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  • Have you ever tried to picture an ideal world?

    你曾想像過理想世界的面貌嗎?

  • One without war, poverty, or crime?

    一個沒有戰爭、貧窮或犯罪的世界?

  • If so, you're not alone.

    如果有過,你不是唯一一個這樣想的

  • Plato imagined an enlightened republic ruled by philosopher kings,

    柏拉圖曾想過一個由哲學家的國王所領導的開明共和國

  • many religions promise bliss in the afterlife,

    許多宗教都承諾來世會有極樂

  • and throughout history,

    而綜觀歷史

  • various groups have tried to build paradise on Earth.

    許多團體都試著在地球上建造天堂

  • Thomas More's 1516 book "Utopia" gave this concept a name,

    湯瑪斯‧莫爾在1516年的著作《烏托邦》中,給這個觀念起了個名字

  • Greek for "no place."

    在希臘語中意指「不存在的地方」

  • Though the name suggested impossibility,

    雖然這個名稱暗示著理想世界不可能存在

  • modern scientific and political progress

    現代科學與政治的進步

  • raised hopes of these dreams finally becoming reality.

    給這些終將實現的夢想帶來了希望

  • But time and time again, they instead turned into nightmares

    然而,這些夢想卻再三地轉變成

  • of war, famine, and oppression.

    戰爭、飢荒和壓迫的夢魘

  • And as artists began to question utopian thinking,

    而正當藝術家開始質疑烏托邦思想之時

  • the genre of dystopia, the not good place, was born.

    反烏托邦此種流派,意指不好的地方,便隨之誕生

  • One of the earliest dystopian works is Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Travels."

    強納森‧史威夫特的《格列佛遊記》即為早期的反烏托邦著作

  • Throughout his journey, Gulliver encounters fictional societies,

    格列佛在旅途中遇到了虛構的社會

  • some of which at first seem impressive, but turn out to be seriously flawed.

    有些社會是金玉其外,敗絮其內

  • On the flying island of Laputa,

    在拉普塔這個飛島國上

  • scientists and social planners pursue extravagant and useless schemes

    科學家與社會規劃者從事奢侈又無用的計畫

  • while neglecting the practical needs of the people below.

    同時又忽略島下人們的實際需求

  • And the Houyhnhnm who live in perfectly logical harmony

    而慧駰這群過著完全和睦生活的馬

  • have no tolerance for the imperfections of actual human beings.

    無法忍受人類的不完美

  • With his novel, Swift established a blueprint for dystopia,

    史威夫特藉由他的這本小說,為反烏托邦建立了藍圖

  • imagining a world where certain trends in contemporary society

    想像世界上當代社會的某些趨勢

  • are taken to extremes,

    走向極端

  • exposing their underlying flaws.

    暴露出社會上潛在的缺點

  • And the next few centuries would provide plenty of material.

    而接下來幾世紀提供了許多實例

  • Industrial technology that promised to free laborers

    原本有可能會解放勞工的工業技術

  • imprisoned them in slums and factories, instead,

    卻將他們囚禁在貧民窟和工廠裡

  • while tycoons grew richer than kings.

    而企業大亨變得比國王還有錢

  • By the late 1800's, many feared where such conditions might lead.

    到了十九世紀晚期,許多人都害怕這種情況不知道會變得如何

  • H. G. Wells's "The Time Machine" imagined upper classes and workers

    赫伯特·喬治·威爾斯的《時間機器》描繪上流階級與勞動階級

  • evolving into separate species,

    進化成不同的物種

  • while Jack London's "The Iron Heel" portrayed a tyrannical oligarchy

    而傑克‧倫敦的《鐵踵》則描繪專制的寡頭政權

  • ruling over impoverished masses.

    統治著貧困的民眾

  • The new century brought more exciting and terrifying changes.

    新的世紀帶來了更令人興奮卻更恐怖的改變

  • Medical advances made it possible to transcend biological limits

    醫學進步讓人類可以超越生物限制

  • while mass media allowed instant communication

    而大眾媒體讓領導人與社會大眾

  • between leaders and the public.

    能夠即時交流

  • In Aldous Huxley's "Brave New World", citizens are genetically engineered

    阿道斯·赫胥黎的《美麗新世界》中,市民經過基因工程處理

  • and conditioned to perform their social roles.

    並受到制約以表現自己所屬的社會角色

  • While propaganda and drugs keep the society happy,

    雖然政治宣傳和藥物讓這個社會一直感到開心

  • it's clear some crucial human element is lost.

    但顯然人類已經喪失了某些重要的人性

  • But the best known dystopias were not imaginary at all.

    然而,最有名的反烏托邦不是憑空想像的

  • As Europe suffered unprecedented industrial warfare,

    正當歐洲經歷史無前例的工業革命戰爭時

  • new political movements took power.

    新的政治運動掌權了

  • Some promised to erase all social distinctions,

    有些人保證要弭平社會差異

  • while others sought to unite people around a mythical heritage.

    有些人則在神祕的遺產裡試圖統一人民

  • The results were real-world dystopias

    結果是在真實世界的反烏托邦社會裡

  • where life passed under the watchful eye of the State

    人們在國家的監視下活著

  • and death came with ruthless efficiency to any who didn't belong.

    而死亡無情地奪走那些沒有國家的人

  • Many writers of the time didn't just observe these horrors,

    當時許多作家不僅是目睹了這些恐怖的事

  • but lived through them.

    更經歷了這一切

  • In his novel "We", Soviet writer Yevgeny Zamyatin described a future

    蘇維埃作者葉夫根尼·薩米爾欽在他的小說「我們」裡

  • where free will and individuality were eliminated.

    描述了一個自由意志和個人特徵都被泯除的未來世界

  • Banned in the U.S.S.R., the book inspired authors like George Orwell

    這本書在蘇聯遭禁,但激勵了如喬治·歐威爾等作家

  • who fought on the front lines against both fascism and communism.

    他們在前線與法西斯主義和共產主義作戰

  • While his novel "Animal Farm" directly mocked the Soviet regime,

    喬治‧歐威爾的小說《動物農莊》直接諷刺了蘇聯政權

  • the classic "1984" was a broader critique of totalitarianism, media, and language.

    其經典小說《1984》更廣泛地批評了極權主義、媒體和語言

  • And in the U.S.A., Sinclair Lewis's "It Can't Happen Here"

    在美國,辛克萊·路易斯的《不可能在這裡發生》

  • envisioned how easily democracy gave way to fascism.

    想像了民主是多麼容易屈服於法西斯主義

  • In the decades after World War II,

    二次世界大戰過後的幾十年

  • writers wondered what new technologies

    作家們想知道新的科技

  • like atomic energy, artificial intelligence, and space travel

    如核能、人工智慧、太空旅行等

  • meant for humanity's future.

    對於人的未來有什麼意義

  • Contrasting with popular visions of shining progress,

    不同於大眾對於光明未來的憧憬

  • dystopian science fiction expanded to films, comics, and games.

    反烏托邦的科幻小說擴展到電影、漫畫與遊戲

  • Robots turned against their creators

    機器人和其創造者反目成仇

  • while TV screens broadcast deadly mass entertainment.

    而電視螢幕播放著極端的大眾娛樂節目

  • Workers toiled in space colonies above an Earth of depleted resources

    工人在太空殖民地上辛苦耕耘,離開資源匱乏

  • and overpopulated, crime-plagued cities.

    人口過剩、充滿犯罪的地球

  • Yet politics was never far away.

    但是政治卻從未遠離

  • Works like "Dr. Strangelove" and "Watchmen" explored the real threat of nuclear war,

    《奇愛博士》、《守護者》等作品探究了核戰的真實威脅

  • while "V for Vendetta" and "The Handmaid's Tale"

    而《V怪客》、《使女的故事》

  • warned how easily our rights could disappear in a crisis.

    則警告人們在危機中是多麼容易失去權力

  • And today's dystopian fiction continues to reflect modern anxieties

    現今的反烏托邦小說持續反映當代

  • about inequality,

    對於不平等

  • climate change,

    氣候變遷

  • government power,

    政府權力

  • and global epidemics.

    及全球傳染病的焦慮

  • So why bother with all this pessimism?

    所以何必要在意這些悲觀的事呢?

  • Because at their heart, dystopias are cautionary tales,

    因為反烏托邦作品實際上是警告世人的故事

  • not about some particular government or technology,

    這些作品不是針對特定的政府或科技

  • but the very idea that humanity can be molded into an ideal shape.

    而是人類可以被形塑成理想形象的這種概念

  • Think back to the perfect world you imagined.

    回想一下你想像的完美世界

  • Did you also imagine what it would take to achieve?

    你也想像過這個世界要怎麼樣實現嗎?

  • How would you make people cooperate?

    你要怎麼讓人們相互合作?

  • And how would you make sure it lasted?

    你要怎麼確保這世界能持久?

  • Now take another look.

    現在再想想看

  • Does that world still seem perfect?

    那個世界仍然是完美的嗎?

Have you ever tried to picture an ideal world?

你曾想像過理想世界的面貌嗎?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 烏托邦 社會 小說 世界 政治

【TED-Ed】如何察覺反烏托邦 (How to recognize a dystopia - Alex Gendler)

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    小明阿 發佈於 2017 年 08 月 21 日
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