Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • I'd like you to come back with me for a moment

    我希望你可以跟著我暫時回到

  • to the 19th century,

    十九世紀,

  • specifically to June 24, 1833.

    準確來說,是1833年的6月24日。

  • The British Association for the Advancement of Science

    英國科學協會(The British Association for the Advancement of Science)

  • is holding its third meeting at the University of Cambridge.

    正在劍橋大學舉行第三次會議。

  • It's the first night of the meeting,

    這是會議的第一個晚上,

  • and a confrontation is about to take place

    而即將發生的一場爭執

  • that will change science forever.

    將永遠改變科學的面貌。

  • An elderly, white-haired man stands up.

    一位頭髮花白的長者站了起來。

  • The members of the Association are shocked to realize

    科學協會的成員驚訝地發現

  • that it's the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge,

    他是詩人山姆.泰勒.柯勒律治(Samuel Taylor Coleridge),

  • who hadn't even left his house in years until that day.

    一位多年足不出戶的詩人-直到那天。

  • They're even more shocked by what he says.

    更讓他們驚訝的是他所說的話。

  • "You must stop calling yourselves natural philosophers."

    「你不能再稱自己為自然哲學家。」

  • Coleridge felt that true philosophers like himself

    柯勒律治覺得哲學家們,像他自己本身,

  • pondered the cosmos from their armchairs.

    都是坐在扶手椅上思索宇宙的。

  • They were not mucking around in the fossil pits

    他們並沒有把煤坑搞得一團糟

  • or conducting messy experiments with electrical piles

    或是用電子零件作混亂的實驗,

  • like the members of the British Association.

    不像英國科學協會的人一樣。

  • The crowd grew angry and began to complain loudly.

    會議成員開始生氣,還大聲抗議。

  • A young Cambridge scholar named William Whewell stood up

    一位年輕的劍橋學者,威廉.修艾爾(William Whewell)站了起來

  • and quieted the audience.

    他讓所有人安靜下來。

  • He politely agreed that an appropriate name

    他很禮貌地指出

  • for the members of the association did not exist.

    一個適合協會成員使用的稱號並不存在。

  • "If 'philosophers' is taken to be too wide and lofty a term,"

    「如果“哲學家”這個稱號過於廣義和高尚,」

  • he said, "then, by analogy with 'artist,'

    他說。「那麼,參考“藝術家”(artist)這個稱呼,

  • we may form 'scientist.'"

    我們可以自稱為“科學家”(scientist)。」

  • This was the first time the word scientist

    這是「科學家」三個字第一次

  • was uttered in public,

    在公開場合出現,

  • only 179 years ago.

    而這只是179年前的事。

  • I first found out about this confrontation when I was in graduate school,

    我是在研究所的時候第一次聽到這個故事,

  • and it kind of blew me away.

    這讓我有點震驚。

  • I mean, how could the word scientist

    我是說,「科學家」這個詞

  • not have existed until 1833?

    怎麼可能在1833年以前都不存在?

  • What were scientists called before?

    那他們以前被稱為甚麼呢?

  • What had changed to make a new name necessary

    是甚麼改變了,導致

  • precisely at that moment?

    在當時必須產生一個新詞?

  • Prior to this meeting, those who studied the natural world

    在會議之前,那些研究自然世界的人

  • were talented amateurs.

    都是有才能的業餘愛好者。

  • Think of the country clergyman or squire

    想想那些鄉村裡的牧師或地主

  • collecting his beetles or fossils,

    收集甲蟲或化石,

  • like Charles Darwin, for example,

    像查爾斯.達爾文 (Charles Darwin),

  • or, the hired help of a nobleman, like Joseph Priestley,

    或是貴族雇用的幫手,像約瑟夫.普利斯特里 (Joseph Priestley),

  • who was the literary companion

    他曾是

  • to the Marquis of Lansdowne

    蘭斯多恩侯爵 (Marquis of Lansdowne) 的伙伴,

  • when he discovered oxygen.

    在他發現氧氣的時候。

  • After this, they were scientists,

    在這之後,他們全成了科學家,

  • professionals with a particular scientific method,

    成了專精於某種科學研究方法的專業人士,

  • goals, societies and funding.

    有著科學研究目標、學會和資助。

  • Much of this revolution can be traced to four men

    這個進化可以歸功於四個人

  • who met at Cambridge University in 1812:

    他們在1812年於劍橋大學相遇:

  • Charles Babbage, John Herschel, Richard Jones and William Whewell.

    查爾斯.巴貝奇、約翰.赫歇爾、理查.鐘斯和威廉.休厄爾。

  • These were brilliant, driven men

    他們都是非常聰明的、有雄心的人

  • who accomplished amazing things.

    也有不少出色的成就。

  • Charles Babbage, I think known to most TEDsters,

    查爾斯.巴貝奇(Charles Babbage),我想你們多數人都知道他,

  • invented the first mechanical calculator

    他發明了世上第一個力學計算機

  • and the first prototype of a modern computer.

    和第一個現化電腦的原型。

  • John Herschel mapped the stars of the southern hemisphere,

    約翰.赫歇爾 (John Herschel)畫下了南半球的星圖,

  • and, in his spare time, co-invented photography.

    並在他空閒的時間和別人一起發明了相機。

  • I'm sure we could all be that productive

    我相信我們都可以有如此的有生產力

  • without Facebook or Twitter to take up our time.

    只要Facebook和Twitter不再佔用我們的時間。

  • Richard Jones became an important economist

    理查.鐘斯 (Richard Jones)成為了一名重要的經濟學家

  • who later influenced Karl Marx.

    他後來影響了卡爾.馬克斯 (Karl Marx)。

  • And Whewell not only coined the term scientist,

    而休厄爾(William Whewell)不但創造了科學家一詞,

  • as well as the words anode, cathode and ion,

    以及陽極、陰極和離子這些詞,

  • but spearheaded international big science

    他也成為世界科學的先鋒

  • with his global research on the tides.

    以一份關於潮汐的國際研究。

  • In the Cambridge winter of 1812 and 1813,

    1812及13年的劍橋冬日,

  • the four met for what they called philosophical breakfasts.

    這四個年輕人在他們的「哲學早餐會」聚會

  • They talked about science

    他們談論科學

  • and the need for a new scientific revolution.

    和科學革新的必要。

  • They felt science had stagnated

    他們覺得科學正停滯不前,

  • since the days of the scientific revolution that had happened

    自十七世紀的科學革命以後

  • in the 17th century.

    便一直如此。

  • It was time for a new revolution,

    事實後有所改變了,

  • which they pledged to bring about,

    他們嘗試提出這一點,

  • and what's so amazing about these guys is,

    而他們出色的地方在於

  • not only did they have these

    他們不只有這些

  • grandiose undergraduate dreams,

    大學生的偉大夢想,

  • but they actually carried them out,

    他們更把夢想帶到現實實行,

  • even beyond their wildest dreams.

    即使這些夢想聽起來像天馬行空。

  • And I'm going to tell you today

    而我今天要告訴你們

  • about four major changes to science these men made.

    這些年輕人帶來的四個重大改變。

  • About 200 years before,

    在200年前,

  • Francis Bacon and then, later, Isaac Newton,

    法蘭西斯.培根 (Francis Bacon) 和之後的艾薩克.牛頓 (Issac Newton),

  • had proposed an inductive scientific method.

    曾提出歸納科學方法。

  • Now that's a method that starts from

    此科學方法基於

  • observations and experiments

    觀察和實驗

  • and moves to generalizations about nature called natural laws,

    而後將結果歸納成大自然的規則,

  • which are always subject to revision or rejection

    這些規則將持續被修正,甚至被否決,

  • should new evidence arise.

    如果有新的證據出現的話。

  • However, in 1809, David Ricardo muddied the waters

    可是,在1809年,當大衛.李嘉圖 (David Ricardo)

  • by arguing that the science of economics

    認為經濟這門科學

  • should use a different, deductive method.

    該以和歸納法不同的演譯法來研究。

  • The problem was that an influential group at Oxford

    問題在於牛津一群有影響力的人

  • began arguing that because it worked so well in economics,

    也開始認為演譯法既然在經濟學上有效,

  • this deductive method ought to be applied

    這方法也應該適用於

  • to the natural sciences too.

    自然科學才對。

  • The members of the philosophical breakfast club disagreed.

    哲學早餐會的幾位成員反對。

  • They wrote books and articles promoting inductive method

    他們為了推廣歸納法著書立說,

  • in all the sciences

    在所有科學領域

  • that were widely read by natural philosophers,

    包含自然哲學家

  • university students and members of the public.

    大學生和公眾皆能閱讀的書刊上出版,

  • Reading one of Herschel's books

    閱讀赫歇爾的其中一本著作

  • was such a watershed moment for Charles Darwin

    對達爾文來說是一個分水嶺

  • that he would later say, "Scarcely anything in my life

    後來他說:「在我的人生中

  • made so deep an impression on me.

    很少有這麼讓我印象深刻的東西。

  • It made me wish to add my might

    它讓我想要參與貢獻

  • to the accumulated store of natural knowledge."

    去成就一個更大的自然知識資料庫。」

  • It also shaped Darwin's scientific method,

    赫歇爾的書也助達爾文訂立了他的科學研究方法,

  • as well as that used by his peers.

    同時也影響了他的同儕。

  • [Science for the public good]

    [成就公益的科學]

  • Previously, it was believed that scientific knowledge

    在這以前,科學知識常被認為是

  • ought to be used for the good of the king or queen,

    用於滿足國王或皇后

  • or for one's own personal gain.

    甚至個人的需求或欲望。

  • For example, ship captains needed to know

    例如,船長們需要知道

  • information about the tides in order to safely dock at ports.

    潮汐漲退的資料以安全停泊到港口。

  • Harbormasters would gather this knowledge

    港口主人們會搜集這些資訊

  • and sell it to the ship captains.

    賣給船長們。

  • The philosophical breakfast club changed that,

    哲學早餐會改變了這樣的情況,

  • working together.

    在眾人合力之下,

  • Whewell's worldwide study of the tides

    休厄爾的世界潮汐研究

  • resulted in public tide tables and tidal maps

    讓公開的潮汐表和地圖得以面世

  • that freely provided the harbormasters' knowledge

    這些曾是港口主人的專門知識

  • to all ship captains.

    船長們終於可以免費取得。

  • Herschel helped by making tidal observations

    赫歇爾的貢獻包括觀察潮汐變化,

  • off the coast of South Africa,

    在南非海岸

  • and, as he complained to Whewell,

    還有,他也曾向休厄爾訴苦

  • he was knocked off the docks during a violent high tide for his trouble.

    說他觀察途中曾因強烈的潮汐而在甲板上狠狠跌倒。

  • The four men really helped each other in every way.

    他們四個真的在各方面互相幫忙。

  • They also relentlessly lobbied the British government

    他們也不間斷地遊說英國政府

  • for the money to build Babbage's engines

    出資給巴貝奇建造引擎

  • because they believed these engines

    因為他們相信這些引擎

  • would have a huge practical impact on society.

    將會對社會有重大影響。

  • In the days before pocket calculators,

    在沒有計算機的年代,

  • the numbers that most professionals needed --

    專業人士最需要的數字﹣﹣

  • bankers, insurance agents, ship captains, engineers

    銀行家、保險從業員、船長、工程師們﹣﹣

  • were to be found in lookup books like this,

    都在像這樣的工具書裡,

  • filled with tables of figures.

    在這些密密麻麻的圖表間。

  • These tables were calculated

    這些圖表

  • using a fixed procedure over and over

    是用固定的程序重複地計算出來的

  • by part-time workers known as -- and this is amazing -- computers,

    這些打工的計算人員被稱為﹣﹣電腦,不可思議吧

  • but these calculations were really difficult.

    但這些都是很困難的算式。

  • I mean, this nautical almanac

    我是說,這些航海天文曆

  • published the lunar differences for every month of the year.

    包含了每個月的月球活動差異。

  • Each month required 1,365 calculations,

    每個月需要1365次計算,

  • so these tables were filled with mistakes.

    所以這些圖表都有不少錯漏。

  • Babbage's difference engine was the first mechanical calculator

    巴貝奇想製造的計算機器是最早的機械計算器

  • devised to accurately compute any of these tables.

    是為了準確計算出圖表所需資料而設計的。

  • Two models of his engine were built in the last 20 years

    在過去的20年間,他這個機器的兩個版本

  • by a team from the Science Museum of London

    由倫敦科學博物館一組人員

  • using his own plans.

    根據他的想法製造出來。

  • This is the one now at the Computer History Museum in California,

    這就是現在加洲電腦歷史博物館內的展品

  • and it calculates accurately. It actually works.

    它計算結果很準確。它是有效的。

  • Later, Babbage's analytical engine

    之後,巴貝奇的分析機器

  • was the first mechanical computer in the modern sense.

    是世上首部現代機械計算機。

  • It had a separate memory and central processor.

    它有獨立的記憶體和中央處理器。

  • It was capable of iteration, conditional branching

    它可以進行複述、條件分支 (conditional branching)

  • and parallel processing,

    和平行處理 (parallel processing)。

  • and it was programmable using punched cards,

    它也可以使用孔卡紙 (punched cards) 運算程式,

  • an idea Babbage took from Jacquard's loom.

    這是巴貝奇參考提花織機所設計的。

  • Tragically, Babbage's engines never were built in his day

    很可惜他設計的這部機器在他在世時並沒有被實正製作出來

  • because most people thought that

    因為很多人以為

  • non-human computers would have no usefulness

    純機器的「電腦」對於公眾來說

  • for the public.

    是沒有用處的。

  • [New scientific institutions]

    [新科學機構]

  • Founded in Bacon's time, the Royal Society of London

    倫敦皇家學會在培根的年代創立,

  • was the foremost scientific society in England

    它曾是英國最先進的科學學會

  • and even in the rest of the world.

    甚至在全世界來說也是。

  • By the 19th century, it had become

    直至19世紀,它已變成

  • a kind of gentleman's club

    一種紳士的俱樂部

  • populated mainly by antiquarians, literary men and the nobility.

    成員主要為古物愛好者、文人和貴族。

  • The members of the philosophical breakfast club

    哲學早餐會的成員們

  • helped form a number of new scientific societies,

    協助了數個新科學學會成立,

  • including the British Association.

    其中包括了英國協會 (the British Association)。

  • These new societies required

    這些新學會要求

  • that members be active researchers publishing their results.

    他們的會員必須為活躍的研究者,並出版他們的研究成果。

  • They reinstated the tradition of the Q&A

    他們恢復了科學研究論文公開後

  • after scientific papers were read,

    設問答環節的傳統,

  • which had been discontinued by the Royal Society

    這傳統曾被皇家學會下令停止

  • as being ungentlemanly.

    原因是這不應是紳士所為。

  • And for the first time, they gave women a foot in the door of science.

    而這也是第一次他們接納女性進入科學的世界。

  • Members were encouraged to bring their wives,

    他們歡迎會員帶同妻子、

  • daughters and sisters to the meetings of the British Association,

    女兒或姊妹到英國協會的會議,

  • and while the women were expected to attend

    他們只預期女性參加

  • only the public lectures and the social events like this one,

    公開演說和類似答辯會之類的社交活動

  • they began to infiltrate the scientific sessions as well.

    但漸漸地女性也開始參加科學會議。

  • The British Association would later be the first

    英國協會隨後成為

  • of the major national science organizations in the world

    世上最重要的幾個科學組織之首

  • to admit women as full members.

    接納女性成為會員的協會。

  • [External funding for science]

    [支持科學研究的外來資金]

  • Up to the 19th century,

    直至19世紀,

  • natural philosophers were expected to pay

    自然哲學家都是自掏腰包

  • for their own equipment and supplies.

    購買他們所需的設備和儀器。

  • Occasionally, there were prizes,

    他們偶爾會得到獎金,

  • such as that given to John Harrison in the 18th century,

    就像18世紀時約翰.哈里森 (John Harrison)

  • for solving the so-called longitude problem,

    解答所謂經度問題所得的獎金,

  • but prizes were only given after the fact,

    但這些獎賞都是研究有成果後才有可能得到的

  • when they were given at all.

    有時即使完成了研究也拿不到。

  • On the advice of the philosophical breakfast club,

    哲學早餐會的成員建議,

  • the British Association began to use the extra money

    英國協會可以把多餘的資金

  • generated by its meetings to give grants

    會議所得的金錢

  • for research in astronomy, the tides, fossil fish,

    授予科學家作天文、潮汐、化石魚、

  • shipbuilding, and many other areas.

    造船等等方面的研究。

  • These grants not only allowed

    這些補助不但

  • less wealthy men to conduct research,

    幫助不甚富有的科學家進行研究,

  • but they also encouraged thinking outside the box,

    也鼓勵了他們更有創意、提出新的問題,

  • rather than just trying to solve one pre-set question.

    而非只是解答已被提出的問題。

  • Eventually, the Royal Society

    最後,皇家學會

  • and the scientific societies of other countries followed suit,

    和其他國家的科學學會都採用了這種方法,

  • and this has become -- fortunately it's become --

    而這種補助形式也很幸運地

  • a major part of the scientific landscape today.

    成為了今天科學研究的主流。

  • So the philosophical breakfast club

    所以哲學早餐會

  • helped invent the modern scientist.

    其實對現代科學家的出現大有貢獻。

  • That's the heroic part of their story.

    這是他們偉大的故事。

  • There's a flip side as well.

    故事也有另外一面。

  • They did not foresee at least one consequence

    他們並沒有想像到他們

  • of their revolution.

    所作的事將會帶來甚麼改變。

  • They would have been deeply dismayed

    他們會對今天科學和其他文化層面漸行漸遠的現象

  • by today's disjunction between science and the rest of culture.

    感到驚訝和沮喪。

  • It's shocking to realize

    這是非常令人震驚的

  • that only 28 percent of American adults

    只有百分之二十八的美國成年人

  • have even a very basic level of science literacy,

    對科學有基本的認識,

  • and this was tested by asking simple questions like,

    用一個簡單的問題就可以測試出來,

  • "Did humans and dinosaurs inhabit the Earth at the same time?"

    「人類和恐龍曾同時住在這個地球上嗎?」

  • and "What proportion of the Earth is covered in water?"

    或是「地球表面有多少百分比是被水覆蓋的?」

  • Once scientists became members of a professional group,

    當科學成為一種專業後,

  • they were slowly walled off from the rest of us.

    這些學問也距離普通人愈來愈遠了。

  • This is the unintended consequence of the revolution

    這不是科學改革想見到的後果

  • that started with our four friends.

    是我們這四位朋友所為的後果。 (註:指哲學早餐會四人)

  • Charles Darwin said,

    達爾文說過,

  • "I sometimes think that general and popular treatises

    「我有時會覺得,一般的或時下流行的論文

  • are almost as important for the progress of science

    對科學的發展和

  • as original work."

    原創的研究差不多重要。」

  • In fact, "Origin of Species" was written

    其實,《物種起源》一開始

  • for a general and popular audience,

    是為了普羅大眾而寫的,

  • and was widely read when it first appeared.

    在它出版後也被廣泛閱讀。

  • Darwin knew what we seem to have forgotten,

    達爾文知道我們或許已經遺忘的事實:

  • that science is not only for scientists.

    即科學不是科學家的專利。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I'd like you to come back with me for a moment

我希望你可以跟著我暫時回到

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED 科學 協會 研究 哲學 科學家

【TED】Laura Snyder: 《哲學早餐會》的故事 (Laura Snyder: The Philosophical Breakfast Club)

  • 1615 131
    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 06 月 10 日
影片單字