you know how Jack Bauer is going to defeat the terrorists.

    因為你知道Jack Bauer會打敗恐怖份子

  • So there it sits on our shelves

    那整套DVD就這樣放在櫃子上

  • obsolete to us,

    完全用不到了

  • but with immediate latent value to someone else.

    但對別人來說卻有潛在價值

  • Now before we go on, I have a confession to make.

    在我往下講之前,我要先坦承

  • I lived in New York for 10 years,

    我在紐約住了十年

  • and I am a big fan of "Sex and the City."

    我愛"慾望城市"

  • Now I'd love to watch the first movie again

    現在,我想要溫習電影版第一集

  • as sort of a warm-up to the sequel coming out next week.

    因為續集下禮拜就要上映了

  • So how easily could I swap

    那我用我不看的"24"

  • our unwanted copy of "24"

    跟別人交換"慾望城市"

  • for a wanted copy of "Sex and the City?"

    有多簡單?

  • Now you may have noticed

    你可能已經注意到

  • there's a new sector emerging called swap-trading.

    有個興起的行業叫"以物易物(swap trading)"

  • Now the easiest analogy for swap-trading

    以物易物簡單比喻

  • is like an online dating service

    就像線上交友一樣

  • for all your unwanted media.

    只是交換的是媒體資料

  • What it does is use the Internet

    基本上就是用網路

  • to create an infinite marketplace

    創造無限的市場

  • to match person A's "haves"

    可以將A的東西

  • with person C's "wants,"

    配對到C的需求

  • whatever they may be.

    不論這東西是什麼

  • The other week, I went on one of these sites,

    幾週前,我逛了幾個網站

  • appropriately called Swaptree,

    其中一個是Swaptree

  • and there were over 59,300 items

    網站上有超過59,300樣東西

  • that I could instantly swap

    是我用我的"24"

  • for my copy of "24."

    可以換來的

  • Lo and behold,

    注意囉

  • there in Reseda, CA was Rondoron

    住加州Reseda的網友rondoron

  • who wanted swap his or her

    想要用他/她的

  • "like new" copy of "Sex and the City"

    "近全新慾望城市"

  • for my copy of "24."

    交換我的"24"

  • So in other words, what's happening here

    換句話說,這網站

  • is that Swaptree

    Swaptree

  • solves my carrying company's sugar rush problem,

    解決了我的困擾

  • a problem the economists call "the coincidence of wants,"

    經濟學家稱之為"意願雙重巧合(the coincidence of wants)"

  • in approximately 60 seconds.

    而且僅用約60秒的時間

  • What's even more amazing is it will print out a postage label on the spot,

    更神奇的是,可以馬上印出購買標籤

  • because it knows the way of the item.

    因為物品重量網站上都有紀錄

  • Now there are layers of technical wonder

    像Swaptree這些網站背後

  • behind sites such as Swaptree,

    有很多的技術面可以探討

  • but that's not my interest,

    但我的興趣不是這個

  • and nor is swap trading, per se.

    也不是以物易物本身

  • My passion, and what I've spent the last few years

    我的興趣,我花了好幾年

  • dedicated to researching,

    研究的東西

  • is the collaborative behaviors and trust-mechanics

    是這些系統所隱含的合作行為

  • inherent in these systems.

    以及信任機制

  • When you think about it,

    你想想

  • it would have seemed like a crazy idea, even a few years ago,

    幾年前,這可能會是很瘋狂的想法

  • that I would swap my stuff with a total stranger

    把自己的東西就跟陌生人交換

  • whose real name I didn't know

    連真實名字都不曉得的人

  • and without any money changing hands.

    而且不是金錢交換

  • Yet 99 percent of trades on Swaptree

    但Swaptree中有99%的交換

  • happen successfully,

    都是成功的

  • and the one percent that receive a negative rating,

    另外1%得到的負評

  • it's for relatively minor reasons,

    是些相對細微的理由

  • like the item didn't arrive on time.

    像是物品未即時送達等

  • So what's happening here?

    所以這是什麼情況?

  • An extremely powerful dynamic

    一個極度多元的

  • that has huge commercial and cultural implications

    所隱含的商業、文化活動

  • is at play.

    正在興起

  • Namely, that technology

    也就是,科技

  • is enabling

    促成了

  • trust between strangers.

    陌生人間的信任

  • We now live in a global village

    我們住在地球村

  • where we can mimic the ties

    我們可以模擬出

  • that used to happen face to face,

    以前面對面交易的情況

  • but on a scale and in ways

    但就深度廣度而言

  • that have never been possible before.

    是前所未見的

  • So what's actually happening

    所以現在的情況就是

  • is that social networks and real-time technologies

    社群網站和即時技術

  • are taking us back.

    帶我們回到從前

  • We're bartering, trading,

    我們開始物物交換

  • swapping, sharing,

    以物易物、分享

  • but they're being reinvented

    而且是用更多元

  • into dynamic and appealing forms.

    更有吸引力的方式

  • What I find fascinating

    我最著迷的

  • is that we've actually wired our world to share,

    是我們其實天生就愛分享

  • whether that's our neighborhood, our school,

    不管是鄰居間、學校

  • our office, or our Facebook network,

    辦公室裡、臉書上面都是

  • and that's creating an economy

    這創造了一種經濟情況 --

  • of "what's mine is yours."

    我的就是你的

  • From the mighty eBay,

    從偉大的eBay --

  • the grandfather of exchange marketplaces,

    交換市場之祖

  • to car-sharing companies such as GoGet,

    到GoGet這種汽車分享公司

  • where you pay a monthly fee to rent cars by the hour,

    以小時計費供人租車

  • to social lending platforms such as Zopa,

    還有Zopa這種社群租賃平台

  • that will take anyone in this audience

    提供債主--例如是在座的各位

  • with 100 dollars to lend,

    每人捐100元

  • and match them with a borrower anywhere in the world,

    Zopa可以將款項借給世界角落的任一個人

  • we're sharing and collaborating again

    我們再次的分享、合作

  • in ways that I believe

    分享的方式,我認為

  • are more hip than hippie.

    真是酷斃了

  • I call this "groundswell collaborative consumption."

    我將這風潮稱為合作消費

  • Now before I dig into the different systems

    在我深入探討合作消費的

  • of collaborative consumption,

    各種系統之前

  • I'd like to try and answer the question

    我想先回答這個問題

  • that every author rightfully gets asked,

    每位作家都會被問到的

  • which is, where did this idea come from?

    就是--這點子打哪來的?

  • Now I'd like to say I woke up one morning

    我很想說,就某天一醒來

  • and said, "I'm going to write about collaborative consumption,"

    就想到"我要來寫關於合作消費的書"

  • but actually it was a complicated web

    但事實上是很複雜的

  • of seemingly disconnected ideas.

    想法也看似不相連

  • Over the next minute,

    下一分鐘

  • you're going to see a bit like a conceptual fireworks display

    你們就會看到我概念的展現

  • of all the dots that went on in my head.

    我腦袋中的各個點

  • The first thing I began to notice:

    我注意到的第一件事是 --

  • how many big concepts were emerging --

    很多大概念慢慢出現

  • from the wisdom of crowds to smart mobs --

    烏合之眾的群體智慧

  • around how ridiculously easy it is

    為了共同目標而聚集

  • to form groups for a purpose.

    變成多麼簡單的一件事

  • And linked to this crowd mania

    關於這種人群狂熱

  • were examples all around the world --

    全世界都找的到例子

  • from the election of a president

    從總統選舉

  • to the infamous Wikipedia, and everything in between --

    到Wikipedia等等

  • on what the power of numbers could achieve.

    聚沙成塔

  • Now, you know when you learn a new word,

    你們會不會覺得,學到一個新字

  • and then you start to see that word everywhere?

    就會到處都看到那個字?

  • That's what happened to me

    我也是這樣

  • when I noticed that we are moving

    當我注意到我們從

  • from passive consumers

    從被動的消費者

  • to creators,

    轉變成創造者

  • to highly enabled collaborators.

    到極富能力的合作者

  • What's happening

    現在情況是

  • is the Internet is removing the middleman,

    網路消弭了仲介

  • so that anyone from a T-shirt designer

    一個T恤設計師或是

  • to a knitter

    編織衣服的人

  • can make a living selling peer-to-peer.

    可以直接和消費者一對一接觸

  • And the ubiquitous force

    這個一對一革命

  • of this peer-to-peer revolution

    的普遍勢力

  • means that sharing is happening at phenomenal rates.

    表示"分享"以驚人的速度發生著

  • I mean, it's amazing to think

    我的意思是,想到

  • that, in every single minute of this speech,

    這演講的每秒鐘

  • 25 hours

    25小時後

  • of YouTube video will be loaded.

    就會被上傳到YouTube

  • Now what I find fascinating about these examples

    我深迷這些例子是因為

  • is how they're actually tapping into

    它們其實都和我們的

  • our primate instincts.

    動物本能密切相關

  • I mean, we're monkeys,

    我意思是,我們原是猴子阿

  • and we're born and bred to share and cooperate.

    我們就是生來分享、合作的

  • And we were doing so for thousands of years,

    幾千年以來都是如此

  • whether it's when we hunted in packs,

    不管是成群打獵

  • or farmed in cooperatives,

    或是合作農耕

  • before this big system called hyper-consumption came along

    在所謂的"過度消費"情形到來之前

  • and we built these fences

    我們築起高牆

  • and created out own little fiefdoms.

    創造自己的天地

  • But things are changing,

    但世界正在改變

  • and one of the reasons why

    其中一個原因就是

  • is the digital natives, or Gen-Y.

    這些Y世代、數位中長大的一群

  • They're growing up sharing --

    他們在分享中長大 --

  • files, video games, knowledge.

    分享檔案、電玩、知識

  • It's second nature to them.

    對他們來說是第二天性

  • So we, the millennials -- I am just a millennial --

    我們這一輩的人

  • are like foot soldiers,

    就像步兵

  • moving us from a culture of "me" to a culture of "we."

    慢慢從"我"的文化走向"我們"的文化

  • The reason why it's happening so fast

    轉變如此快速的原因

  • is because of mobile collaboration.

    是因為行動方便的合作

  • We now live in a connected age

    我們都相互連結著

  • where we can locate anyone, anytime, in real-time,

    可以即時的找到某人的行蹤

  • from a small device in our hands.

    且利用手上的小東西就可辦到

  • All of this was going through my head

    這想法在我腦子裡激盪著

  • towards the end of 2008,

    一直到2008年底

  • when, of course, the great financial crash happened.

    這時候遇到了經濟危機

  • Thomas Friedman is one of my favorite New York Times columnists,

    Thomas Friedman是我最喜歡的紐約時報專欄作家之一

  • and he poignantly commented

    尖刻的評論

  • that 2008 is when we hit a wall,

    2008年我們碰了壁

  • when Mother Nature and the market

    我們的天性及市場

  • both said, "No more."

    都說:"夠了吧"

  • Now we rationally know

    我們現在理性的了解到

  • that an economy built on hyper-consumption

    以過度消費建造起的經濟

  • is a Ponzi scheme. It's a house of cards.

    就像龐氏騙局,是不牢靠的

  • Yet, it's hard for us to individually know what to do.

    但對於個人而言,我們不曉得該做些什麼

  • So all of this is a lot of twittering, right?

    這些都只是瑣碎的想法

  • Well it was a lot of noise and complexity in my head,

    我腦子裡的眾多聲音和難題

  • until actually I realized it was happening

    直到我終於了解,這情況的產生

  • because of four key drivers.

    是因為四件事的驅使

  • One, a renewed belief in the importance of community,

    第一:對於群體重要性的新認知

  • and a very redefinition of what friend and neighbor really means.

    和何謂朋友鄰居的新定義

  • A torrent of peer-to-peer social networks

    第二:點對點的網路洪流

  • and real-time technologies,

    和即時技術

  • fundamentally changing the way we behave.

    徹底的改變了我們的行為

  • Three, pressing unresolved environmental concerns.

    第三:迫切的環境問題

  • And four, a global recession

    第四:全球經濟蕭條

  • that has fundamentally shocked

    這徹底的衝擊了

  • consumer behaviors.

    消費者行為

  • These four drivers

    這四件事

  • are fusing together

    融合在一起

  • and creating the big shift --

    創造出新的轉變

  • away from the 20th century,

    不同於20世紀

  • defined by hyper-consumption,

    是以過度消費作定義

  • towards the 21st century,

    我們前進的21世紀

  • defined by collaborative consumption.

    是以合作消費來定義的

  • I generally believe we're at an inflection point

    我深信我們正面臨回折點

  • where the sharing behaviors --

    我們共享的行為 --

  • through sites such as Flickr and Twitter

    透過像Flickr和Twitter這些網站

  • that are becoming second nature online --

    由網路形成的第二天性

  • are being applied to offline areas of our everyday lives.

    漸漸的在"下線"後,也應用到日常生活中

  • From morning commutes to the way fashion is designed

    從上班通勤到流行設計、

  • to the way we grow food,

    種植食物的方式

  • we are consuming and collaborating once again.

    我們又再次消費、合作了

  • So my co-author, Roo Rogers, and I

    我和我的共同作者Roo Rogers

  • have actually gathered thousands of examples

    搜集了成千上萬的例子

  • from all around the world of collaborative consumption.

    世界各角落合作消費的例子

  • And although they vary enormously

    這些例子不論是成熟度、目的來說

  • in scale, maturity and purpose,

    都大相逕庭

  • when we dived into them,

    但我們深入研究後

  • we realized that they could actually be organized into three clear systems.

    發現這些行為可以歸類成三大系統

  • The first is redistribution markets.

    第一:市場的再分配

  • Redistribution markets, just like Swaptree,

    市場的再分配 --就像Swaptree

  • are when you take a used, or pre-owned, item

    將你用過的二手物品

  • and move it from where it's not needed

    從物品的不需要處

  • to somewhere, or someone, where it is.

    轉移到另一個物品的需要處

  • They're increasingly thought of as the fifth 'R' --

    我們覺得這就是第五個"R"

  • reduce, reuse, recycle, repair

    原本的"減少、再利用、回收、維修"

  • and redistribute --

    加上"再分配"

  • because they stretch the life cycle of a product

    因為可以延長物品的生命週期

  • and thereby reduce waste.

    也因此減少浪費

  • The second is collaborative lifestyles.

    第二:合作的生活方式

  • This is the sharing of resources

    這是資源的分享

  • of things like money, skills and time.

    像是分享金錢、技能、時間等

  • I bet, in a couple of years,

    我敢說,幾年後

  • that phrases like "coworking"

    辦公室共享(coworking)和

  • and "couchsurfing" and "time banks"

    沙發旅行(couch surfing)、時間銀行(time banks)等概念

  • are going to become a part of everyday vernacular.

    將會成為稀疏平常的事

  • One of my favorite examples of collaborative lifestyles

    合作的生活方式中,我最喜歡的例子

  • is called Landshare.

    是土地分享

  • It's a scheme in the U.K.

    這是在英國找到的例子

  • that matches Mr. Jones,

    Jones先生

  • with some spare space in his back garden,

    將他後花園的一塊空地

  • with Mrs. Smith, a would-be grower.

    借給Smith耕種