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  • Hi. James from engVid.

    嗨,我是engVid的James

  • I would like to help you with your vocabulary.

    我要幫助你們增進你們的字彙能力

  • I'm sure that you've looked at engVid and seen many lessons on vocabulary, from drinking,

    我相信你們在engVid上已經看過很多跟字彙相關的課程了,像是飲料

  • vacationing, weddings, all sorts of things.

    假期、婚禮等各式各樣的東西

  • But when you finish the video, how much do you remember?

    但是當你看完影片教學後,能記住多少呢

  • And how much do you really understand?

    又真正了解了多少呢?

  • I'm going to teach you today something I call the...

    我今天要教你們的是一種我稱之為...

  • A word web to help you not just remember the words, but truly understand them,

    單字網的東西來幫助你們不只能記住單字,而且可以真正的了解單字

  • and expand or go bigger than that.

    並且延伸或擴大它

  • I did a lesson earlier on mind maps where I kind of introduced the idea of mind map,

    我之前有上過一個關於心智圖的課程,大概教了大家心智圖的概念

  • but I didn't really...

    但是並沒有真正的...

  • I don't think I got into it as much that would actually show you how to use it so that you can get better with it.

    我並沒有深入介紹,讓大家了解使用它的正確方法來好好發揮它的功能

  • So, I'm going to fix that today.

    所以我今天要來修正這一點

  • All right?

    可以嗎?

  • So what we're looking at is called a word web.

    我們現在看到的就是單字網

  • And if you notice, poor Mr. E is caught up in the web.

    如果你注意到,可憐的E先生被網子逮住了

  • Nooooo!

    不......

  • And I'm going to do the same with you.

    我現在要對你做一樣的事情

  • I'm going to get you...

    我要抓住你

  • Because this is a spider, and the spider lives in a web, it catches things,

    這是一隻蜘蛛,而蜘蛛住在網子裡,網子則網住東西

  • and those things can never escape.

    而且網子裡的東西沒辦法逃走

  • I want to do that with your memory and your vocabulary,

    我想要讓你的記憶和單字像這樣被網住

  • teach you in a way that you're going to catch the words and you won't forget.

    讓你有辦法可以了解單字而且永遠忘不掉

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So I'm going to explain the method here.

    我準備開始解釋這個方法了

  • So we're going to be clear on the method, then we're going to take a word and use it,

    我們會解釋這個方法,然後找一個單字來驗證這個方法

  • and show you how it works.

    好讓你了解它是如何運作的

  • Ready? Let's go to the board.

    準備好了嗎?現在看到白板上

  • All right, so, word web.

    這是單字網

  • This is a specific form of mind map which means it's one type.

    這正是心智圖的一種形式

  • There are many types.

    心智圖可以有許多的形式

  • Okay?

    知道了嗎?

  • And what they... What they do is they're based on the idea that your brain works a certain way with pictures and colours.

    它們的...它們之所以發揮功效是根據你腦袋中處理圖像與顏色的機制

  • So, why don't we use these to help you?

    那麼,為什麼這可以幫助你呢

  • And I'm going to do that now.

    我現在做給你看

  • What you will need, you will need a ax...

    你需要甚麼呢?你將會需要一個....

  • You will need an English to English dictionary.

    你會需要一本英英字典

  • If you really need to get, you know, your language to English, that's fine if you really need it,

    如果你真的需要,你知道,你的母語到英語的字典,也沒關係,如果你真的需要的話

  • but English to English dictionary will be preferable

    但是英英字典比較理想

  • because we want to get the definition of the word from an English source, not a translated source.

    因為我們要的是單字的英文解釋,而不是翻譯過的

  • Okay?

    可以嗎?

  • So maybe we should start with your translating dictionary,

    或許我們可以從你的母語字典開始

  • and then after take the English word and get an English to English.

    然後再去找那個英文單字的英文解釋

  • The translating dictionary will help you understand the ideas, and then the English to English.

    你的母語字典可以讓你先了解基本字義,然後再看英英解釋

  • And sometimes you might notice they don't exactly say the same thing.

    有些時候你會發現兩者的解釋並不完全一致

  • That'll be interesting for you.

    這正是有趣的地方

  • Next, you're going to need access to the internet or an idioms dictionary.

    接著,你必須要可以上網或找一本俚語字典

  • The idioms dictionary will be for later on, and they have them and you can even go online and look for idioms.

    俚語字典是為了等一下準備的,你也可以上網去找相關的俚語

  • But the joke of it is I said access to the internet.

    這裡的笑點是我說要可以上網

  • Well, my friend, if you're not on the internet, you're not watching this video,

    各位,如果你們不能上網,你有怎麼可以看到這段影片

  • so I'm assuming you've got access to the internet.

    所以我就先假設你們是有網路的

  • Okay.

  • The next four steps will be this: We're going to take a word...

    接下來的4個步驟是,我們要找一個字

  • So, we're going to take one word, whatever the word is,

    我們來找一個字,不管是甚麼字

  • we're going to write out the definition from the dictionary.

    我們寫下字典上的解釋

  • What the dictionary says, not what you think, not an interpretation

    是字典上的,不是你自己以為的意思或解讀

  • or somebody giving you sort of their idea of it.

    或是某人告訴你的想法

  • From that, we're going to follow... Okay?

    我們要看字典上的解釋

  • We're going to write out the words you think of when you see this word.

    我們要寫出當你看到這個字時所聯想到的其他單字

  • This is called association.

    這叫做關聯性

  • I think: "Cat", I say: "Dog".

    我想到貓,我說狗

  • You say: "Milk", I say: "Cow".

    你說牛奶,我說牛

  • I associate.

    我進行了聯想

  • This is the words that come to me.

    這些是進到我腦子的字

  • I want you to do that because that is part of a natural human process.

    我要你這麼做是因為這是人類的自然的反應過程

  • You think of something, you think of something else.

    你會想到一些事,然後又想到其他一些事

  • You think of: "Mother", you think: "Love".

    你想到媽媽,你想到愛

  • You think: "Money", "McDonald's"?

    你想到錢,然後想到... 麥當勞?

  • Probably not.

    好吧,可能不會

  • But you get the idea. Okay?

    不過你懂我的意思?

  • So we're going to start with the dictionary definition,

    所以我們從字典上的定義開始

  • then we're going to work with how your brain works.

    然後隨著你腦袋的運作方式

  • I want to have your mind incorporated or use your way of thinking in this.

    我要你們讓腦袋更有組織的運作或是用你的方法來思考

  • So you're going to put down your words.

    所以寫下你想到的字

  • So if it was: "Cow", you might put: "Milk, cheese, and steak".

    如果這個字是牛,你可能會寫上牛奶,起司和牛排

  • Mmm, steak.

    嗯嗯,牛排

  • Then we're going to go out...

    然後我們要...

  • back to our dictionary, we're going to look for synonyms.

    回到字典上,我們要來找同義字

  • If you open any dictionary usually it will say: "This is the word",

    如果你打開一本字典,通常有單字

  • and then it will have after it: "Here's a synonym for this word.

    然後有這個單字的同義字

  • Here's another one."

    還有一些其他的單字

  • Synonyms, you know, words that are similar.

    同義的,你知道,意思相似的其他單字

  • For instance, height and tall.

    像是,名詞的高度和形容詞的高

  • How tall is the building?

    那棟建築物有多高?

  • What is the building's height?

    那棟建築物的高度是?

  • They're not exactly the same, but they can be used in a similar or same fashion sometimes.

    它們並不是完全一樣,但是它們的用法接近或可以表達相似的意思

  • Okay?

    了解嗎?

  • We also look for antonyms.

    我們也要找反義字

  • Antonyms are the opposite of the word.

    反義字是相反的字

  • If I say: "Black", you say: "White".

    如果我說黑色,你說白色

  • Right?

    對吧?

  • If you say: "Hot", you say: "Cold".

    如果你說熱,又說冷

  • Those are antonyms.

    那就是反義

  • So we're going to go to that dictionary, we're going to have the word, we're going to have

    所以我們要查字典,找到你想查的單字,我們要找出

  • your ideas about the word, and then we're going to add in the synonyms and antonyms.

    你對這個字的想法,然後加上同義字和反義字

  • Okay?

    可以嗎?

  • So if you're looking here, we started off with one word and we're probably up to like 10 or 15.

    如果你正在看,我們從一個字開始,然後我們衍伸了10或15個字

  • Finally, we're going to go to our idioms dictionary, or we're going to go on the net and you're

    最後,到了俚語字典,或是上網,你要在網路上

  • going to put in: "Idioms for, you know, 'Cow' or 'animal'", and it'll put those things up

    打上「跟牛或動物有關的俚語」,然後這些東西會出現

  • there for you and you just write them out.

    你把它們寫出來

  • How does this go together?

    這些要怎麼合在一起

  • We look at a lot of words, we put a lot of stuff down, but you don't see the full picture.

    我們看到了很多字,放進了很多東西,但是你還沒有看到全貌

  • We're going to get to why in just a second when we look at why.

    我們馬上就要談到原因了

  • So if you're ready, we're going to right now take one word and we're going to make our

    所以,如果你準備好了,我們現在來找個字並且做出我們的

  • first word web, and I'll show you how it all works together.

    第一個單字網絡,然後我要讓你知道這一切怎麼放到一起發揮效用

  • Ready?

    準備好了嗎?

  • Let's go.

    來吧

  • [Snaps]

    〔彈指〕

  • So, let's do a word web.

    我們來做單字網絡吧

  • We've talked about it, I gave you the steps.

    我們討論過了,我告訴過你步驟了

  • So, we're going to do this together.

    現在我們一起來做

  • You notice here I have the steps, so as I go through each step, I'll show you how we

    你注意到這裡有步驟,所以當我一步步做的同時,我會讓你知道怎麼做

  • do it and how we come up to this.

    並且如何發展到這

  • And I'll explain to you how this thing here, which seems crazy, will actually help you

    我會解釋這些東西,好像有點瘋狂但真的可以幫助你

  • not only remember the words but understand the list, because I will give you a list of

    不只記住單字並且了解這個清單,因為我會給你一個清單上面列了

  • idioms or phrases, and you'll understand some of them almost immediately.

    俚語或片語,而且有些是你馬上就可以理解的

  • Okay?

    可以嗎?

  • So, let's go to the board.

    所以,讓我們看到白板上

  • First thing we have to do, as I said, is write out the dictionary definition.

    第一件我們要做的是,就向我說的,寫下字典上的定義

  • If you have a problem with the word...

    如果你對這個字有疑問

  • The word we're going to use is "shoot".

    我們要用的字是「shoot」

  • I'm going to suggest this, although I don't like suggesting it: Go to your whatever language

    我建議用這個字,雖然我不想建議你去查你的語言

  • to English, so if it's Spanish to English, Russian to English, Japanese to English dictionary,

    對這個英文字的解釋,如果是西班牙文、俄文到英文,日文到英文的字典

  • check out what the word means, make sure you understand it, because this is something we

    查一下這個字的意思,確定你了解了,因為我們確實

  • do need to understand.

    必須認識它

  • We're not just guess at it. Okay?

    我們不能只是猜,好嗎?

  • Make sure you understand it, but then take out your English to English dictionary, and

    確定你知道這個字,然後拿出英英字典,把

  • you need to write out the definition.

    英文的解釋寫下來

  • What does that dictionary say this word is?

    字典怎麼說個字的

  • In this case, the word is a verb: "to shoot".

    在這個例子中,這個字是動詞,射擊

  • And you might say: "What does 'shoot' mean?"

    你可能會問射擊表示甚麼

  • Okay, well, according to the dictionary, it means "to kill", which means end the life of something,

    好,根據字典的解釋是「殺害」也就是結束甚麼東西的生命的意思

  • or to hurt, cause pain.

    或是傷害,造成疼痛

  • When I do this, ow. Painful.

    當我這樣做,哦,痛

  • It hurts me.

    這傷害了我

  • Okay?

    可以嗎?

  • Move suddenly in a direction.

    向一個方向快速移動

  • So if I'm walking like this and then I change quickly and run, you say:

    所以如果我像這樣走然後突然變成快跑,你會說

  • "James is shooting out. He's shooting."

    「James像子彈一樣衝出去了,他跑得超快」

  • When you watch the Olympics, the guys are like this, they run,

    當你在看奧運比賽,那些傢伙就像這樣,他們在賽跑

  • and then they start running very quickly. They shoot.

    他們跑得非常快,他們跑得像子彈一樣飛快

  • If they walk, you're not shooting.

    如果他們在走路,就不能用這個字了

  • You have to move quickly in one direction.

    你必須向一個方向快速的移動

  • And third, here's a flower, but before the flower comes out of the ground, the flower

    第三步,這有一朵花,不過在花冒出土壤之前,花是

  • is down here.

    在這下面

  • Next what happens is the flower comes out like this.

    然後像這樣冒出來

  • There's no flower yet.

    現在還沒有花喔

  • We call that "a shoot".

    我們叫這個「發芽」

  • Once again, it's coming up in a direction, a specific direction.

    再來,這是從一個方向跑出來的,特定的方向

  • Later on you'll get a flower.

    然後你才看到一朵花

  • All right?

    可以嗎?

  • But that's called "a shoot". And you say: "What is that?"

    而這叫做「發芽」,你問:「這是甚麼?」

  • That's a shoot for a rose.

    這是玫瑰的嫩枝

  • Okay?

    可以嗎?

  • Then you get your rose.

    然後長成玫瑰花

  • So, it says: "Young branch of a plant".

    所以,這是植物的嫩枝枒

  • Will you need all of these definitions all of the time?

    你需要一次就學會這些定義嗎?

  • No.

    不用

  • But it's important you get the majority of them because a lot of our understanding, we

    但是知道其中的大部分是很重要的,這跟我們的認知有關,我們

  • know what these mean, so when somebody uses a phrase or an idiom, our brain goes:

    知道了這些意思之後當有人用了一個片語或俚語,我們的腦袋會告訴我們

  • "Ah, dah-dah-dah-dah.

    「啊!噠-噠-噠

  • Number two", or: "Dah-dah-dah-dah.

    第二種」或者「啊!噠-噠-噠

  • Number seven", and we automatically understand.

    第七種」然後我們自然就了解了

  • While when you're doing it, you might say: "Oh my gosh, I don't understand.

    當你這樣做的時候,你可能會覺得:「哦,天啊,我搞不懂」

  • It's just crazy.

    這太瘋狂了

  • What do you mean, 'shoot in my foot' or 'shoot for the skies', or 'what are you aiming for'?

    你到底什麼意思啊,「射了我的腳」或是「射向天空」或是「你瞄準甚麼?」

  • Why you say these things?'"

    「你為什要說這些?」

  • And we're like: "Oh yeah, you don't know all of the definitions."

    我們就會像這樣:「哦,你不懂這些意義」

  • So, we've written out our dictionary definition, which was number one, and the definition is here.

    所以我們寫下字典上的定義,就像第一個步驟,在這裡

  • Number two, write out the words you associate with it.

    第二步,寫下你聯想到的其他相關字

  • Now, I've got a complete diagram here.

    現在,這裡有一個我完成的圖

  • You may not, so you might say...

    你可能沒有,所以你可能會說

  • Right off, you might go: "Gun", and you'll write the word "gun", because you know gun,

    馬上,你會]想到「槍」,然後寫下「槍」,因為你知道槍

  • you go: "Shoot. Gun. I know 'gun'."

    你說,射擊,槍,我知道「槍」

  • I know another one you know.

    我想你還知道一些別的

  • We say: "Bow and arrow".

    像是「弓和箭」

  • When you take it, everybody knows this, and fire.

    當你有了這些,每個人也都知道,還有開火

  • Well, there are two parts to this.

    這有兩個部分

  • This part is the bow.

    這是弓

  • The part that fire is the arrow.

    射出去的是箭

  • So you might write: "Arrow", and you might write: "Bow".

    所以你可以寫「箭」,然後是「弓」

  • Now, there are bigger words for this.

    還有一些比較難的字

  • Remember we talked about synonyms.

    記得我們討論過同義字

  • Well, ammunition...

    像是彈藥

  • Or, okay, let's talk "weapon" first.

    或是,好,讓我們先談談「武器」

  • "Weapon" is the gun or the bow.

    「武器」指的是槍或弓

  • It is the thing that fires something or shoots.

    這是用來開火或射擊的東西

  • See? We're going to use the word.

    看到了嗎?我們來用一下這個字

  • You have the gun, you shoot something.

    你有槍,你射擊

  • And what do you shoot?

    你射擊出去的是甚麼?

  • You shoot a bullet.

    是子彈

  • This comes out of a gun.

    子彈從槍裡面出來

  • So, you shoot bullets from guns.

    所以你從槍裡面射出子彈

  • Okay?

    了解嗎?

  • Bow and arrows.

    弓和箭

  • You have a bow.

    你有一張弓

  • It looks like a really big "D" actually.

    看起來真像大寫的「D」

  • It's kind of funny, when you do a bow, it looks like a "D", and you shoot arrows. Okay?

    這有點好玩吧,當你做一張弓,看起來就像個大寫「D」,然後你射箭,對吧?

  • So you shoot arrows from bows.

    所以你用弓把箭射出去

  • Okay?

    了解嗎?

  • That's called "ammunition".

    這就是所謂的「彈藥」

  • A "blank" is funny.

    「空格」很有趣

  • What do you mean: "Blank"?

    「空格」是甚麼意思

  • When you do a test, sometimes it says: "Mr. E __________ goes home."

    當你考試時,有時候題目是:木_______先生回家

  • You'll notice that there's nothing there.

    你會發現格子上沒有字

  • A blank, when you fire a blank or shoot a blank, there's nothing there.

    一個空格,當你射出一個空格表示沒有射出任何東西

  • If I shoot you with a blank, then I: "Bang", you'll go: "Nothing happened?" and I go: "Yeah,

    如果我對妳射了一個空格,我說:「碰!」你會說:「甚麼事都沒發生啊?」我就說:「對啊

  • it's a blank."

    就是一個空包彈」

  • There's nothing there.

    甚麼都沒有

  • It just makes sound.

    只是發出聲音

  • Okay?

    可以嗎?

  • So when you have ammunition, you can have blanks.

    所以你的彈藥可以是個空包彈

  • In the army and the police when they practice, they practice with blanks.

    當軍隊和警察練習射擊時,他們就用空包彈

  • They don't want to shoot each other and kill anyone, they just want to practice shooting,

    他們並不打算殺死彼此,只是練習射擊而已

  • where to shoot, how to shoot.

    射哪裡、怎麼射

  • If you have a gun, you need bullets.

    如果你有槍,你需要子彈

  • If you have a bow, you need an arrow.

    如果你有弓,你需要箭

  • That's your ammunition.

    那是你的彈藥

  • You know something else that can be ammunition?

    你知道還有甚麼可以當作彈藥嗎?

  • It's a surprise, but when you think about it you'll understand.

    驚訝吧,但只要想一下你就能理解了

  • Words.

    言語

  • Words can be ammunition.

    言語可以是一種彈藥

  • Ammunition hurt people.

    彈藥傷害人們

  • Bullets hurt people.

    子彈打傷人們

  • Arrows hurt people.

    箭傷害人們

  • Ammunition, if you say to someone: "You are fat", that will hurt their feelings.

    彈藥,如果你對某個人說:「你好胖」,這就很傷人

  • That is ammunition, to hurt someone.

    那就是彈藥,用來傷害人們

  • Okay?

    是嗎?

  • You're going: "Okay, ammunition hurt."

    你會說:「好吧,彈藥傷人」

  • I go: "Yeah", and now we go back.

    我說:「是的」現在我們回頭看到

  • Where do you use ammunition?

    你把彈藥用在哪裡

  • In a weapon.

    用在武器上

  • We've done a gun and we've done a bow.

    我們已經知道了槍和弓

  • But what's an antonym?

    但是,反義字呢?

  • Because if you noticed, after we wrote out words you associate, I said:

    如果你有注意到,在我們寫完了關聯字之後,我說過:

  • "Hey, let's go to number three: Write synonyms and antonyms."

    「嘿,我們進入第三步,寫下同義字和反義字」

  • We've touched synonyms because ammunition can be bullet, arrow, blanks, words, but an

    我們已經整過同義字了,因為彈藥可以是子彈、箭、空的、言語

  • antonym to shooting someone would be "protection".

    射擊的反義字可以是「保護」

  • Protection could be a shield.

    保護可以是個盾牌

  • If you like captain America...

    如果你喜歡美國隊長

  • I do.

    我喜歡