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  • I am a cultural omnivore,

    我喜歡各種類型的文化

  • one whose daily commute

    每天上下班

  • is made possible by attachment to an iPod --

    我幾乎都戴著iPod

  • an iPod that contains Wagner and Mozart,

    聽瓦格納、莫札特歌劇或古典音樂

  • pop diva Christina Aguilera,

    流行樂天後克莉絲蒂娜•阿奎萊拉

  • country singer Josh Turner,

    鄉村歌手喬什•特納

  • gangsta rap artist Kirk Franklin,

    還有,說唱歌手柯克•佛蘭克林的歌

  • concerti, symphonies and more and more.

    以及協奏曲、交響樂等等

  • I'm a voracious reader,

    我也廣泛涉獵各類讀物

  • a reader who deals with Ian McEwan down to Stephanie Meyer.

    比如,伊恩•麥克尤恩、斯蒂芬妮•梅爾的作品

  • I have read the "Twilight" tetralogy.

    梅爾的《暮光之城》四部曲我都讀過呢~

  • And one who lives for my home theater,

    而且,我也喜歡和家庭影院泡在一起

  • a home theater where I devour DVDs, video-on-demand

    有了家庭影院,我就能看各種各樣的DVD、視頻點播節目

  • and a lot of television.

    及電視節目

  • For me, "Law and Order: SVU,"

    尤其喜歡《法律與秩序:特殊受害者》

  • Tine Fey and "30 Rock"

    喜歡蒂娜•費和她的《我為喜劇狂》(30 Rock)

  • and "Judge Judy" -- "The people are real, the cases are real,

    還有《朱蒂法官》(Judge Judy)

  • the rulings are final."

    "人沒錯,案子沒錯,就這麼判了"(《朱蒂法官》臺詞)

  • Now, I'm convinced a lot of you

    現在,我可確定,你們當中的許多人

  • probably share my passions,

    或許都和我有同樣的感受

  • especially my passion for Judge Judy,

    尤其是對“朱蒂法官”的感受

  • and you'd fight anybody

    因為,我看得出來

  • who attempted to take her away from us,

    倘若誰要把她給搶走了,你們會和這個傢伙拼了老命的

  • but I'm a little less convinced that you share the central passion of my life,

    但有一點我還不能肯定,即你我生命中是否都有一份非常重要的感情

  • a passion for the live professional performing arts,

    一份對現場職業表演藝術的感情

  • performing arts that represent the orchestral repertoire, yes,

    這種現場表演藝術包括管弦樂

  • but jazz as well, modern dance, opera,

    當然,也包括爵士、現代舞、歌劇

  • theater and more and more and more.

    戲劇等等

  • You know, frankly

    然而

  • it's a sector that many of us who work in the field worry

    很多在這一行工作的人都擔心

  • is being endangered and possibly dismantled

    這一領域有滅絕的危險

  • by technology.

    有遭到現代技術瓦解的危險

  • While we initially heralded the Internet

    最初,我們把互聯網視為

  • as the fantastic new marketing device

    神奇、新型的行銷工具

  • that was going to solve all our problems,

    認為互聯網能解決所有問題

  • we now realize that the Internet is, if anything,

    現在,我們意識到,互聯網在這方面的效力

  • too effective in that regard.

    似乎有些過頭了

  • Depending on who you read, an arts organization

    藝術組織或藝術家

  • or an artist, who tries to attract the attention

    努力工作、表演來吸引

  • of a potential single ticket buyer,

    那些有可能買票的消費者

  • now competes with between

    然而,他們現在卻要和各種各樣(網路)行銷資訊競爭

  • three and 5,000

    這些資訊每天少則幾條

  • different marketing messages

    多則幾千條

  • a typical citizen sees every single day.

    充斥著人們的日常生活

  • We now know in fact

    現在我們知道了

  • that technology is our biggest competitor for leisure time.

    科技才是奪走我們休閒生活最主要的因素

  • Five years ago,

    五年前的資料顯示

  • Gen-X'ers spent 20.7 hours online and TV,

    新生第一代(X代)花在上網和電視上的時間達到20.7小時(每天)

  • the majority on TV.

    以電視為主

  • Gen-Y'ers spent even more --

    而新生第二代(Y代),他們所花的時間更多

  • 23.8 hours, the majority online.

    達到23.8小時(每天),主要是上網

  • And now, a typical

    如今

  • university entering student

    大學新生

  • arrives at college

    一般都會

  • already having spent

    花上

  • 20,000 hours online

    兩萬小時(每年)的時間來上網

  • and an additional 10,000 hours

    再花另外一萬小時(每年)的時間

  • playing video games --

    玩電子遊戲

  • a stark reminder that we operate

    這讓我們看清

  • in a cultural context

    我們現在的文化環境裏

  • where video games now outsell

    電子遊戲大賣

  • music and movie recordings combined.

    而音樂、電影產品加起來都趕不上電子遊戲

  • Moreover, we're afraid that technology

    而且我們還擔心

  • has altered our very assumptions of cultural consumption.

    科技已經改變了我們的文化消費模式

  • Thanks to the Internet,

    有了互聯網

  • we believe we can get anything we want whenever we want it,

    我們就認為,我們可以隨時獲取我們想得到的東西

  • delivered to our own doorstep.

    還會送貨上門

  • We can shop at three in the morning or eight at night,

    我們可以在淩晨三點或者晚上八點

  • ordering jeans tailor-made for our unique body-types.

    選購量身定制的牛仔褲

  • Expectations of personalization

    然而,對於個性化

  • and customization

    定制化的要求

  • that the live performing arts --

    現場表演藝術是無法滿足的

  • which have set curtain times, set venues,

    因為現場表演藝術有固定的開演時間,固定的場地

  • attendant inconveniences of travel, parking and the like --

    去看表演的路上、停車等等都可能會有不便

  • simply cannot meet.

    所以說,現場表演藝術無法滿足部份人的要求

  • And we're all acutely aware:

    我們已經在想

  • what's it going to mean in the future

    這種情況,在未來意味著什麽

  • when we ask someone to pay a hundred dollars

    尤其是我們叫別人花一百塊

  • for a symphony, opera or ballet ticket,

    去看場交響樂、歌劇或者芭蕾舞表演時

  • when that cultural consumer is used to downloading on the internet

    尤其是人們已經習慣全天候地

  • 24 hours a day

    在上網下載文化產品,而且一首歌花不到一塊錢,甚至還可以免費下載時

  • for 99 cents a song or for free?

    這對現場表演藝術的未來意味著什麽?

  • These are enormous questions

    這裡面有很多問題

  • for those of us who work in this terrain.

    需要在這一領域工作的我們去解決

  • But as particular as they feel to us,

    但是這些問題也有其特殊性

  • we know we're not alone.

    我們知道,我們並非孤立無助

  • All of us are engaged

    所有人都一起努力

  • in a seismic, fundamental

    實現根本性的改變

  • realignment of culture and communications,

    即重組我們的文化形式,重組我們的交流方式

  • a realignment that is shaking and decimating

    這些改變正動搖、削弱

  • the newspaper industry, the magazine industry,

    報刊業

  • the book and publishing industry and more.

    出版業,等等

  • Saddled in the performing arts as we are, by antiquated union agreements

    我們對現場藝術負有責任

  • that inhibit and often prohibit

    陳舊的聯盟協議,規定了我們對此的責任

  • mechanical reproduction and streaming,

    機械的複製、下載

  • locked into large facilities

    我們被困在這些龐大的機構裏

  • that were designed to ossify

    這些機構束縛了

  • the ideal relationship

    藝術家與觀眾之間

  • between artist and audience

    完美的關係

  • most appropriate to the 19th century

    這在19世紀就有所體現

  • and locked into a business model dependent on high ticket revenues,

    我們也被困在唯高票房收入是好的商業模式當中

  • where we charge exorbitant prices.

    在這個模式下,我們收取過高的票價

  • Many of us shudder in the wake of the collapse of Tower Records

    “淘兒唱片”(Tower Records)倒閉後,許多人都害怕了

  • and ask ourselves, "Are we next?"

    不禁自問,下一個崩潰的,會不會是我們?

  • Everyone I talk to in performing arts

    和現場表演藝術工作的人交談時

  • resonates to the words of Adrienne Rich,

    他們都會對艾德裏安娜•裏奇的一句話產生共鳴

  • who, in "Dreams of a Common Language," wrote,

    在她《一種共同語言的夢想》裏寫到

  • "We are out in a country that has

    “我們所處的國度

  • no language, no laws.

    沒有語言,沒有法律。

  • Whatever we do together is pure invention.

    我們在活在一個虛構的世界裏。

  • The maps they gave us

    給我們的地圖

  • are out of date by years."

    都是非常過時的。

  • And for those of you who love the arts,

    對於在座喜歡藝術的朋友

  • aren't you glad you invited me here to brighten your day?

    你們邀請我來到這兒,照亮你們的生活,是不是很高興啊?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Now, rather than saying that we're on the brink of our own annihilation,

    現在,與其說我們處在滅絕的邊緣

  • I prefer to believe that we are engaged in a fundamental reformation,

    我更認同,我們要進行一次根本的改革

  • a reformation like the religious Reformation

    就像宗教改革那樣

  • of the 16th century.

    即16世紀的宗教改革

  • The arts reformation, like the religious Reformation,

    與宗教改革一樣,我們的藝術改革

  • is spurred in part by technology,

    也或多或少受到了技術的推動

  • with indeed, the printing press really leading the charge

    因為,印刷術的發明

  • on the religious Reformation.

    實際上就推動了當時的宗教改革

  • Both reformations were predicated on fractious discussion,

    富有爭議的討論

  • internal self-doubt

    內部自我懷疑

  • and massive realignment of antiquated business models.

    及對陳舊商業模式大範圍的調整都預示這兩項改革的出現

  • And at heart, both reformations, I think

    而且,我認為,這兩項不同的改革

  • were asking the questions:

    實際都提出了幾個問題

  • who's entitled to practice?

    即,誰去改革?

  • How are they entitled to practice?

    如何去改革?

  • And indeed, do we need anyone

    以及需不需要找一個人

  • to intermediate for us

    來其媒介的作用?

  • in order to have an experience with a spiritual divine?

    即我們和神靈之間的媒介

  • Chris Anderson, someone I trust you all know,

    克裏斯•安德森,我很信賴的一個人

  • editor-in-chief of Wired magazine and author of "The Long Tail,"

    他是美國《聯機》雜誌的總編,《長尾理論》的作者

  • really was the first -- for me -- to nail a lot of this.

    在我看來,他是第一個在這方面做了很多的人

  • He wrote a long time ago, you know,

    很久之前,他就寫到過

  • thanks to the invention of the Internet,

    由於互聯網

  • web technology,

    網路技術

  • mini-cams and more,

    迷你攝像頭及其它技術的發明

  • the means of artistic production

    藝術作品創作

  • have been democratized

    出現平民化

  • for the first time in all of human history.

    這是人類歷史上首次出現這種情況

  • In the 1930s, if any of you wanted to make a movie,

    世紀30年代,想要製作一部電影

  • you had to work for Warner Brothers or RKO

    你必須找華納兄弟或者雷電華公司

  • because who could afford a movie set

    試想,那個時候誰能用得起電影場地

  • and lighting equipment and editing equipment

    燈光設施、編輯

  • and scoring and more?

    配音這些設備?

  • And now who in this room doesn't know a 14 year-old

    而現在,在座的各位或許都不知道,一個14歲的孩子

  • hard at work on her second, third, or fourth movie?

    已經在抓緊製作她的第二部、第三部、第四部電影了……?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Similarly, the means of artistic distribution

    同樣,藝術作品的傳播方式

  • have been democratized for the first time in human history.

    也首次在人類歷史上平民化

  • Again, in the '30s, Warner Brothers, RKO did that for you.

    依然是在上世紀30年代,藝術作品的傳播也是靠華納兄弟和雷電華

  • Now, go to YouTube, Facebook;

    而現在,你只需登入YouTube, Facebook

  • you have worldwide distribution

    你能足不出戶

  • without leaving the privacy of your own bedroom.

    欣賞世界各地的藝術作品

  • This double impact is occasioning

    上述的雙重影響,

  • a massive redefinition of the cultural market,

    使得人們對文化市場的定義做了重大的調整

  • a time when anyone is a potential author.

    這個時代,任何人都有可能成為作家

  • Frankly, what we're seeing now in this environment

    坦言說,在這種環境下

  • is a massive time,

    我們現在所處的整個世界

  • when the entire world is changing

    不斷變化著

  • as we move from a time when audience numbers are plummeting.

    觀眾數量下滑的時代早已漸遠

  • But the number of arts participants,

    但是,藝術創作者

  • people who write poetry, who sing songs,

    即那些寫詩歌的人、唱歌的人

  • who perform in church choirs,

    及唱詩班的 人

  • is exploding beyond our wildest imaginations.

    他們的數量在激增,超出我們的想像

  • This group, others have called the "pro ams,"

    這個群體被人們稱為“專業餘者”(“pro am”/ “professional–amateur”)

  • amateur artists doing work at a professional level.

    即有著專業水準的業餘藝術家

  • You see them on YouTube, in dance competitions,

    你可以在YouTube,,舞蹈比賽,電影節這些地方

  • film festivals and more.

    看到他們的身影

  • They are radically expanding

    這一群體迫使我們

  • our notions of the potential of an aesthetic vocabulary,

    對美學的概念有了更多的理解

  • while they are challenging and undermining

    但同時,他們也挑戰、削弱著

  • the cultural autonomy of our traditional institutions.

    傳統機構的文化獨立性

  • Ultimately, we now live in a world

    最終,這個世界

  • defined not by consumption,

    不再是觀眾為主的世界

  • but by participation.

    而是參與者為主的世界

  • But I want to be clear,

    但有一點很明確

  • just as the religious Reformation did not spell the end

    就如宗教改革並未終結

  • to the formal Church or to the priesthood;

    正規的教堂和神職一樣

  • I believe that our artistic institutions

    我相信,我們這些藝術機構

  • will continue to have importance.

    依舊會發揮重要作用

  • They currently are the best opportunities

    就目前,這些機構仍是

  • for artists to have lives of economic dignity --

    藝術家保障經濟來源的最好途徑

  • not opulence -- of dignity.

    注意,不是賺大錢,而只是保證經濟上還有尊嚴

  • And they are the places where artists

    而且,這些地方

  • who deserve and want to work at a certain scale of resources

    既屬於他們,也是他們想去的

  • will find a home.

    在那,他們的才華才有歸屬

  • But to view them as synonymous

    但是,將他們等同於

  • with the entirety of the arts community

    整個藝術界

  • is, by far, too short-sighted.

    顯然是錯誤的

  • And indeed, while we've tended to polarize

    即使我們習慣

  • the amateur from the professional,

    將業餘和專業兩極化

  • the single most exciting development

    但在過去5年到10年的時間裏

  • in the last five to 10 years

    唯一讓人倍感興奮的

  • has been the rise

    就是造詣極高的專業藝術家

  • of the professional hybrid artist,

    他们的影響力有了提升

  • the professional artist

    这些專業藝術家

  • who works, not primarily in the concert hall or on the stage;

    最開始並不在音樂廳或舞臺上表演

  • but most frequently around

    而是經常圍繞

  • women's rights, or human rights,

    女權、人權

  • or on global warming issues or AIDS relief for more --

    全球氣候變暖、愛滋病援助等問題表演

  • not out of economic necessity,

    不是為了賺錢

  • but out of a deep, organic conviction

    而是因為,他們內心深信

  • that the work that she or he, is called to do

    這些號召他們去做的工作

  • cannot be accomplished in the traditional

    無法在一個傳統的、

  • hermetic arts environment.

    封閉的藝術環境下完成。

  • Today's dance world is not defined solely

    如今的舞蹈世界

  • by the Royal Winnipeg Ballet or the National Ballet of Canada,

    不再只由皇家溫尼伯芭蕾舞團(即加拿大國家芭蕾舞團)來詮釋了

  • but by Liz Lerman's Dance Exchange --

    而是由LLDE(Liz Lerman’s Dance Exchange)公司來詮釋

  • a multi-generational, professional dance company,

    這是一家專業的舞蹈公司

  • whose dancers range in age from 18 to 82,

    該公司的舞蹈家年齡跨度很大,最小的只有18歲,最大的有82歲高齡

  • and who work with genomic scientists

    LLDE與基因學科學家合作

  • to embody the DNA strand

    研究基因與舞蹈的關係

  • and with nuclear physicists at CERN.

    此外,還與歐洲原子核研究委員會(CERN)的核子物理學家有所合作。

  • Today's professional theater community

    如今,專業劇場

  • is defined, not only the Shaw and Stratford Festivals,

    也非只由蕭伯納戲劇節及斯特拉福德戲劇節來詮釋

  • but by the Cornerstone Theater of Los Angeles --

    而是由“洛杉磯基石戲劇公司”(the Cornerstone Theater of Los Angeles)來詮釋

  • a collective of artists that after 9/11,

    它也是一家藝術家公司

  • brought together 10 different religious communities --

    時間之後,該公司將10類不同的宗教團體集中起來 --

  • the Bahia, the Catholic,

    這些團體除了巴伊亞、天主教

  • the Muslim, the Jewish,

    穆斯林、猶太教外

  • even the Native American

    甚至還有印第安人

  • and the gay and lesbian communities of faith,

    和同性戀者

  • helping them create their own individual plays

    該公司幫助這些人創作自己獨特的、

  • and one massive play,

    龐大的戲劇

  • where they explored the differences in their faith

    在這個龐大的戲劇裏,他們探尋各信仰間的不同

  • and found commonality

    並找到共同點,

  • as an important first step

    邁出促進跨群體藝術健康發展

  • toward cross-community healing.

    重要的一步

  • Today's performers, like Rhodessa Jones,

    今天的表演家,比如Rhodessa Jones

  • work in women's prisons,

    他在女子監獄工作

  • helping women prisoners articulate the pain of incarceration,

    幫助女囚犯輕鬆地吐露監禁的痛苦

  • while today's playwrights and directors work with youth gangs

    如今,劇作家和導演和青年惡勢力合作

  • to find alternate channels to violence

    以發現不同的犯罪形式

  • and more and more and more.

    此外,還有很多很多这样的例子

  • And indeed, I think, rather than being annihilated,

    實際上,我認為,與其說現場表演藝術正走向滅亡

  • the performing arts are posed on the brink of a time

    不如說它處在一個時代的邊緣。

  • when we will be more important

    在這個時代,我們這些人的作用,比起以前

  • than we have ever been.

    會更為重要

  • You know, we've said for a long time,

    我們一直都在強調

  • we are critical to the health of the economic communities in your town.

    我們對城鎮社區經濟的作用極其重要

  • And absolutely --

    或者說,絕對重要

  • I hope you know that every dollar spent on a performing arts ticket in a community

    我想告訴大家,在現場藝術門票花的每一塊錢,

  • generates five to seven additional dollars for the local economy,

    都會給地方經濟帶來額外的7塊錢的收入

  • dollars spent in restaurants or on parking,

    例如,會帶來餐廳或停車場的收入

  • at the fabric stores where we buy fabric for costumes,

    帶來綢布店的生意,因為我們要從那購買戲裝的布料

  • the piano tuner who tunes the instruments and more.

    我們還要雇傭調音師給鋼琴調音等等

  • But the arts are going to be more important to economies

    而且,我們不斷前進的話,

  • as we go forward,

    現場藝術對經濟起到越來越重要的作用