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  • Some people are obsessed by French wines.

    有些人非常迷戀法國葡萄酒

  • Others love playing golf

    另外有些人則愛打高爾夫球

  • or devouring literature.

    或者狂嗑文學作品

  • One of my greatest pleasures in life is, I have to admit,

    我必須承認,我生活中最大的樂趣之一

  • a bit special.

    有點特別

  • I cannot tell you how much I enjoy watching cities from the sky,

    我無法告訴你,我有多愛從空中鳥瞰都市

  • from an airplane window.

    特別是從飛機的窗子向外看

  • Some cities are calmly industrious,

    有些都市看起來平靜又勤奮

  • like Dusseldorf

    像是杜塞爾多夫

  • or Louisville.

    或者如路易斯維爾

  • Others project an energy that they can hardly contain,

    有些城市投射出的能量幾乎無法隱藏

  • like New York

    像紐約

  • or Hong Kong.

    或者香港

  • And then you have Paris

    然後是巴黎

  • or Istanbul,

    或者是伊斯坦堡

  • and their patina full of history.

    滿佈歷史的銅綠

  • I see cities as living beings.

    我總喜歡把城市看成生物

  • And when I discover them from far above,

    每當我從天空下望發現他們時

  • I like to find those main streets and highways that structure their space.

    我總喜歡找到構成他們的空間的主要街道和高速公路

  • Especially at night,

    特別是在夜裡

  • when commuters make these arteries look dramatically red and golden:

    通勤者使這些交通動脈看起來火紅又金碧輝煌

  • the city's vascular system performing its vital function

    都市的血脈系統發揮它的重要功能

  • right before your eyes.

    就在你的眼前

  • But when I'm sitting in my car

    但當我坐在自己車內

  • after an hour and a half of commute every day,

    每天花上一個半小時的通勤時間

  • that reality looks very different.

    真實面往往大不相同

  • Nothing --

    什麼都沒有

  • not public radio,

    沒有公眾廣播

  • no podcast --

    沒有 podcast

  • Not even mindfulness meditation

    甚至無法放空冥想

  • makes this time worth living.

    讓這段時光值得存在

  • Isn't it absurd

    是不是很荒謬?

  • that we created cars that can reach 130 miles per hour

    人們造了每小時可跑130英里的汽車

  • and we now drive them at the same speed as 19th-century horse carriages?

    但我們開起來卻和19世紀的馬車沒有兩樣

  • In the US alone,

    單在美國一地

  • we spent 29.6 billion hours commuting in 2014.

    2014年我們就虛擲296億小時在通勤時間上

  • With that amount of time,

    把這些時間加總起來

  • ancient Egyptians could have built 26 Pyramids of Giza.

    可以讓古埃及人在吉薩城蓋26座金字塔

  • We do that in one year.

    而我們一年就浪費那麼多時間

  • A monumental waste of time, energy and human potential.

    時間、精力和人類潛力的不斷虛擲

  • For decades,

    數十年來

  • our remedy for congestion was simple:

    我們對交通阻塞的解方太過簡單

  • build new roads or enlarge existing ones.

    就是不斷的新增或拓寬現有道路

  • And it worked.

    它確實有效

  • It worked admirably for Paris,

    對巴黎市區非常有效

  • when the city tore down hundreds of historical buildings

    當巴黎市區數百個歷史建物因此遭到拆除

  • to create 85 miles

    只為了多造出 85英里

  • of transportation-friendly boulevards.

    對運輸友善的大道

  • And it still works today in fast-growing emerging cities.

    這種解法在快速成長的新興城市依然有效

  • But in more established urban centers,

    然而在許多成熟的都市中心

  • significant network expansions are almost impossible:

    要大幅如網路般延伸幾乎已不可能

  • habitat is just too dense,

    人的棲息太過密集

  • real estate, too expensive

    房地產又貴的不得了

  • and public finances, too fragile.

    公共財政又太過脆弱

  • Our city's vascular system is getting clogged, it's getting sick,

    我們城市的血脈系統正在堵塞,它病了,

  • and we should pay attention.

    而我們應該注意

  • Our current way of thinking is not working.

    我們現行的思考方式已經失靈

  • For our transportation to flow,

    對於交通流量

  • we need a new source of inspiration.

    我們需要一個新的靈感來源

  • So after 16 years working in transportation,

    經過16年在交通部門工作

  • my "aha moment" happened when speaking with a biotech customer.

    在一次與生物科技客戶談話的過程中,我的「靈光一閃時刻」終於出現

  • She was telling me how her treatment

    她告訴我,她的治療方法

  • was leveraging specific properties of our vascular system.

    不妨利用我們的血脈系統的特性

  • "Wow," I thought, "Our vascular system --

    "哇”我想到,"我們的血管系統 --

  • all the veins and arteries in our body

    我們體內所有的靜脈和動脈

  • making miracles of logistics every day."

    每天都在上演物流運籌的奇蹟

  • This is the moment I realized

    此刻我意識到

  • that biology has been in the transportation business

    生物學已在交通業務上

  • for billions of years.

    運作了數十億年

  • It has been testing countless solutions

    也測試了無數種的解方

  • to move nutrients, gases and proteins.

    來運送營養、氣體和蛋白質

  • It really is the world's most sophisticated transportation laboratory.

    它真的是世界上最複雜的運輸實驗室

  • So, what if the solution to our traffic challenges was inside us?

    那麼,我們體內的交通挑戰的解方究竟是什麼呢?

  • I wanted to know:

    我想知道

  • Why is it that blood flows in our veins most of our lives,

    為什麼血液可以在我們的大部分的生命中不斷流動

  • when our big cities get clogged on a daily basis?

    而我們的大城市卻是每天都堵塞?

  • And the reality is that you're looking at two very different networks.

    現實的情況是,你正盯著兩個非常不同的網路看

  • I don't know if you realize,

    我不知道你們有沒有聽懂

  • but each of us has 60,000 miles of blood vessels in our bodies --

    每個人體內有長達6萬英里的血管

  • 60,000 miles.

    6萬英里咧

  • That's two-and-a-half times the Earth's circumference,

    是地球圓周的二倍半

  • inside you.

    在你體內

  • What it means is that blood vessels are everywhere inside us,

    這意味著,我們體內血管幾乎無所不在

  • not just under the surface of our skin.

    不只是在我們的皮膚表面下

  • But if you look at our cities,

    但是,如果你看看我們的城市

  • yes, we have some underground subway systems

    是的,我們有一些地下鐵路系統

  • and some tunnels and bridges,

    一些隧道和橋樑

  • and also some helicopters in the sky.

    也有一些直升機在天上飛

  • But the vast majority of our traffic is focused on the ground,

    但我們大部分的交通都集中在地面上

  • on the surface.

    在表層

  • So in other words,

    換句話說

  • while our vascular system uses the three dimensions inside us,

    我們的血管系統佈滿我們體內的三個維度

  • our urban transportation is mostly two-dimensional.

    但我們的都市運輸系統卻只用了兩個維度的大部分

  • And so what we need is to embrace that verticality.

    因此,如果我們需要的是擁抱這種垂直性

  • If our surface grid is saturated,

    如果我們的道路的路網已經飽和,

  • well, let's elevate our traffic.

    好吧,不妨讓我們把自己的交通往上抬昇

  • This Chinese concept of a bus that can straddle traffic jams --

    像這個中國公共汽車的概念,就可以跨越交通堵塞--

  • that was an eye-opener on new ways to think about space and movement

    這真是開創性的新方法來思考空間和移動

  • inside our cities.

    在我們的都市之內

  • And we can go higher,

    我們可以往上走得更高

  • and suspend our transportation like we did with our electrical grid.

    並像我們懸吊電力網所做的那樣,處理我們的交通問題

  • Tel Aviv and Abu Dhabi are talking about testing

    特拉維夫和阿布達比已在談論進行測試

  • these futuristic networks of suspended magnetic pods.

    這些懸吊磁性莢艙的未來網路

  • And we can keep climbing, and fly.

    然後我們可以繼續往上爬昇,甚至起飛

  • The fact that a company like Airbus is now seriously working on flying urban taxis

    空中巴士公司目前已經認真在研究都會飛行計程車的事實

  • is telling us something.

    而它也告訴我們一些事

  • Flying cars are finally moving from science-fiction déjà vu

    飛行車最終會從科幻電影的浮生幻影

  • to attractive business-case territory.

    飛進非常具有吸引力的商業領域

  • And that's an exciting moment.

    那是很讓人興奮的時刻

  • So building this 3-D transportation network

    因此建立 3-D運輸網路

  • is one of the ways that we can mitigate and solve traffic jams.

    是我們能減緩和解決交通阻塞的方法之一

  • But it's not the only one.

    但它還不是唯一的解方

  • We have to question

    我們必須質疑

  • other fundamental choices that we made, like the vehicles we use.

    像是車輛這種我們過去所做的基本選擇

  • Just imagine a very familiar scene:

    再想像一個非常熟悉的場景

  • You've been driving for 42 minutes.

    你已開了四十二分鐘的車了

  • The two kids behind you are getting restless.

    後座的兩個小鬼已經坐不住了

  • And you're late.

    而且你已經遲到了

  • Do you see that slow car in front of you?

    你看到前面那輛龜速車了嗎?

  • Always comes when you're late, right?

    它總是在你遲到時就會出現,對吧?

  • That driver is looking for parking.

    那名駕駛人正在找停車場

  • There is no parking spot available in the area,

    這個區域已經沒有停車位

  • but how would he know?

    但他怎麼曉得?

  • It is estimated that up to 30 percent of urban traffic is generated

    據估計,城市裡的高達30%的交通量

  • by drivers looking for parking.

    是因駕駛人在找停車位所產生

  • Do you see the 100 cars around you?

    你看到你週圍的100輛汽車了嗎?

  • Eighty-five of them only have one passenger.

    其中85輛上都只有一個乘客

  • Those 85 drivers could all fit in one Londonian red bus.

    這85個司機都可以坐在同一輛倫敦紅巴士上

  • So the question is:

    所以問題是:

  • Why are we wasting so much space if it is what we need the most?

    我們為什麼浪費這麼多空間,如果它是我們最需要的?

  • Why are we doing this to ourselves?

    我們為什麼要對自己做這樣的事呢?

  • Biology would never do this.

    生物學絕對不會如此

  • Space inside our arteries is fully utilized.

    我們血管裡的空間可是充分利用

  • At every heartbeat,

    在每一次心跳

  • a higher blood pressure literally compacts millions of red blood cells

    較高的血壓會直接壓縮數百萬個血紅素細胞

  • into massive trains of oxygen

    進入大隊的氧氣列車裡

  • that quickly flow throughout our body.

    它會迅速流過我們的身體

  • And the tiny space inside our red blood cells is not wasted, either.

    即便是我們的血紅素細胞內的微小空間也絲毫沒有浪費

  • In healthy conditions,

    在健康的條件下

  • more than 95 percent of their oxygen capacity is utilized.

    它們95%以上的氧氣容量被使用

  • Can you imagine if the vehicles we used in our cities

    你能想像如果城市裡我們所使用的車輛

  • were 95 percent full,

    載客率達95%

  • all the additional space you would have to walk, to bike

    所有的額外空間,你可以步行、騎自行車

  • and to enjoy our cities?

    並且來享受城市風光?

  • The reason blood is so incredibly efficient

    血液之所以讓人難以置信地有效率的原因是

  • is that our red blood cells are not dedicated

    我們的血紅素細胞並非專門

  • to specific organs or tissues;

    給特定器官或組織使用;

  • otherwise, we would probably have traffic jams in our veins.

    否則,我們的靜脈可能會交通堵塞

  • No, they're shared.

    但,他們卻是共同分享的

  • They're shared by all the cells of our body.

    被我們體內的所有細胞所共享

  • And because our network is so extensive,

    由於我們體內的網路如此廣泛

  • each one of our 37 trillion cells gets its own deliveries of oxygen

    37兆的細胞都會收到自己應得的氧氣

  • precisely when it needs them.

    尤其它需要氧氣時

  • Blood is both a collective and individual form of transportation.

    血液兼具集體和個體的運送形式

  • But for our cities,

    然而對我們的都市來說

  • we've been stuck.

    我們嚴重阻滯

  • We've been stuck in an endless debate

    我們卡在無止盡的爭論

  • between creating a car-centric society or extensive mass-transit systems.

    認為應該建立一個以汽車為中心的社會或普遍的公共交通系統

  • I think we should transcend this.

    我想我們不妨超越一下

  • I think we can create vehicles that combine the convenience of cars and the efficiencies of trains and buses.

    我想我們可以創造兼具汽車方便性和火車、巴士有效率的載具

  • Just imagine.

    想像一下

  • You're comfortably sitting in a fast and smooth urban train,

    你可以很舒服地坐在快速、平穩的都會火車

  • along with 1,200 passengers.

    同行的還有 1,200名乘客

  • The problem with urban trains

    問題在於都會火車

  • is that sometimes you have to stop five, ten, fifteen times

    有時必須要停個五、十、十五次

  • before your final destination.

    在你抵達終點之前

  • What if in this train you didn't have to stop?

    而如果搭上一趟完全不必中停的火車呢?

  • In this train,

    在這列火車上

  • wagons can detach dynamically while you're moving

    車廂可以在你移動時動態地分離

  • and become express, driverless buses

    然後成為快速、無人駕駛的巴士

  • that move on a secondary road network.

    它還可以往次級路網移動

  • And so without a single stop,

    中間完全不需停站

  • nor a lengthy transfer,

    也無需漫長的等候轉運

  • you are now sitting in a bus that is headed toward your suburb.

    就坐在巴士朝著往你住的郊區前進

  • And when you get close,

    當你越接近

  • the section you're sitting in detaches

    你坐的那部分開始與車體分離

  • and self-drives you right to your doorstep.

    並且會自行駛往你的家門口

  • It is collective and individual at the same time.

    同時兼顧整體和個體

  • This could be one of the shared, modular, driverless vehicles of tomorrow.

    這可能是明日共享、模組化、無人駕駛車輛的一種

  • Now ...

    現在...

  • as if walking in a city buzzing with drones,

    假設你走在一個城市充滿嗡嗡叫聲的無人機、

  • flying taxis, modular buses and suspended magnetic pods

    飛行計程車、模組化的巴士和懸吊式磁性莢艙

  • was not exotic enough,

    可能都還嫌不夠奇特

  • I think there is another force in action

    我認為還有另一種力量已蠢蠢欲動

  • that will make urban traffic mesmerizing.

    這將使城市交通更迷人

  • If you think about it,

    如果你思考一下

  • the current generation of driverless cars is just trying to earn its way

    這一代無人駕駛汽車只是試圖

  • into a traffic grid made by and for humans.

    把自己融入人類所建、專為人類設計的交通網格內

  • They're trying to learn traffic rules, which is relatively simple,

    它們必須試著去學習還算相對簡單的交通規則

  • and coping with human unpredictability,

    並且應付人類的不可預期性

  • which is more challenging.

    那才真有挑戰性

  • But what would happen when whole cities become driverless?

    但如果整個城市的車輛都變成無人駕駛時又會怎樣呢?

  • Would we need traffic lights?

    我們還需要交通號誌嗎?

  • Would we need lanes?

    我們還需要畫上線道嗎?

  • How about speed limits?

    那行車速限呢?

  • Red blood cells are not flowing in lanes.

    血紅素細胞可不需要在線道上排列

  • They never stop at red lights.

    它們也不需等紅燈

  • In the first driverless cities,

    在第一個完全無人駕駛的城市裡

  • you would have no red lights and no lanes.

    將完全沒有紅燈和線道之分

  • And when all the cars are driverless and connected,

    一旦所有的車輛都無人駕駛且相互連結

  • everything is predictable and reaction time, minimum.

    所有的事都變成可預測,且反應時間會趨於最小

  • They can drive much faster

    它們可以開得更快

  • and can take any rational initiative that can speed them up

    可以採取任何合理的主動性方法加速前進

  • or the cars around them.

    或者讓在它週圍的車輛先加速

  • So instead of rigid traffic rules,

    所以拋開現行路網的交通規則

  • flow will be regulated

    車流量就會

  • by a mesh of dynamic and constantly self-improving algorithms.

    被動態且不斷自我改進的演算法加以調節

  • The result: a strange traffic

    結果是: 奇特的交通應運而生

  • that mixes the fast and smooth rigor of German autobahns

    它混合著快速、平穩且精確的德國高速公路

  • and the creative vitality of the intersections of Mumbai.

    和孟買十字路口的創造性活力

  • Traffic will be functionally exuberant.

    整個交通功能將活力旺盛

  • It will be liquid like our blood.

    像我們的血液一樣成為液態

  • And by a strange paradox,

    特別吊詭的是

  • the more robotized our traffic grid will be,

    我們的交通網格越自動化

  • the more organic and alive its movement will feel.

    會讓人越覺得它的移動更有機、更靈活

  • So yes,

    所以,是的

  • biology has all the attributes of a transportation genius today.

    生物學具有今日運輸天才的所有屬性

  • But this process has taken billions of years,

    而這樣的進程可是花了幾十億年

  • and went through all sorts of iterations and mutations.

    歷經各種迭代和突變

  • We can't wait billions of years to evolve our transportation system.

    我們無法再等數十億年來改變我們的交通系統

  • We now have the dreams,

    我們現在就擁有這個夢

  • the concepts

    觀念

  • and the technology

    以及科技

  • to create 3-D transportation networks,

    來創造3-D立體運輸網路

  • invent new vehicles

    發明新載具

  • and change the flow in our cities.

    同時改變都市的交通流量

  • Let's do it.

    讓我們來動手吧

  • Thank you.

    感謝各位

Some people are obsessed by French wines.

有些人非常迷戀法國葡萄酒

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 交通 都市 城市 車輛 駕駛

TED】Wanis Kabbaj:一個無人駕駛的世界可能是什麼樣的(Wanis Kabbaj)。 (【TED】Wanis Kabbaj: What a driverless world could look like (What a driverless world could look like | Wanis Kabbaj))

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    Kristi Yang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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